Effects of a popular exercise and weight loss program on weight loss, body composition, energy expenditure and health in obese ... View Full Text


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Article Info

DATE

2009-05-14

AUTHORS

Chad Kerksick, Ashli Thomas, Bill Campbell, Lem Taylor, Colin Wilborn, Brandon Marcello, Mike Roberts, Emily Pfau, Megan Grimstvedt, Jasmine Opusunju, Teresa Magrans-Courtney, Christopher Rasmussen, Ron Wilson, Richard B Kreider

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveTo determine the safety and efficacy of altering the ratio of carbohydrate and protein in low-energy diets in conjunction with a popular exercise program in obese women.DesignMatched, prospective clinical intervention study to assess efficacy of varying ratios of carbohydrate and protein intake in conjunction with a regular exercise program.ParticipantsOne-hundred sixty one sedentary, obese, pre-menopausal women (38.5 ± 8.5 yrs, 164.2 ± 6.7 cm, 94.2 ± 18.8 kg, 34.9 ± 6.4 kg·m-2, 43.8 ± 4.2%) participated in this study. Participants were weight stable and not participating in additional weight loss programs.MethodsParticipants were assigned to either a no exercise + no diet control (CON), a no diet + exercise group (ND), or one of four diet + exercise groups (presented as kcals; % carbohydrate: protein: fat): 1) a high energy, high carbohydrate, low protein diet (HED) [2,600; 55:15:30%], 2) a very low carbohydrate, high protein diet (VLCHP) [1,200 kcals; 63:7:30%], 3) a low carbohydrate, moderate protein diet (LCMP) [1,200 kcals; 50:20:30%] and 4) a high carbohydrate, low protein diet (HCLP) [1,200 kcals; 55:15:30%]. Participants in exercise groups (all but CON) performed a pneumatic resistance-based, circuit training program under supervision three times per week.MeasurementsAnthropometric, body composition, resting energy expenditure (REE), fasting blood samples and muscular fitness assessments were examined at baseline and weeks 2, 10 and 14.ResultsAll groups except CON experienced significant reductions (P < 0.05 – 0.001) in waist circumference over 14 weeks. VLCHP, LCHP and LPHC participants experienced similar but significant (P < 0.05 – 0.001) reductions in body mass when compared to other groups. Delta responses indicated that fat loss after 14 weeks was significantly greatest in VLCHP (95% CI: -5.2, -3.2 kg), LCMP (-4.0, -1.9 kg) and HCLP (-3.8, -2.1 kg) when compared to other groups. Subsequent reductions in % body fat were significantly greater in VLCHP, LCMP and HCLP participants. Initial dieting decreased (P < 0.05) relative REE similarly in all groups. All exercise groups significantly (P < 0.05) improved in muscular fitness, but these improvements were not different among groups. Favorable but non-significant mean changes occurred in lipid panels, glucose and HOMA-IR. Leptin levels decreased (P < 0.05) in all groups, except for CON, after two weeks of dieting and remained lower throughout the 14 week program. Exercise participation resulted in significant improvements in quality of life and body image.ConclusionExercise alone (ND) appears to have minimal impact on measured outcomes with positive outcomes apparent when exercise is combined with a hypoenergetic diet. Greater improvements in waist circumference and body composition occurred when carbohydrate is replaced in the diet with protein. Weight loss in all diet groups (VLCHP, LCMP and HCLP) was primarily fat and stimulated improvements in markers of cardiovascular disease risk, body composition, energy expenditure and psychosocial parameters. More... »

PAGES

23

References to SciGraph publications

Identifiers

URI

http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1186/1743-7075-6-23

DOI

http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1743-7075-6-23

DIMENSIONS

https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1008701990

PUBMED

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19442301


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15 schema:description ObjectiveTo determine the safety and efficacy of altering the ratio of carbohydrate and protein in low-energy diets in conjunction with a popular exercise program in obese women.DesignMatched, prospective clinical intervention study to assess efficacy of varying ratios of carbohydrate and protein intake in conjunction with a regular exercise program.ParticipantsOne-hundred sixty one sedentary, obese, pre-menopausal women (38.5 ± 8.5 yrs, 164.2 ± 6.7 cm, 94.2 ± 18.8 kg, 34.9 ± 6.4 kg·m-2, 43.8 ± 4.2%) participated in this study. Participants were weight stable and not participating in additional weight loss programs.MethodsParticipants were assigned to either a no exercise + no diet control (CON), a no diet + exercise group (ND), or one of four diet + exercise groups (presented as kcals; % carbohydrate: protein: fat): 1) a high energy, high carbohydrate, low protein diet (HED) [2,600; 55:15:30%], 2) a very low carbohydrate, high protein diet (VLCHP) [1,200 kcals; 63:7:30%], 3) a low carbohydrate, moderate protein diet (LCMP) [1,200 kcals; 50:20:30%] and 4) a high carbohydrate, low protein diet (HCLP) [1,200 kcals; 55:15:30%]. Participants in exercise groups (all but CON) performed a pneumatic resistance-based, circuit training program under supervision three times per week.MeasurementsAnthropometric, body composition, resting energy expenditure (REE), fasting blood samples and muscular fitness assessments were examined at baseline and weeks 2, 10 and 14.ResultsAll groups except CON experienced significant reductions (P < 0.05 – 0.001) in waist circumference over 14 weeks. VLCHP, LCHP and LPHC participants experienced similar but significant (P < 0.05 – 0.001) reductions in body mass when compared to other groups. Delta responses indicated that fat loss after 14 weeks was significantly greatest in VLCHP (95% CI: -5.2, -3.2 kg), LCMP (-4.0, -1.9 kg) and HCLP (-3.8, -2.1 kg) when compared to other groups. Subsequent reductions in % body fat were significantly greater in VLCHP, LCMP and HCLP participants. Initial dieting decreased (P < 0.05) relative REE similarly in all groups. All exercise groups significantly (P < 0.05) improved in muscular fitness, but these improvements were not different among groups. Favorable but non-significant mean changes occurred in lipid panels, glucose and HOMA-IR. Leptin levels decreased (P < 0.05) in all groups, except for CON, after two weeks of dieting and remained lower throughout the 14 week program. Exercise participation resulted in significant improvements in quality of life and body image.ConclusionExercise alone (ND) appears to have minimal impact on measured outcomes with positive outcomes apparent when exercise is combined with a hypoenergetic diet. Greater improvements in waist circumference and body composition occurred when carbohydrate is replaced in the diet with protein. Weight loss in all diet groups (VLCHP, LCMP and HCLP) was primarily fat and stimulated improvements in markers of cardiovascular disease risk, body composition, energy expenditure and psychosocial parameters.
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21 schema:keywords ConclusionExercise
22 HCLP
23 HOMA-IR
24 LCHP
25 LCMP
26 MethodsParticipants
27 ObjectiveTo
28 REE
29 Sixty-one
30 assessment
31 baseline
32 blood samples
33 body composition
34 body fat
35 body image
36 body mass
37 carbohydrates
38 cardiovascular disease risk
39 changes
40 circuit training program
41 circumference
42 clinical intervention studies
43 composition
44 conjunction
45 control
46 delta response
47 diet
48 diet control
49 diet group
50 dieting
51 disease risk
52 effect
53 efficacy
54 energy
55 energy expenditure
56 exercise
57 exercise group
58 exercise participation
59 exercise program
60 expenditure
61 fat
62 fat loss
63 fitness
64 fitness assessment
65 glucose
66 greater improvement
67 group
68 health
69 high carbohydrate
70 high energy
71 high-protein diet
72 hypoenergetic diet
73 images
74 impact
75 improvement
76 intake
77 intervention studies
78 leptin levels
79 levels
80 life
81 lipid panel
82 loss
83 loss program
84 low carbohydrate
85 low-energy diet
86 low-protein diet
87 markers
88 mass
89 mean change
90 measured outcome
91 minimal impact
92 moderate protein diet
93 muscular fitness
94 muscular fitness assessments
95 obese women
96 one
97 outcomes
98 panel
99 parameters
100 participants
101 participation
102 popular exercise
103 popular exercise program
104 positive outcomes
105 pre-menopausal women
106 program
107 prospective clinical intervention study
108 protein
109 protein diet
110 protein intake
111 psychosocial parameters
112 quality
113 quality of life
114 ratio
115 ratio of carbohydrate
116 reduction
117 regular exercise program
118 relative REE
119 response
120 risk
121 safety
122 samples
123 significant improvement
124 significant reduction
125 study
126 subsequent reduction
127 three times
128 time
129 training program
130 waist circumference
131 week 2
132 week program
133 weeks
134 weight
135 weight loss
136 weight loss program
137 women
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