Inflammation and breast cancer. Cyclooxygenase/prostaglandin signaling and breast cancer View Full Text


Ontology type: schema:ScholarlyArticle      Open Access: True


Article Info

DATE

2007-08

AUTHORS

Louise R Howe

ABSTRACT

Many human cancers exhibit elevated prostaglandin (PG) levels due to upregulation of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), a key enzyme in eicosanoid biosynthesis. COX-2 over-expression has been observed in about 40% of cases of invasive breast carcinoma and at a higher frequency in preinvasive ductal carcinoma in situ tumors, Extensive pharmacologic and genetic evidence implicates COX enzymes in neoplasia. Epidemiologic analyses demonstrate a protective effect of COX-inhibiting nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs with respect to human cancer. Complementary experimental studies have established that both conventional nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and selective COX-2 inhibitors suppress mammary tumor formation in rodent breast cancer models. Furthermore, knocking out Cox-2 reduces mammary tumorigenesis and angiogenesis, and, conversely, transgenic COX-2 over-expression induces tumor formation. The utility of COX/PG signaling as a target for chemoprevention has been established by randomized controlled clinical trials. However, these studies also identified increased cardiovascular risk associated with use of selective COX-2 inhibitors. Thus, current efforts are directed toward identifying safer approaches to antagonizing COX/PG signaling for cancer prevention and treatment, with a particular focus on PGE2 regulation and signaling, because PGE2 is a key pro-tumorigenic prostanoid. More... »

PAGES

210

Identifiers

URI

http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1186/bcr1678

DOI

http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/bcr1678

DIMENSIONS

https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1045787225

PUBMED

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17640394


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