Low-carbohydrate, high-protein diet score and risk of incident cancer; a prospective cohort study View Full Text


Ontology type: schema:ScholarlyArticle      Open Access: True


Article Info

DATE

2013-05-07

AUTHORS

Lena Maria Nilsson, Anna Winkvist, Ingegerd Johansson, Bernt Lindahl, Göran Hallmans, Per Lenner, Bethany Van Guelpen

ABSTRACT

BackgroundAlthough carbohydrate reduction of varying degrees is a popular and controversial dietary trend, potential long-term effects for health, and cancer in specific, are largely unknown.MethodsWe studied a previously established low-carbohydrate, high-protein (LCHP) score in relation to the incidence of cancer and specific cancer types in a population-based cohort in northern Sweden. Participants were 62,582 men and women with up to 17.8 years of follow-up (median 9.7), including 3,059 prospective cancer cases. Cox regression analyses were performed for a LCHP score based on the sum of energy-adjusted deciles of carbohydrate (descending) and protein (ascending) intake labeled 1 to 10, with higher scores representing a diet lower in carbohydrates and higher in protein. Important potential confounders were accounted for, and the role of metabolic risk profile, macronutrient quality including saturated fat intake, and adequacy of energy intake reporting was explored.ResultsFor the lowest to highest LCHP scores, 2 to 20, carbohydrate intakes ranged from median 60.9 to 38.9% of total energy intake. Both protein (primarily animal sources) and particularly fat (both saturated and unsaturated) intakes increased with increasing LCHP scores. LCHP score was not related to cancer risk, except for a non-dose-dependent, positive association for respiratory tract cancer that was statistically significant in men. The multivariate hazard ratio for medium (9–13) versus low (2–8) LCHP scores was 1.84 (95% confidence interval: 1.05-3.23; p-trend = 0.38). Other analyses were largely consistent with the main results, although LCHP score was associated with colorectal cancer risk inversely in women with high saturated fat intakes, and positively in men with higher LCHP scores based on vegetable protein.ConclusionThese largely null results provide important information concerning the long-term safety of moderate carbohydrate reduction and consequent increases in protein and, in this cohort, especially fat intakes. In order to determine the effects of stricter carbohydrate restriction, further studies encompassing a wider range of macronutrient intakes are warranted. More... »

PAGES

58

Identifiers

URI

http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1186/1475-2891-12-58

DOI

http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1475-2891-12-58

DIMENSIONS

https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1043724460

PUBMED

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23651548


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80 information
81 intake
82 long-term effects
83 long-term safety
84 macronutrient intake
85 macronutrient quality
86 main results
87 men
88 metabolic risk profile
89 multivariate hazard ratios
90 northern Sweden
91 null results
92 order
93 participants
94 population-based cohort
95 positive association
96 potential confounders
97 potential long-term effects
98 profile
99 prospective cohort study
100 protein
101 quality
102 range
103 ratio
104 reduction
105 regression analysis
106 relation
107 reporting
108 respiratory tract cancer
109 restriction
110 results
111 risk
112 risk profile
113 role
114 safety
115 scores
116 specific cancer types
117 study
118 sum
119 total energy intake
120 tract cancer
121 trends
122 types
123 vegetable protein
124 wide range
125 women
126 years
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