Interpersonal violence: an important risk factor for disease and injury in South Africa View Full Text


Ontology type: schema:ScholarlyArticle      Open Access: True


Article Info

DATE

2010-12

AUTHORS

Rosana Norman, Michelle Schneider, Debbie Bradshaw, Rachel Jewkes, Naeemah Abrahams, Richard Matzopoulos, Theo Vos

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Burden of disease estimates for South Africa have highlighted the particularly high rates of injuries related to interpersonal violence compared with other regions of the world, but these figures tell only part of the story. In addition to direct physical injury, violence survivors are at an increased risk of a wide range of psychological and behavioral problems. This study aimed to comprehensively quantify the excess disease burden attributable to exposure to interpersonal violence as a risk factor for disease and injury in South Africa. METHODS: The World Health Organization framework of interpersonal violence was adapted. Physical injury mortality and disability were categorically attributed to interpersonal violence. In addition, exposure to child sexual abuse and intimate partner violence, subcategories of interpersonal violence, were treated as risk factors for disease and injury using counterfactual estimation and comparative risk assessment methods. Adjustments were made to account for the combined exposure state of having experienced both child sexual abuse and intimate partner violence. RESULTS: Of the 17 risk factors included in the South African Comparative Risk Assessment study, interpersonal violence was the second leading cause of healthy years of life lost, after unsafe sex, accounting for 1.7 million disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) or 10.5% of all DALYs (95% uncertainty interval: 8.5%-12.5%) in 2000. In women, intimate partner violence accounted for 50% and child sexual abuse for 32% of the total attributable DALYs. CONCLUSIONS: The implications of our findings are that estimates that include only the direct injury burden seriously underrepresent the full health impact of interpersonal violence. Violence is an important direct and indirect cause of health loss and should be recognized as a priority health problem as well as a human rights and social issue. This study highlights the difficulties in measuring the disease burden from interpersonal violence as a risk factor and the need to improve the epidemiological data on the prevalence and risks for the different forms of interpersonal violence to complete the picture. Given the extent of the burden, it is essential that innovative research be supported to identify social policy and other interventions that address both the individual and societal aspects of violence. More... »

PAGES

32

References to SciGraph publications

Identifiers

URI

http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1186/1478-7954-8-32

DOI

http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1478-7954-8-32

DIMENSIONS

https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1047667276

PUBMED

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21118578


Indexing Status Check whether this publication has been indexed by Scopus and Web Of Science using the SN Indexing Status Tool
Incoming Citations Browse incoming citations for this publication using opencitations.net

JSON-LD is the canonical representation for SciGraph data.

TIP: You can open this SciGraph record using an external JSON-LD service: JSON-LD Playground Google SDTT

[
  {
    "@context": "https://springernature.github.io/scigraph/jsonld/sgcontext.json", 
    "about": [
      {
        "id": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/1117", 
        "inDefinedTermSet": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/", 
        "name": "Public Health and Health Services", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/11", 
        "inDefinedTermSet": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/", 
        "name": "Medical and Health Sciences", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }
    ], 
    "author": [
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "University of Queensland", 
          "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.1003.2", 
          "name": [
            "School of Population Health, University of Queensland, 4006, Herston, Queensland, Australia"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Norman", 
        "givenName": "Rosana", 
        "id": "sg:person.01162301447.06", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01162301447.06"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "South African Medical Research Council", 
          "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.415021.3", 
          "name": [
            "Alcohol and Drug Research Unit, Medical Research Council of South Africa, Tygerberg, Cape Town, South Africa"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Schneider", 
        "givenName": "Michelle", 
        "id": "sg:person.01360540444.70", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01360540444.70"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "South African Medical Research Council", 
          "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.415021.3", 
          "name": [
            "Burden of Disease Research Unit, Medical Research Council of South Africa, Tygerberg, Cape Town, South Africa"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Bradshaw", 
        "givenName": "Debbie", 
        "id": "sg:person.0665740427.33", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0665740427.33"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "South African Medical Research Council", 
          "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.415021.3", 
          "name": [
            "Gender and Health Research Unit, Medical Research Council of South Africa, Tygerberg, Cape Town and Pretoria, South Africa"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Jewkes", 
        "givenName": "Rachel", 
        "id": "sg:person.0647604251.32", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0647604251.32"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "South African Medical Research Council", 
          "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.415021.3", 
          "name": [
            "Gender and Health Research Unit, Medical Research Council of South Africa, Tygerberg, Cape Town and Pretoria, South Africa"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Abrahams", 
        "givenName": "Naeemah", 
        "id": "sg:person.01256753153.83", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01256753153.83"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "South African Medical Research Council", 
          "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.415021.3", 
          "name": [
            "Burden of Disease Research Unit, Medical Research Council of South Africa, Tygerberg, Cape Town, South Africa"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Matzopoulos", 
        "givenName": "Richard", 
        "id": "sg:person.01230156261.39", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01230156261.39"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "University of Queensland", 
          "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.1003.2", 
          "name": [
            "School of Population Health, University of Queensland, 4006, Herston, Queensland, Australia"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Vos", 
        "givenName": "Theo", 
        "id": "sg:person.01202235233.91", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01202235233.91"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }
    ], 
    "citation": [
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0196-0644(96)70194-4", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1000238935"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.117.1.167", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1004742976"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2008.07.023", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1007182422"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.1996.01830060096013", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1007239156"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0140-6736(06)69523-8", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1012740635"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1300/j013v33n01_10", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1014290077"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1023/a:1002704331364", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1014757613", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1023/a:1002704331364"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0140-6736(09)60247-6", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1015325133"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0140-6736(02)11403-6", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1015729021"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0749-3797(98)00017-8", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1016482317"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1093/ije/dyl217", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1017239238"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1097/01.aids.0000247582.00826.52", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1017349243"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1097/01.aids.0000247582.00826.52", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1017349243"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1097/01.aids.0000247582.00826.52", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1017349243"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chiabu.2010.05.002", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1018122238"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1891/vivi.17.6.639.33725", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1019712414", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1891/vivi.17.6.639.33725"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1891/vivi.17.6.639.33725", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1019712414", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1891/vivi.17.6.639.33725"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0140-6736(10)60548-x", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1020885952"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.a506", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1020945055"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0140-6736(09)60951-x", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1021098531"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0277-9536(98)00400-6", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1023244320"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1524-4733.2009.00686.x", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1023558200"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1891/0886-6708.24.4.546", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1025700688", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1891/0886-6708.24.4.546"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0968-8080(00)90010-7", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1027295139"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1728-4465.2001.00001.x", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1028629860"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0145-2134(99)00128-3", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1029472994"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-006x.70.1.252", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1031005288"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-006x.70.1.252", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1031005288"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1037/0002-9432.71.3.298", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1031213832"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwh194", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1035475770"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1080/00020180220140064", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1037486966"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0140-6736(07)61064-2", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1037695212"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1207/s15374424jccp3002_7", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1038141983"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0749-3797(02)00514-7", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1038383608"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0749-3797(02)00514-7", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1038383608"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203421680", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1038827497"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0277-9536(98)00097-5", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1039960638"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1080/03057079808708593", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1042766084"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1097/00004583-199610000-00024", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1043226121"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1097/00004583-199610000-00024", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1043226121"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2006.07.027", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1043931582"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0140-6736(04)16098-4", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1045515933"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/s11906-004-0028-2", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1050667974", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1007/s11906-004-0028-2"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0140-6736(02)07530-x", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1051519624"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-3156.2005.01530.x", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1053029359"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-3156.2005.01530.x", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1053029359"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0140-6736(02)08336-8", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1053369133"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1176/ajp.151.1.18", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1063482705"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1176/ajp.151.8.1132", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1063483291"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1177/1077559500005001003", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1063956989"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1177/1077559500005001003", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1063956989"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1177/14034948990270041301", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1064003087"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1177/14034948990270041301", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1064003087"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1207/s15324796abm3002_8", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1064220523", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1207/s15324796abm3002_8"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.2105/ajph.87.6.1016", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1068876340"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.2105/ajph.90.4.560", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1068877743"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.2105/ajph.92.8.1331", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1068878782"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.2471/blt.06.030411", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1070836718"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.2471/blt.06.037184", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1070836840"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1074850268", 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1076602599", 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1077504398", 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1077505966", 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1077592519", 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.5694/j.1326-5377.2008.tb01503.x", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1077592519"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0749-3797(18)30158-2", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1083154235"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1083285908", 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }
    ], 
    "datePublished": "2010-12", 
    "datePublishedReg": "2010-12-01", 
    "description": "BACKGROUND: Burden of disease estimates for South Africa have highlighted the particularly high rates of injuries related to interpersonal violence compared with other regions of the world, but these figures tell only part of the story. In addition to direct physical injury, violence survivors are at an increased risk of a wide range of psychological and behavioral problems. This study aimed to comprehensively quantify the excess disease burden attributable to exposure to interpersonal violence as a risk factor for disease and injury in South Africa.\nMETHODS: The World Health Organization framework of interpersonal violence was adapted. Physical injury mortality and disability were categorically attributed to interpersonal violence. In addition, exposure to child sexual abuse and intimate partner violence, subcategories of interpersonal violence, were treated as risk factors for disease and injury using counterfactual estimation and comparative risk assessment methods. Adjustments were made to account for the combined exposure state of having experienced both child sexual abuse and intimate partner violence.\nRESULTS: Of the 17 risk factors included in the South African Comparative Risk Assessment study, interpersonal violence was the second leading cause of healthy years of life lost, after unsafe sex, accounting for 1.7 million disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) or 10.5% of all DALYs (95% uncertainty interval: 8.5%-12.5%) in 2000. In women, intimate partner violence accounted for 50% and child sexual abuse for 32% of the total attributable DALYs.\nCONCLUSIONS: The implications of our findings are that estimates that include only the direct injury burden seriously underrepresent the full health impact of interpersonal violence. Violence is an important direct and indirect cause of health loss and should be recognized as a priority health problem as well as a human rights and social issue. This study highlights the difficulties in measuring the disease burden from interpersonal violence as a risk factor and the need to improve the epidemiological data on the prevalence and risks for the different forms of interpersonal violence to complete the picture. Given the extent of the burden, it is essential that innovative research be supported to identify social policy and other interventions that address both the individual and societal aspects of violence.", 
    "genre": "research_article", 
    "id": "sg:pub.10.1186/1478-7954-8-32", 
    "inLanguage": [
      "en"
    ], 
    "isAccessibleForFree": true, 
    "isPartOf": [
      {
        "id": "sg:journal.1032338", 
        "issn": [
          "1478-7954"
        ], 
        "name": "Population Health Metrics", 
        "type": "Periodical"
      }, 
      {
        "issueNumber": "1", 
        "type": "PublicationIssue"
      }, 
      {
        "type": "PublicationVolume", 
        "volumeNumber": "8"
      }
    ], 
    "name": "Interpersonal violence: an important risk factor for disease and injury in South Africa", 
    "pagination": "32", 
    "productId": [
      {
        "name": "readcube_id", 
        "type": "PropertyValue", 
        "value": [
          "e313088d65fd34daf1f5f1f6c408763ecacd6b77c81e02c06bdc48d4d842c4cc"
        ]
      }, 
      {
        "name": "pubmed_id", 
        "type": "PropertyValue", 
        "value": [
          "21118578"
        ]
      }, 
      {
        "name": "nlm_unique_id", 
        "type": "PropertyValue", 
        "value": [
          "101178411"
        ]
      }, 
      {
        "name": "doi", 
        "type": "PropertyValue", 
        "value": [
          "10.1186/1478-7954-8-32"
        ]
      }, 
      {
        "name": "dimensions_id", 
        "type": "PropertyValue", 
        "value": [
          "pub.1047667276"
        ]
      }
    ], 
    "sameAs": [
      "https://doi.org/10.1186/1478-7954-8-32", 
      "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1047667276"
    ], 
    "sdDataset": "articles", 
    "sdDatePublished": "2019-04-10T17:32", 
    "sdLicense": "https://scigraph.springernature.com/explorer/license/", 
    "sdPublisher": {
      "name": "Springer Nature - SN SciGraph project", 
      "type": "Organization"
    }, 
    "sdSource": "s3://com-uberresearch-data-dimensions-target-20181106-alternative/cleanup/v134/2549eaecd7973599484d7c17b260dba0a4ecb94b/merge/v9/a6c9fde33151104705d4d7ff012ea9563521a3ce/jats-lookup/v90/0000000001_0000000264/records_8672_00000515.jsonl", 
    "type": "ScholarlyArticle", 
    "url": "http://link.springer.com/10.1186%2F1478-7954-8-32"
  }
]
 

Download the RDF metadata as:  json-ld nt turtle xml License info

HOW TO GET THIS DATA PROGRAMMATICALLY:

JSON-LD is a popular format for linked data which is fully compatible with JSON.

curl -H 'Accept: application/ld+json' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1186/1478-7954-8-32'

N-Triples is a line-based linked data format ideal for batch operations.

curl -H 'Accept: application/n-triples' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1186/1478-7954-8-32'

Turtle is a human-readable linked data format.

curl -H 'Accept: text/turtle' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1186/1478-7954-8-32'

RDF/XML is a standard XML format for linked data.

curl -H 'Accept: application/rdf+xml' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1186/1478-7954-8-32'


 

This table displays all metadata directly associated to this object as RDF triples.

288 TRIPLES      21 PREDICATES      87 URIs      21 LITERALS      9 BLANK NODES

Subject Predicate Object
1 sg:pub.10.1186/1478-7954-8-32 schema:about anzsrc-for:11
2 anzsrc-for:1117
3 schema:author N8a8dd3cdc7b442058a90b39767fd221a
4 schema:citation sg:pub.10.1007/s11906-004-0028-2
5 sg:pub.10.1023/a:1002704331364
6 sg:pub.10.1207/s15324796abm3002_8
7 sg:pub.10.1891/0886-6708.24.4.546
8 sg:pub.10.1891/vivi.17.6.639.33725
9 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1074850268
10 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1076602599
11 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1077504398
12 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1077505966
13 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1077592519
14 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1083285908
15 https://doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.1996.01830060096013
16 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chiabu.2010.05.002
17 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2006.07.027
18 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2008.07.023
19 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0140-6736(02)07530-x
20 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0140-6736(02)08336-8
21 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0140-6736(02)11403-6
22 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0140-6736(04)16098-4
23 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0140-6736(06)69523-8
24 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0140-6736(07)61064-2
25 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0140-6736(09)60247-6
26 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0140-6736(09)60951-x
27 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0140-6736(10)60548-x
28 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0145-2134(99)00128-3
29 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0196-0644(96)70194-4
30 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0277-9536(98)00097-5
31 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0277-9536(98)00400-6
32 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0749-3797(02)00514-7
33 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0749-3797(18)30158-2
34 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0749-3797(98)00017-8
35 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0968-8080(00)90010-7
36 https://doi.org/10.1037/0002-9432.71.3.298
37 https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-006x.70.1.252
38 https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.117.1.167
39 https://doi.org/10.1080/00020180220140064
40 https://doi.org/10.1080/03057079808708593
41 https://doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwh194
42 https://doi.org/10.1093/ije/dyl217
43 https://doi.org/10.1097/00004583-199610000-00024
44 https://doi.org/10.1097/01.aids.0000247582.00826.52
45 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-3156.2005.01530.x
46 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1524-4733.2009.00686.x
47 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1728-4465.2001.00001.x
48 https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.a506
49 https://doi.org/10.1176/ajp.151.1.18
50 https://doi.org/10.1176/ajp.151.8.1132
51 https://doi.org/10.1177/1077559500005001003
52 https://doi.org/10.1177/14034948990270041301
53 https://doi.org/10.1207/s15374424jccp3002_7
54 https://doi.org/10.1300/j013v33n01_10
55 https://doi.org/10.2105/ajph.87.6.1016
56 https://doi.org/10.2105/ajph.90.4.560
57 https://doi.org/10.2105/ajph.92.8.1331
58 https://doi.org/10.2471/blt.06.030411
59 https://doi.org/10.2471/blt.06.037184
60 https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203421680
61 https://doi.org/10.5694/j.1326-5377.2008.tb01503.x
62 schema:datePublished 2010-12
63 schema:datePublishedReg 2010-12-01
64 schema:description BACKGROUND: Burden of disease estimates for South Africa have highlighted the particularly high rates of injuries related to interpersonal violence compared with other regions of the world, but these figures tell only part of the story. In addition to direct physical injury, violence survivors are at an increased risk of a wide range of psychological and behavioral problems. This study aimed to comprehensively quantify the excess disease burden attributable to exposure to interpersonal violence as a risk factor for disease and injury in South Africa. METHODS: The World Health Organization framework of interpersonal violence was adapted. Physical injury mortality and disability were categorically attributed to interpersonal violence. In addition, exposure to child sexual abuse and intimate partner violence, subcategories of interpersonal violence, were treated as risk factors for disease and injury using counterfactual estimation and comparative risk assessment methods. Adjustments were made to account for the combined exposure state of having experienced both child sexual abuse and intimate partner violence. RESULTS: Of the 17 risk factors included in the South African Comparative Risk Assessment study, interpersonal violence was the second leading cause of healthy years of life lost, after unsafe sex, accounting for 1.7 million disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) or 10.5% of all DALYs (95% uncertainty interval: 8.5%-12.5%) in 2000. In women, intimate partner violence accounted for 50% and child sexual abuse for 32% of the total attributable DALYs. CONCLUSIONS: The implications of our findings are that estimates that include only the direct injury burden seriously underrepresent the full health impact of interpersonal violence. Violence is an important direct and indirect cause of health loss and should be recognized as a priority health problem as well as a human rights and social issue. This study highlights the difficulties in measuring the disease burden from interpersonal violence as a risk factor and the need to improve the epidemiological data on the prevalence and risks for the different forms of interpersonal violence to complete the picture. Given the extent of the burden, it is essential that innovative research be supported to identify social policy and other interventions that address both the individual and societal aspects of violence.
65 schema:genre research_article
66 schema:inLanguage en
67 schema:isAccessibleForFree true
68 schema:isPartOf N66133939986748fd9bcb670245bf3c07
69 N7ce131f81ebd4c35994ec2dc6d776c69
70 sg:journal.1032338
71 schema:name Interpersonal violence: an important risk factor for disease and injury in South Africa
72 schema:pagination 32
73 schema:productId N5b6d9ee66dcd468eb31aac00fdb7cac0
74 Nc26f45a62665488797c0cb49c619b15d
75 Nc8f169efb590488aa33159af29bd7757
76 Nf282e28193244ca28f02583516381f1d
77 Nf8c8a368a8b74609ad654e6cbc1919ab
78 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1047667276
79 https://doi.org/10.1186/1478-7954-8-32
80 schema:sdDatePublished 2019-04-10T17:32
81 schema:sdLicense https://scigraph.springernature.com/explorer/license/
82 schema:sdPublisher N7f8b187b7fc9401a8e2a98c5fb07021f
83 schema:url http://link.springer.com/10.1186%2F1478-7954-8-32
84 sgo:license sg:explorer/license/
85 sgo:sdDataset articles
86 rdf:type schema:ScholarlyArticle
87 N29503accf8c94cd2bf3e282f80d26804 rdf:first sg:person.01360540444.70
88 rdf:rest N559c43bb262448edbe7da92f692f5573
89 N2f55a404ab564486bda1a162351c734b rdf:first sg:person.01202235233.91
90 rdf:rest rdf:nil
91 N559c43bb262448edbe7da92f692f5573 rdf:first sg:person.0665740427.33
92 rdf:rest Ne70710b4a38448ecb77d391ee8b3c370
93 N5b1abd0af3da4fc09008a7806b79c259 rdf:first sg:person.01230156261.39
94 rdf:rest N2f55a404ab564486bda1a162351c734b
95 N5b6d9ee66dcd468eb31aac00fdb7cac0 schema:name readcube_id
96 schema:value e313088d65fd34daf1f5f1f6c408763ecacd6b77c81e02c06bdc48d4d842c4cc
97 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
98 N66133939986748fd9bcb670245bf3c07 schema:volumeNumber 8
99 rdf:type schema:PublicationVolume
100 N7ce131f81ebd4c35994ec2dc6d776c69 schema:issueNumber 1
101 rdf:type schema:PublicationIssue
102 N7f8b187b7fc9401a8e2a98c5fb07021f schema:name Springer Nature - SN SciGraph project
103 rdf:type schema:Organization
104 N8a8dd3cdc7b442058a90b39767fd221a rdf:first sg:person.01162301447.06
105 rdf:rest N29503accf8c94cd2bf3e282f80d26804
106 Nc26f45a62665488797c0cb49c619b15d schema:name pubmed_id
107 schema:value 21118578
108 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
109 Nc8f169efb590488aa33159af29bd7757 schema:name nlm_unique_id
110 schema:value 101178411
111 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
112 Ne70710b4a38448ecb77d391ee8b3c370 rdf:first sg:person.0647604251.32
113 rdf:rest Nff03b4c66794413691f3e8deaab10b77
114 Nf282e28193244ca28f02583516381f1d schema:name doi
115 schema:value 10.1186/1478-7954-8-32
116 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
117 Nf8c8a368a8b74609ad654e6cbc1919ab schema:name dimensions_id
118 schema:value pub.1047667276
119 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
120 Nff03b4c66794413691f3e8deaab10b77 rdf:first sg:person.01256753153.83
121 rdf:rest N5b1abd0af3da4fc09008a7806b79c259
122 anzsrc-for:11 schema:inDefinedTermSet anzsrc-for:
123 schema:name Medical and Health Sciences
124 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
125 anzsrc-for:1117 schema:inDefinedTermSet anzsrc-for:
126 schema:name Public Health and Health Services
127 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
128 sg:journal.1032338 schema:issn 1478-7954
129 schema:name Population Health Metrics
130 rdf:type schema:Periodical
131 sg:person.01162301447.06 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.1003.2
132 schema:familyName Norman
133 schema:givenName Rosana
134 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01162301447.06
135 rdf:type schema:Person
136 sg:person.01202235233.91 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.1003.2
137 schema:familyName Vos
138 schema:givenName Theo
139 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01202235233.91
140 rdf:type schema:Person
141 sg:person.01230156261.39 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.415021.3
142 schema:familyName Matzopoulos
143 schema:givenName Richard
144 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01230156261.39
145 rdf:type schema:Person
146 sg:person.01256753153.83 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.415021.3
147 schema:familyName Abrahams
148 schema:givenName Naeemah
149 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01256753153.83
150 rdf:type schema:Person
151 sg:person.01360540444.70 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.415021.3
152 schema:familyName Schneider
153 schema:givenName Michelle
154 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01360540444.70
155 rdf:type schema:Person
156 sg:person.0647604251.32 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.415021.3
157 schema:familyName Jewkes
158 schema:givenName Rachel
159 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0647604251.32
160 rdf:type schema:Person
161 sg:person.0665740427.33 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.415021.3
162 schema:familyName Bradshaw
163 schema:givenName Debbie
164 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0665740427.33
165 rdf:type schema:Person
166 sg:pub.10.1007/s11906-004-0028-2 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1050667974
167 https://doi.org/10.1007/s11906-004-0028-2
168 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
169 sg:pub.10.1023/a:1002704331364 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1014757613
170 https://doi.org/10.1023/a:1002704331364
171 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
172 sg:pub.10.1207/s15324796abm3002_8 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1064220523
173 https://doi.org/10.1207/s15324796abm3002_8
174 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
175 sg:pub.10.1891/0886-6708.24.4.546 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1025700688
176 https://doi.org/10.1891/0886-6708.24.4.546
177 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
178 sg:pub.10.1891/vivi.17.6.639.33725 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1019712414
179 https://doi.org/10.1891/vivi.17.6.639.33725
180 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
181 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1074850268 schema:CreativeWork
182 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1076602599 schema:CreativeWork
183 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1077504398 schema:CreativeWork
184 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1077505966 schema:CreativeWork
185 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1077592519 schema:CreativeWork
186 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1083285908 schema:CreativeWork
187 https://doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.1996.01830060096013 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1007239156
188 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
189 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chiabu.2010.05.002 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1018122238
190 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
191 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2006.07.027 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1043931582
192 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
193 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2008.07.023 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1007182422
194 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
195 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0140-6736(02)07530-x schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1051519624
196 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
197 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0140-6736(02)08336-8 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1053369133
198 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
199 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0140-6736(02)11403-6 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1015729021
200 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
201 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0140-6736(04)16098-4 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1045515933
202 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
203 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0140-6736(06)69523-8 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1012740635
204 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
205 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0140-6736(07)61064-2 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1037695212
206 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
207 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0140-6736(09)60247-6 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1015325133
208 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
209 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0140-6736(09)60951-x schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1021098531
210 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
211 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0140-6736(10)60548-x schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1020885952
212 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
213 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0145-2134(99)00128-3 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1029472994
214 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
215 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0196-0644(96)70194-4 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1000238935
216 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
217 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0277-9536(98)00097-5 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1039960638
218 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
219 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0277-9536(98)00400-6 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1023244320
220 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
221 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0749-3797(02)00514-7 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1038383608
222 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
223 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0749-3797(18)30158-2 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1083154235
224 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
225 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0749-3797(98)00017-8 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1016482317
226 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
227 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0968-8080(00)90010-7 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1027295139
228 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
229 https://doi.org/10.1037/0002-9432.71.3.298 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1031213832
230 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
231 https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-006x.70.1.252 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1031005288
232 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
233 https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.117.1.167 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1004742976
234 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
235 https://doi.org/10.1080/00020180220140064 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1037486966
236 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
237 https://doi.org/10.1080/03057079808708593 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1042766084
238 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
239 https://doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwh194 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1035475770
240 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
241 https://doi.org/10.1093/ije/dyl217 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1017239238
242 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
243 https://doi.org/10.1097/00004583-199610000-00024 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1043226121
244 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
245 https://doi.org/10.1097/01.aids.0000247582.00826.52 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1017349243
246 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
247 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-3156.2005.01530.x schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1053029359
248 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
249 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1524-4733.2009.00686.x schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1023558200
250 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
251 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1728-4465.2001.00001.x schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1028629860
252 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
253 https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.a506 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1020945055
254 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
255 https://doi.org/10.1176/ajp.151.1.18 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1063482705
256 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
257 https://doi.org/10.1176/ajp.151.8.1132 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1063483291
258 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
259 https://doi.org/10.1177/1077559500005001003 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1063956989
260 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
261 https://doi.org/10.1177/14034948990270041301 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1064003087
262 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
263 https://doi.org/10.1207/s15374424jccp3002_7 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1038141983
264 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
265 https://doi.org/10.1300/j013v33n01_10 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1014290077
266 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
267 https://doi.org/10.2105/ajph.87.6.1016 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1068876340
268 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
269 https://doi.org/10.2105/ajph.90.4.560 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1068877743
270 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
271 https://doi.org/10.2105/ajph.92.8.1331 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1068878782
272 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
273 https://doi.org/10.2471/blt.06.030411 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1070836718
274 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
275 https://doi.org/10.2471/blt.06.037184 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1070836840
276 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
277 https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203421680 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1038827497
278 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
279 https://doi.org/10.5694/j.1326-5377.2008.tb01503.x schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1077592519
280 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
281 https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.1003.2 schema:alternateName University of Queensland
282 schema:name School of Population Health, University of Queensland, 4006, Herston, Queensland, Australia
283 rdf:type schema:Organization
284 https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.415021.3 schema:alternateName South African Medical Research Council
285 schema:name Alcohol and Drug Research Unit, Medical Research Council of South Africa, Tygerberg, Cape Town, South Africa
286 Burden of Disease Research Unit, Medical Research Council of South Africa, Tygerberg, Cape Town, South Africa
287 Gender and Health Research Unit, Medical Research Council of South Africa, Tygerberg, Cape Town and Pretoria, South Africa
288 rdf:type schema:Organization
 




Preview window. Press ESC to close (or click here)


...