Selection in the evolution of gene duplications View Full Text


Ontology type: schema:ScholarlyArticle      Open Access: True


Article Info

DATE

2002-01-14

AUTHORS

Fyodor A Kondrashov, Igor B Rogozin, Yuri I Wolf, Eugene V Koonin

ABSTRACT

BackgroundGene duplications have a major role in the evolution of new biological functions. Theoretical studies often assume that a duplication per se is selectively neutral and that, following a duplication, one of the gene copies is freed from purifying (stabilizing) selection, which creates the potential for evolution of a new function.ResultsIn search of systematic evidence of accelerated evolution after duplication, we used data from 26 bacterial, six archaeal, and seven eukaryotic genomes to compare the mode and strength of selection acting on recently duplicated genes (paralogs) and on similarly diverged, unduplicated orthologous genes in different species. We find that the ratio of nonsynonymous to synonymous substitutions (Kn/Ks) in most paralogous pairs is <<1 and that paralogs typically evolve at similar rates, without significant asymmetry, indicating that both paralogs produced by a duplication are subject to purifying selection. This selection is, however, substantially weaker than the purifying selection affecting unduplicated orthologs that have diverged to the same extent as the analyzed paralogs. Most of the recently duplicated genes appear to be involved in various forms of environmental response; in particular, many of them encode membrane and secreted proteins.ConclusionsThe results of this analysis indicate that recently duplicated paralogs evolve faster than orthologs with the same level of divergence and similar functions, but apparently do not experience a phase of neutral evolution. We hypothesize that gene duplications that persist in an evolving lineage are beneficial from the time of their origin, due primarily to a protein dosage effect in response to variable environmental conditions; duplications are likely to give rise to new functions at a later phase of their evolution once a higher level of divergence is reached. More... »

PAGES

research0008.1

Identifiers

URI

http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1186/gb-2002-3-2-research0008

DOI

http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/gb-2002-3-2-research0008

DIMENSIONS

https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1027965540

PUBMED

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11864370


Indexing Status Check whether this publication has been indexed by Scopus and Web Of Science using the SN Indexing Status Tool
Incoming Citations Browse incoming citations for this publication using opencitations.net

JSON-LD is the canonical representation for SciGraph data.

TIP: You can open this SciGraph record using an external JSON-LD service: JSON-LD Playground Google SDTT

[
  {
    "@context": "https://springernature.github.io/scigraph/jsonld/sgcontext.json", 
    "about": [
      {
        "id": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/06", 
        "inDefinedTermSet": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/", 
        "name": "Biological Sciences", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/0604", 
        "inDefinedTermSet": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/", 
        "name": "Genetics", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Animals", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Evolution, Molecular", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Gene Duplication", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Humans", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Mice", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Rats", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Selection, Genetic", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }
    ], 
    "author": [
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "National Center for Biotechnology Information, National Institutes of Health, 20894, Bethesda, MD, USA", 
          "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.419234.9", 
          "name": [
            "National Center for Biotechnology Information, National Institutes of Health, 20894, Bethesda, MD, USA"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Kondrashov", 
        "givenName": "Fyodor A", 
        "id": "sg:person.01020411727.09", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01020411727.09"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "National Center for Biotechnology Information, National Institutes of Health, 20894, Bethesda, MD, USA", 
          "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.419234.9", 
          "name": [
            "National Center for Biotechnology Information, National Institutes of Health, 20894, Bethesda, MD, USA"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Rogozin", 
        "givenName": "Igor B", 
        "id": "sg:person.0761703771.03", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0761703771.03"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "National Center for Biotechnology Information, National Institutes of Health, 20894, Bethesda, MD, USA", 
          "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.419234.9", 
          "name": [
            "National Center for Biotechnology Information, National Institutes of Health, 20894, Bethesda, MD, USA"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Wolf", 
        "givenName": "Yuri I", 
        "id": "sg:person.0634453251.89", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0634453251.89"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "National Center for Biotechnology Information, National Institutes of Health, 20894, Bethesda, MD, USA", 
          "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.419234.9", 
          "name": [
            "National Center for Biotechnology Information, National Institutes of Health, 20894, Bethesda, MD, USA"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Koonin", 
        "givenName": "Eugene V", 
        "id": "sg:person.01017015051.78", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01017015051.78"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }
    ], 
    "citation": [
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/35097067", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1018632260", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1038/35097067"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/35057062", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1042854081", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1038/35057062"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/sj.hdy.6885370", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1052824025", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.hdy.6885370"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/bf00276940", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1040648929", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1007/bf00276940"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/bf00175885", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1049063048", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1007/bf00175885"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/978-1-4615-6369-3_15", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1047813970", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4615-6369-3_15"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/bf00175826", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1049478746", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1007/bf00175826"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/s002390010233", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1017356424", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1007/s002390010233"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/40618", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1004165623", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1038/40618"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/pl00006540", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1019490169", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1007/pl00006540"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/bf02407308", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1035193716", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1007/bf02407308"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/bf01732495", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1018433251", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1007/bf01732495"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }
    ], 
    "datePublished": "2002-01-14", 
    "datePublishedReg": "2002-01-14", 
    "description": "BackgroundGene duplications have a major role in the evolution of new biological functions. Theoretical studies often assume that a duplication per se is selectively neutral and that, following a duplication, one of the gene copies is freed from purifying (stabilizing) selection, which creates the potential for evolution of a new function.ResultsIn search of systematic evidence of accelerated evolution after duplication, we used data from 26 bacterial, six archaeal, and seven eukaryotic genomes to compare the mode and strength of selection acting on recently duplicated genes (paralogs) and on similarly diverged, unduplicated orthologous genes in different species. We find that the ratio of nonsynonymous to synonymous substitutions (Kn/Ks) in most paralogous pairs is <<1 and that paralogs typically evolve at similar rates, without significant asymmetry, indicating that both paralogs produced by a duplication are subject to purifying selection. This selection is, however, substantially weaker than the purifying selection affecting unduplicated orthologs that have diverged to the same extent as the analyzed paralogs. Most of the recently duplicated genes appear to be involved in various forms of environmental response; in particular, many of them encode membrane and secreted proteins.ConclusionsThe results of this analysis indicate that recently duplicated paralogs evolve faster than orthologs with the same level of divergence and similar functions, but apparently do not experience a phase of neutral evolution. We hypothesize that gene duplications that persist in an evolving lineage are beneficial from the time of their origin, due primarily to a protein dosage effect in response to variable environmental conditions; duplications are likely to give rise to new functions at a later phase of their evolution once a higher level of divergence is reached.", 
    "genre": "article", 
    "id": "sg:pub.10.1186/gb-2002-3-2-research0008", 
    "isAccessibleForFree": true, 
    "isFundedItemOf": [
      {
        "id": "sg:grant.2726032", 
        "type": "MonetaryGrant"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:grant.2720267", 
        "type": "MonetaryGrant"
      }
    ], 
    "isPartOf": [
      {
        "id": "sg:journal.1023439", 
        "issn": [
          "1474-760X", 
          "1465-6906"
        ], 
        "name": "Genome Biology", 
        "publisher": "Springer Nature", 
        "type": "Periodical"
      }, 
      {
        "issueNumber": "2", 
        "type": "PublicationIssue"
      }, 
      {
        "type": "PublicationVolume", 
        "volumeNumber": "3"
      }
    ], 
    "keywords": [
      "gene duplication", 
      "strength of selection", 
      "protein dosage effect", 
      "new biological functions", 
      "new functions", 
      "paralogous pairs", 
      "orthologous genes", 
      "eukaryotic genomes", 
      "neutral evolution", 
      "evolving lineage", 
      "accelerated evolution", 
      "synonymous substitutions", 
      "gene copies", 
      "biological functions", 
      "paralogs", 
      "different species", 
      "environmental responses", 
      "similar functions", 
      "dosage effect", 
      "duplication", 
      "genes", 
      "orthologs", 
      "environmental conditions", 
      "divergence", 
      "archaeal", 
      "genome", 
      "evolution", 
      "major role", 
      "lineages", 
      "selection", 
      "species", 
      "protein", 
      "same extent", 
      "high levels", 
      "function", 
      "copies", 
      "membrane", 
      "late phase", 
      "similar rates", 
      "response", 
      "substitution", 
      "role", 
      "levels", 
      "origin", 
      "pairs", 
      "same level", 
      "evidence", 
      "potential", 
      "analysis", 
      "form", 
      "extent", 
      "ConclusionsThe results", 
      "conditions", 
      "study", 
      "effect", 
      "rise", 
      "data", 
      "results", 
      "phase", 
      "rate", 
      "asymmetry", 
      "search", 
      "mode", 
      "time", 
      "significant asymmetry", 
      "ratio", 
      "systematic evidence", 
      "strength", 
      "theoretical study"
    ], 
    "name": "Selection in the evolution of gene duplications", 
    "pagination": "research0008.1", 
    "productId": [
      {
        "name": "dimensions_id", 
        "type": "PropertyValue", 
        "value": [
          "pub.1027965540"
        ]
      }, 
      {
        "name": "doi", 
        "type": "PropertyValue", 
        "value": [
          "10.1186/gb-2002-3-2-research0008"
        ]
      }, 
      {
        "name": "pubmed_id", 
        "type": "PropertyValue", 
        "value": [
          "11864370"
        ]
      }
    ], 
    "sameAs": [
      "https://doi.org/10.1186/gb-2002-3-2-research0008", 
      "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1027965540"
    ], 
    "sdDataset": "articles", 
    "sdDatePublished": "2022-12-01T06:23", 
    "sdLicense": "https://scigraph.springernature.com/explorer/license/", 
    "sdPublisher": {
      "name": "Springer Nature - SN SciGraph project", 
      "type": "Organization"
    }, 
    "sdSource": "s3://com-springernature-scigraph/baseset/20221201/entities/gbq_results/article/article_354.jsonl", 
    "type": "ScholarlyArticle", 
    "url": "https://doi.org/10.1186/gb-2002-3-2-research0008"
  }
]
 

Download the RDF metadata as:  json-ld nt turtle xml License info

HOW TO GET THIS DATA PROGRAMMATICALLY:

JSON-LD is a popular format for linked data which is fully compatible with JSON.

curl -H 'Accept: application/ld+json' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1186/gb-2002-3-2-research0008'

N-Triples is a line-based linked data format ideal for batch operations.

curl -H 'Accept: application/n-triples' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1186/gb-2002-3-2-research0008'

Turtle is a human-readable linked data format.

curl -H 'Accept: text/turtle' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1186/gb-2002-3-2-research0008'

RDF/XML is a standard XML format for linked data.

curl -H 'Accept: application/rdf+xml' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1186/gb-2002-3-2-research0008'


 

This table displays all metadata directly associated to this object as RDF triples.

231 TRIPLES      21 PREDICATES      113 URIs      93 LITERALS      14 BLANK NODES

Subject Predicate Object
1 sg:pub.10.1186/gb-2002-3-2-research0008 schema:about N0aa178449cb0484c8d17eaff7ad56d95
2 N50d9f01fdeca4749abb7314069633df8
3 N5f4a2a0dc7384c96acbae87c846fb53f
4 N85300b2912604a5b8a87fc1d1c78893d
5 N8e3f8b9fa14f42299c2947da4947e130
6 Nb8d97d6dd9484296b57c6b97d02f07a9
7 Nbb8aedeebd9f4bac8e180f236f23c953
8 anzsrc-for:06
9 anzsrc-for:0604
10 schema:author N30e6b7e5585c4bf1ae0762516fae2496
11 schema:citation sg:pub.10.1007/978-1-4615-6369-3_15
12 sg:pub.10.1007/bf00175826
13 sg:pub.10.1007/bf00175885
14 sg:pub.10.1007/bf00276940
15 sg:pub.10.1007/bf01732495
16 sg:pub.10.1007/bf02407308
17 sg:pub.10.1007/pl00006540
18 sg:pub.10.1007/s002390010233
19 sg:pub.10.1038/35057062
20 sg:pub.10.1038/35097067
21 sg:pub.10.1038/40618
22 sg:pub.10.1038/sj.hdy.6885370
23 schema:datePublished 2002-01-14
24 schema:datePublishedReg 2002-01-14
25 schema:description BackgroundGene duplications have a major role in the evolution of new biological functions. Theoretical studies often assume that a duplication per se is selectively neutral and that, following a duplication, one of the gene copies is freed from purifying (stabilizing) selection, which creates the potential for evolution of a new function.ResultsIn search of systematic evidence of accelerated evolution after duplication, we used data from 26 bacterial, six archaeal, and seven eukaryotic genomes to compare the mode and strength of selection acting on recently duplicated genes (paralogs) and on similarly diverged, unduplicated orthologous genes in different species. We find that the ratio of nonsynonymous to synonymous substitutions (Kn/Ks) in most paralogous pairs is <<1 and that paralogs typically evolve at similar rates, without significant asymmetry, indicating that both paralogs produced by a duplication are subject to purifying selection. This selection is, however, substantially weaker than the purifying selection affecting unduplicated orthologs that have diverged to the same extent as the analyzed paralogs. Most of the recently duplicated genes appear to be involved in various forms of environmental response; in particular, many of them encode membrane and secreted proteins.ConclusionsThe results of this analysis indicate that recently duplicated paralogs evolve faster than orthologs with the same level of divergence and similar functions, but apparently do not experience a phase of neutral evolution. We hypothesize that gene duplications that persist in an evolving lineage are beneficial from the time of their origin, due primarily to a protein dosage effect in response to variable environmental conditions; duplications are likely to give rise to new functions at a later phase of their evolution once a higher level of divergence is reached.
26 schema:genre article
27 schema:isAccessibleForFree true
28 schema:isPartOf N01439a89195243138df605817f90c4b3
29 N8569753aaed44dcfa563093314559908
30 sg:journal.1023439
31 schema:keywords ConclusionsThe results
32 accelerated evolution
33 analysis
34 archaeal
35 asymmetry
36 biological functions
37 conditions
38 copies
39 data
40 different species
41 divergence
42 dosage effect
43 duplication
44 effect
45 environmental conditions
46 environmental responses
47 eukaryotic genomes
48 evidence
49 evolution
50 evolving lineage
51 extent
52 form
53 function
54 gene copies
55 gene duplication
56 genes
57 genome
58 high levels
59 late phase
60 levels
61 lineages
62 major role
63 membrane
64 mode
65 neutral evolution
66 new biological functions
67 new functions
68 origin
69 orthologous genes
70 orthologs
71 pairs
72 paralogous pairs
73 paralogs
74 phase
75 potential
76 protein
77 protein dosage effect
78 rate
79 ratio
80 response
81 results
82 rise
83 role
84 same extent
85 same level
86 search
87 selection
88 significant asymmetry
89 similar functions
90 similar rates
91 species
92 strength
93 strength of selection
94 study
95 substitution
96 synonymous substitutions
97 systematic evidence
98 theoretical study
99 time
100 schema:name Selection in the evolution of gene duplications
101 schema:pagination research0008.1
102 schema:productId N596a140648934edf9be94267a292be4c
103 N87bbbad372374e51a9591b1b9a9e7e4f
104 Nf54afb061248476bae2f77ee416dd419
105 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1027965540
106 https://doi.org/10.1186/gb-2002-3-2-research0008
107 schema:sdDatePublished 2022-12-01T06:23
108 schema:sdLicense https://scigraph.springernature.com/explorer/license/
109 schema:sdPublisher N036750b319ae40db8eacae64679dbe60
110 schema:url https://doi.org/10.1186/gb-2002-3-2-research0008
111 sgo:license sg:explorer/license/
112 sgo:sdDataset articles
113 rdf:type schema:ScholarlyArticle
114 N01439a89195243138df605817f90c4b3 schema:issueNumber 2
115 rdf:type schema:PublicationIssue
116 N036750b319ae40db8eacae64679dbe60 schema:name Springer Nature - SN SciGraph project
117 rdf:type schema:Organization
118 N0aa178449cb0484c8d17eaff7ad56d95 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
119 schema:name Humans
120 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
121 N17be32df89b44a08b26150b5c07a994d rdf:first sg:person.0634453251.89
122 rdf:rest N95ab9c9463db4c2aa25900997973f7b7
123 N30e6b7e5585c4bf1ae0762516fae2496 rdf:first sg:person.01020411727.09
124 rdf:rest N5e6e0aa247c14ce88c44d75d130ab666
125 N50d9f01fdeca4749abb7314069633df8 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
126 schema:name Rats
127 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
128 N596a140648934edf9be94267a292be4c schema:name doi
129 schema:value 10.1186/gb-2002-3-2-research0008
130 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
131 N5e6e0aa247c14ce88c44d75d130ab666 rdf:first sg:person.0761703771.03
132 rdf:rest N17be32df89b44a08b26150b5c07a994d
133 N5f4a2a0dc7384c96acbae87c846fb53f schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
134 schema:name Evolution, Molecular
135 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
136 N85300b2912604a5b8a87fc1d1c78893d schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
137 schema:name Gene Duplication
138 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
139 N8569753aaed44dcfa563093314559908 schema:volumeNumber 3
140 rdf:type schema:PublicationVolume
141 N87bbbad372374e51a9591b1b9a9e7e4f schema:name pubmed_id
142 schema:value 11864370
143 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
144 N8e3f8b9fa14f42299c2947da4947e130 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
145 schema:name Mice
146 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
147 N95ab9c9463db4c2aa25900997973f7b7 rdf:first sg:person.01017015051.78
148 rdf:rest rdf:nil
149 Nb8d97d6dd9484296b57c6b97d02f07a9 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
150 schema:name Animals
151 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
152 Nbb8aedeebd9f4bac8e180f236f23c953 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
153 schema:name Selection, Genetic
154 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
155 Nf54afb061248476bae2f77ee416dd419 schema:name dimensions_id
156 schema:value pub.1027965540
157 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
158 anzsrc-for:06 schema:inDefinedTermSet anzsrc-for:
159 schema:name Biological Sciences
160 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
161 anzsrc-for:0604 schema:inDefinedTermSet anzsrc-for:
162 schema:name Genetics
163 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
164 sg:grant.2720267 http://pending.schema.org/fundedItem sg:pub.10.1186/gb-2002-3-2-research0008
165 rdf:type schema:MonetaryGrant
166 sg:grant.2726032 http://pending.schema.org/fundedItem sg:pub.10.1186/gb-2002-3-2-research0008
167 rdf:type schema:MonetaryGrant
168 sg:journal.1023439 schema:issn 1465-6906
169 1474-760X
170 schema:name Genome Biology
171 schema:publisher Springer Nature
172 rdf:type schema:Periodical
173 sg:person.01017015051.78 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.419234.9
174 schema:familyName Koonin
175 schema:givenName Eugene V
176 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01017015051.78
177 rdf:type schema:Person
178 sg:person.01020411727.09 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.419234.9
179 schema:familyName Kondrashov
180 schema:givenName Fyodor A
181 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01020411727.09
182 rdf:type schema:Person
183 sg:person.0634453251.89 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.419234.9
184 schema:familyName Wolf
185 schema:givenName Yuri I
186 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0634453251.89
187 rdf:type schema:Person
188 sg:person.0761703771.03 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.419234.9
189 schema:familyName Rogozin
190 schema:givenName Igor B
191 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0761703771.03
192 rdf:type schema:Person
193 sg:pub.10.1007/978-1-4615-6369-3_15 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1047813970
194 https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4615-6369-3_15
195 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
196 sg:pub.10.1007/bf00175826 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1049478746
197 https://doi.org/10.1007/bf00175826
198 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
199 sg:pub.10.1007/bf00175885 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1049063048
200 https://doi.org/10.1007/bf00175885
201 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
202 sg:pub.10.1007/bf00276940 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1040648929
203 https://doi.org/10.1007/bf00276940
204 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
205 sg:pub.10.1007/bf01732495 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1018433251
206 https://doi.org/10.1007/bf01732495
207 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
208 sg:pub.10.1007/bf02407308 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1035193716
209 https://doi.org/10.1007/bf02407308
210 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
211 sg:pub.10.1007/pl00006540 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1019490169
212 https://doi.org/10.1007/pl00006540
213 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
214 sg:pub.10.1007/s002390010233 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1017356424
215 https://doi.org/10.1007/s002390010233
216 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
217 sg:pub.10.1038/35057062 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1042854081
218 https://doi.org/10.1038/35057062
219 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
220 sg:pub.10.1038/35097067 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1018632260
221 https://doi.org/10.1038/35097067
222 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
223 sg:pub.10.1038/40618 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1004165623
224 https://doi.org/10.1038/40618
225 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
226 sg:pub.10.1038/sj.hdy.6885370 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1052824025
227 https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.hdy.6885370
228 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
229 grid-institutes:grid.419234.9 schema:alternateName National Center for Biotechnology Information, National Institutes of Health, 20894, Bethesda, MD, USA
230 schema:name National Center for Biotechnology Information, National Institutes of Health, 20894, Bethesda, MD, USA
231 rdf:type schema:Organization
 




Preview window. Press ESC to close (or click here)


...