Probiotics, prebiotics infant formula use in preterm or low birth weight infants: a systematic review View Full Text


Ontology type: schema:ScholarlyArticle      Open Access: True


Article Info

DATE

2012-12

AUTHORS

Mary N Mugambi, Alfred Musekiwa, Martani Lombard, Taryn Young, Reneé Blaauw

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Previous reviews (2005 to 2009) on preterm infants given probiotics or prebiotics with breast milk or mixed feeds focused on prevention of Necrotizing Enterocolitis, sepsis and diarrhea. This review assessed if probiotics, prebiotics led to improved growth and clinical outcomes in formula fed preterm infants. METHODS: Cochrane methodology was followed using randomized controlled trials (RCTs) which compared preterm formula containing probiotic(s) or prebiotic(s) to conventional preterm formula in preterm infants. The mean difference (MD) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) were reported for continuous outcomes, risk ratio (RR) and corresponding 95% CI for dichotomous outcomes. Heterogeneity was assessed by visual inspection of forest plots and a chi² test. An I² test assessed inconsistencies across studies. I²> 50% represented substantial heterogeneity. RESULTS: Four probiotics studies (N=212), 4 prebiotics studies (N=126) were included. Probiotics: There were no significant differences in weight gain (MD 1.96, 95% CI: -2.64 to 6.56, 2 studies, n=34) or in maximal enteral feed (MD 35.20, 95% CI: -7.61 to 78.02, 2 studies, n=34), number of stools per day increased significantly in probiotic group (MD 1.60, 95% CI: 1.20 to 2.00, 1 study, n=20). Prebiotics: Galacto-oligosaccharide/Fructo-oligosaccharide (GOS/FOS) yielded no significant difference in weight gain (MD 0.04, 95% CI: -2.65 to 2.73, 2 studies, n=50), GOS/FOS yielded no significant differences in length gain (MD 0.01, 95% CI: -0.03 to 0.04, 2 studies, n=50). There were no significant differences in head growth (MD -0.01, 95% CI: -0.02 to 0.00, 2 studies, n=76) or age at full enteral feed (MD -0.79, 95% CI: -2.20 to 0.61, 2 studies, n=86). Stool frequency increased significantly in prebiotic group (MD 0.80, 95% CI: 0.48 to 1.1, 2 studies, n=86). GOS/FOS and FOS yielded higher bifidobacteria counts in prebiotics group (MD 2.10, 95% CI: 0.96 to 3.24, n=27) and (MD 0.48, 95% CI: 0.28 to 0.68, n=56). CONCLUSIONS: There is not enough evidence to state that supplementation with probiotics or prebiotics results in improved growth and clinical outcomes in exclusively formula fed preterm infants. More... »

PAGES

58

Identifiers

URI

http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1186/1475-2891-11-58

DOI

http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1475-2891-11-58

DIMENSIONS

https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1038796593

PUBMED

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22928998


Indexing Status Check whether this publication has been indexed by Scopus and Web Of Science using the SN Indexing Status Tool
Incoming Citations Browse incoming citations for this publication using opencitations.net

JSON-LD is the canonical representation for SciGraph data.

TIP: You can open this SciGraph record using an external JSON-LD service: JSON-LD Playground Google SDTT

[
  {
    "@context": "https://springernature.github.io/scigraph/jsonld/sgcontext.json", 
    "about": [
      {
        "id": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/1114", 
        "inDefinedTermSet": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/", 
        "name": "Paediatrics and Reproductive Medicine", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/11", 
        "inDefinedTermSet": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/", 
        "name": "Medical and Health Sciences", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Child Development", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Defecation", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Energy Intake", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Evidence-Based Medicine", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Humans", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Infant", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Infant Formula", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Infant, Low Birth Weight", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Infant, Newborn", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Infant, Premature", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Prebiotics", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Probiotics", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Weight Gain", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }
    ], 
    "author": [
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "Stellenbosch University", 
          "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.11956.3a", 
          "name": [
            "Division of Human Nutrition, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, P.O Box 19063, 7505, Tygerberg, South Africa"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Mugambi", 
        "givenName": "Mary N", 
        "id": "sg:person.0676662444.02", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0676662444.02"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "Stellenbosch University", 
          "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.11956.3a", 
          "name": [
            "Wits Reproductive Health & HIV Institute (WRHI), Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa", 
            "Centre for Evidence-Based Health Care, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Tygerberg, South Africa"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Musekiwa", 
        "givenName": "Alfred", 
        "id": "sg:person.0603400266.08", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0603400266.08"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "Stellenbosch University", 
          "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.11956.3a", 
          "name": [
            "Division of Human Nutrition, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, P.O Box 19063, 7505, Tygerberg, South Africa"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Lombard", 
        "givenName": "Martani", 
        "id": "sg:person.0705415066.07", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0705415066.07"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "Stellenbosch University", 
          "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.11956.3a", 
          "name": [
            "Centre for Evidence-Based Health Care, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Tygerberg, South Africa"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Young", 
        "givenName": "Taryn", 
        "id": "sg:person.01276313472.81", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01276313472.81"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "Stellenbosch University", 
          "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.11956.3a", 
          "name": [
            "Division of Human Nutrition, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, P.O Box 19063, 7505, Tygerberg, South Africa"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Blaauw", 
        "givenName": "Rene\u00e9", 
        "id": "sg:person.01023270234.96", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01023270234.96"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }
    ], 
    "citation": [
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1136/fn.86.3.f178", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1000509797"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/s10620-006-9123-3", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1001121693", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1007/s10620-006-9123-3"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/s10620-006-9123-3", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1001121693", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1007/s10620-006-9123-3"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clp.2008.09.010", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1002534122"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpeds.2009.09.051", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1002704447"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1186/1471-2431-8-46", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1002855687", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2431-8-46"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1651-2227.2003.tb00654.x", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1003760812"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1136/fn.76.2.f101", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1003955282"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1136/fn.88.1.f52", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1004347635"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1086/504324", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1005094764"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1097/mpg.0b013e3181926aec", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1006343628"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1097/mpg.0b013e3181926aec", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1006343628"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1097/mpg.0b013e3181926aec", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1006343628"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0271-5317(01)00395-5", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1006936986"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1097/mpg.0b013e31815affec", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1006993664"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1097/mpg.0b013e31815affec", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1006993664"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1097/mpg.0b013e31815affec", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1006993664"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.earlhumdev.2006.12.002", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1008105886"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1097/mog.0b013e3282f0cffc", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1008424042"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1097/mog.0b013e3282f0cffc", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1008424042"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpeds.2009.09.006", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1008608554"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.cd005496.pub3", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1008669876"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.earlhumdev.2006.07.003", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1008948017"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1079/bjn20041357", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1009444401"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1136/adc.69.5_spec_no.488", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1009476279"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1136/gut.52.7.988", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1010235559"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s1521-6918(03)00074-x", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1010938387"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s1521-6918(03)00074-x", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1010938387"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.3945/ajcn.2008.26919", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1011895149"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpeds.2005.03.054", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1012317020"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpeds.2005.03.054", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1012317020"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/978-1-61779-191-8_6", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1012611385", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-61779-191-8_6"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/978-1-61779-191-8_6", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1012611385", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-61779-191-8_6"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1097/00005176-200404000-00017", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1012676666"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1097/00005176-200404000-00017", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1012676666"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1017/s0007114510003405", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1012972326"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1159/000097449", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1016172346"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1159/000063096", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1016496372"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1651-2227.2006.tb02351.x", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1016550567"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1651-2227.2006.tb02351.x", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1016550567"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1097/00005176-200404000-00001", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1018597495"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1097/00005176-200404000-00001", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1018597495"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2672.2007.03520.x", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1020292254"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1017/s0007114508981447", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1021136525"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1017/cbo9780511545672.003", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1021487014"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1742-1241.2004.00353.x", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1022295248"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2672.2006.02963.x", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1025627650"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2672.2006.02963.x", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1025627650"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1651-2227.2005.tb02152.x", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1026127341"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1651-2227.2005.tb02152.x", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1026127341"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.cd004827.pub3", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1027252743"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1651-2227.2003.tb00476.x", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1027301599"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1651-2227.2003.tb00476.x", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1027301599"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1651-2227.2005.tb02153.x", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1028337468"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1651-2227.2005.tb02153.x", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1028337468"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1097/00001574-200403000-00017", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1028515686"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1097/00001574-200403000-00017", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1028515686"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2249.2007.03587.x", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1031031961"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpeds.2007.11.005", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1031967511"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2005.08.019", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1032224224"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2005.08.019", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1032224224"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1203/pdr.0b013e318181b7fa", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1032351473", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1203/pdr.0b013e318181b7fa"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1203/pdr.0b013e318181b7fa", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1032351473", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1203/pdr.0b013e318181b7fa"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0378-3782(03)00090-2", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1032650268"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0378-3782(03)00090-2", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1032650268"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1097/00005176-200303000-00019", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1035367553"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1097/00005176-200303000-00019", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1035367553"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1097/01.nt.0000303311.36663.39", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1036343681"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1097/01.nt.0000303311.36663.39", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1036343681"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clnu.2004.09.005", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1037148520"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1128/jcm.00767-06", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1037224050"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1089/bfm.2008.0114", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1041939659"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1097/00006454-198611000-00013", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1041941545"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1097/00006454-198611000-00013", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1041941545"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1097/mpg.0b013e31818de195", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1042179042"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1097/mpg.0b013e31818de195", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1042179042"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1136/adc.69.5_spec_no.483", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1042867667"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.idairyj.2007.01.014", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1042963457"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1097/inf.0b013e3181c36eb9", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1044008075"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1097/inf.0b013e3181c36eb9", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1044008075"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1097/inf.0b013e3181c36eb9", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1044008075"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s1201-9712(99)90024-3", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1044195833"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0140-6736(07)60748-x", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1044425014"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-3083.2002.01005.x", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1046246151"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/jp.2011.51", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1047795939", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1038/jp.2011.51"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1017/s0007114509289069", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1048623934"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1017/s0007114509289069", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1048623934"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1651-2227.2003.tb00648.x", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1051450430"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1651-2227.2003.tb00648.x", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1051450430"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1097/01.mpg.0000252184.89922.5f", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1052876439"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1097/01.mpg.0000252184.89922.5f", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1052876439"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1136/adc.2007.115824", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1052937797"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.3945/ajcn.2009.28625", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1053114395"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1097/mpg.0b013e3181344694", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1053151539"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1097/mpg.0b013e3181344694", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1053151539"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1080/08035250500486652", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1058341505"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1080/08035320510043529", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1058341904"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1080/08035320510043529", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1058341904"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1080/08035320510043853", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1058341924"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1080/08035320510043853", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1058341924"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1080/08910600310014377", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1058345807"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1093/tropej/fmn091", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1060060715"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2005-0245", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1067824218"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2007-3007", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1067826658"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.2174/1381612053382359", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1069165467"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1076591839", 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1076591845", 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2004-1463", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1076987788"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2004-2137", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1076987815"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1093/jn/137.11.2568s", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1077504068"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1093/jn/137.11.2585s", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1077504072"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/22.7.845", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1081348037"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1002/9780470712184", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1109246181"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1109246181", 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }
    ], 
    "datePublished": "2012-12", 
    "datePublishedReg": "2012-12-01", 
    "description": "BACKGROUND: Previous reviews (2005 to 2009) on preterm infants given probiotics or prebiotics with breast milk or mixed feeds focused on prevention of Necrotizing Enterocolitis, sepsis and diarrhea. This review assessed if probiotics, prebiotics led to improved growth and clinical outcomes in formula fed preterm infants.\nMETHODS: Cochrane methodology was followed using randomized controlled trials (RCTs) which compared preterm formula containing probiotic(s) or prebiotic(s) to conventional preterm formula in preterm infants. The mean difference (MD) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) were reported for continuous outcomes, risk ratio (RR) and corresponding 95% CI for dichotomous outcomes. Heterogeneity was assessed by visual inspection of forest plots and a chi\u00b2 test. An I\u00b2 test assessed inconsistencies across studies. I\u00b2> 50% represented substantial heterogeneity.\nRESULTS: Four probiotics studies (N=212), 4 prebiotics studies (N=126) were included. Probiotics: There were no significant differences in weight gain (MD 1.96, 95% CI: -2.64 to 6.56, 2 studies, n=34) or in maximal enteral feed (MD 35.20, 95% CI: -7.61 to 78.02, 2 studies, n=34), number of stools per day increased significantly in probiotic group (MD 1.60, 95% CI: 1.20 to 2.00, 1 study, n=20). Prebiotics: Galacto-oligosaccharide/Fructo-oligosaccharide (GOS/FOS) yielded no significant difference in weight gain (MD 0.04, 95% CI: -2.65 to 2.73, 2 studies, n=50), GOS/FOS yielded no significant differences in length gain (MD 0.01, 95% CI: -0.03 to 0.04, 2 studies, n=50). There were no significant differences in head growth (MD -0.01, 95% CI: -0.02 to 0.00, 2 studies, n=76) or age at full enteral feed (MD -0.79, 95% CI: -2.20 to 0.61, 2 studies, n=86). Stool frequency increased significantly in prebiotic group (MD 0.80, 95% CI: 0.48 to 1.1, 2 studies, n=86). GOS/FOS and FOS yielded higher bifidobacteria counts in prebiotics group (MD 2.10, 95% CI: 0.96 to 3.24, n=27) and (MD 0.48, 95% CI: 0.28 to 0.68, n=56).\nCONCLUSIONS: There is not enough evidence to state that supplementation with probiotics or prebiotics results in improved growth and clinical outcomes in exclusively formula fed preterm infants.", 
    "genre": "research_article", 
    "id": "sg:pub.10.1186/1475-2891-11-58", 
    "inLanguage": [
      "en"
    ], 
    "isAccessibleForFree": true, 
    "isPartOf": [
      {
        "id": "sg:journal.1031283", 
        "issn": [
          "1475-2891"
        ], 
        "name": "Nutrition Journal", 
        "type": "Periodical"
      }, 
      {
        "issueNumber": "1", 
        "type": "PublicationIssue"
      }, 
      {
        "type": "PublicationVolume", 
        "volumeNumber": "11"
      }
    ], 
    "name": "Probiotics, prebiotics infant formula use in preterm or low birth weight infants: a systematic review", 
    "pagination": "58", 
    "productId": [
      {
        "name": "readcube_id", 
        "type": "PropertyValue", 
        "value": [
          "b8cf5459b8e3669cc32db6504d006c52a215dfe94c8776ebcd6edf1a7c3e6983"
        ]
      }, 
      {
        "name": "pubmed_id", 
        "type": "PropertyValue", 
        "value": [
          "22928998"
        ]
      }, 
      {
        "name": "nlm_unique_id", 
        "type": "PropertyValue", 
        "value": [
          "101152213"
        ]
      }, 
      {
        "name": "doi", 
        "type": "PropertyValue", 
        "value": [
          "10.1186/1475-2891-11-58"
        ]
      }, 
      {
        "name": "dimensions_id", 
        "type": "PropertyValue", 
        "value": [
          "pub.1038796593"
        ]
      }
    ], 
    "sameAs": [
      "https://doi.org/10.1186/1475-2891-11-58", 
      "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1038796593"
    ], 
    "sdDataset": "articles", 
    "sdDatePublished": "2019-04-10T16:03", 
    "sdLicense": "https://scigraph.springernature.com/explorer/license/", 
    "sdPublisher": {
      "name": "Springer Nature - SN SciGraph project", 
      "type": "Organization"
    }, 
    "sdSource": "s3://com-uberresearch-data-dimensions-target-20181106-alternative/cleanup/v134/2549eaecd7973599484d7c17b260dba0a4ecb94b/merge/v9/a6c9fde33151104705d4d7ff012ea9563521a3ce/jats-lookup/v90/0000000001_0000000264/records_8664_00000591.jsonl", 
    "type": "ScholarlyArticle", 
    "url": "http://link.springer.com/10.1186%2F1475-2891-11-58"
  }
]
 

Download the RDF metadata as:  json-ld nt turtle xml License info

HOW TO GET THIS DATA PROGRAMMATICALLY:

JSON-LD is a popular format for linked data which is fully compatible with JSON.

curl -H 'Accept: application/ld+json' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1186/1475-2891-11-58'

N-Triples is a line-based linked data format ideal for batch operations.

curl -H 'Accept: application/n-triples' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1186/1475-2891-11-58'

Turtle is a human-readable linked data format.

curl -H 'Accept: text/turtle' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1186/1475-2891-11-58'

RDF/XML is a standard XML format for linked data.

curl -H 'Accept: application/rdf+xml' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1186/1475-2891-11-58'


 

This table displays all metadata directly associated to this object as RDF triples.

402 TRIPLES      21 PREDICATES      125 URIs      35 LITERALS      23 BLANK NODES

Subject Predicate Object
1 sg:pub.10.1186/1475-2891-11-58 schema:about N19a8a5976cef4a6a9dcaa0dde00c3f74
2 N314affbea6274c7a88bc4c71f31ca8c8
3 N4af849bc8ef143c5868eb358b59f71f3
4 N503565a930b34a1fa1c1deff4ffe676e
5 N609a280f88644f3da16f31a097d6f35d
6 N68d6f2ccaabc4d5f82ea4195aaf1f8f3
7 N706463ad125744c1a6ddef5698982357
8 N82f57dedebd74baca6e44796a89ec2ff
9 N9c94c032c6ea4a72a8fb118574da0ba5
10 N9f28cccf9e3f434993c8be16adbe8ff0
11 Ndf9ae0bf66c64cf6a1906b4e7fe95c6b
12 Ne3dfb0f8afd949fea4bbea7aeec31975
13 Nf08927c2299841f988d45efa24bfd622
14 Nf205a7a98547446fa50bbf0392d4525b
15 anzsrc-for:11
16 anzsrc-for:1114
17 schema:author Nbbbb7034602843f9a80416636f97569e
18 schema:citation sg:pub.10.1007/978-1-61779-191-8_6
19 sg:pub.10.1007/s10620-006-9123-3
20 sg:pub.10.1038/jp.2011.51
21 sg:pub.10.1186/1471-2431-8-46
22 sg:pub.10.1203/pdr.0b013e318181b7fa
23 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1076591839
24 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1076591845
25 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1109246181
26 https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.cd004827.pub3
27 https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.cd005496.pub3
28 https://doi.org/10.1002/9780470712184
29 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clnu.2004.09.005
30 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clp.2008.09.010
31 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.earlhumdev.2006.07.003
32 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.earlhumdev.2006.12.002
33 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.idairyj.2007.01.014
34 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2005.08.019
35 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpeds.2005.03.054
36 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpeds.2007.11.005
37 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpeds.2009.09.006
38 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpeds.2009.09.051
39 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0140-6736(07)60748-x
40 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0271-5317(01)00395-5
41 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0378-3782(03)00090-2
42 https://doi.org/10.1016/s1201-9712(99)90024-3
43 https://doi.org/10.1016/s1521-6918(03)00074-x
44 https://doi.org/10.1017/cbo9780511545672.003
45 https://doi.org/10.1017/s0007114508981447
46 https://doi.org/10.1017/s0007114509289069
47 https://doi.org/10.1017/s0007114510003405
48 https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-3083.2002.01005.x
49 https://doi.org/10.1079/bjn20041357
50 https://doi.org/10.1080/08035250500486652
51 https://doi.org/10.1080/08035320510043529
52 https://doi.org/10.1080/08035320510043853
53 https://doi.org/10.1080/08910600310014377
54 https://doi.org/10.1086/504324
55 https://doi.org/10.1089/bfm.2008.0114
56 https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/22.7.845
57 https://doi.org/10.1093/jn/137.11.2568s
58 https://doi.org/10.1093/jn/137.11.2585s
59 https://doi.org/10.1093/tropej/fmn091
60 https://doi.org/10.1097/00001574-200403000-00017
61 https://doi.org/10.1097/00005176-200303000-00019
62 https://doi.org/10.1097/00005176-200404000-00001
63 https://doi.org/10.1097/00005176-200404000-00017
64 https://doi.org/10.1097/00006454-198611000-00013
65 https://doi.org/10.1097/01.mpg.0000252184.89922.5f
66 https://doi.org/10.1097/01.nt.0000303311.36663.39
67 https://doi.org/10.1097/inf.0b013e3181c36eb9
68 https://doi.org/10.1097/mog.0b013e3282f0cffc
69 https://doi.org/10.1097/mpg.0b013e3181344694
70 https://doi.org/10.1097/mpg.0b013e31815affec
71 https://doi.org/10.1097/mpg.0b013e31818de195
72 https://doi.org/10.1097/mpg.0b013e3181926aec
73 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2249.2007.03587.x
74 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2672.2006.02963.x
75 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2672.2007.03520.x
76 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1651-2227.2003.tb00476.x
77 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1651-2227.2003.tb00648.x
78 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1651-2227.2003.tb00654.x
79 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1651-2227.2005.tb02152.x
80 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1651-2227.2005.tb02153.x
81 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1651-2227.2006.tb02351.x
82 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1742-1241.2004.00353.x
83 https://doi.org/10.1128/jcm.00767-06
84 https://doi.org/10.1136/adc.2007.115824
85 https://doi.org/10.1136/adc.69.5_spec_no.483
86 https://doi.org/10.1136/adc.69.5_spec_no.488
87 https://doi.org/10.1136/fn.76.2.f101
88 https://doi.org/10.1136/fn.86.3.f178
89 https://doi.org/10.1136/fn.88.1.f52
90 https://doi.org/10.1136/gut.52.7.988
91 https://doi.org/10.1159/000063096
92 https://doi.org/10.1159/000097449
93 https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2004-1463
94 https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2004-2137
95 https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2005-0245
96 https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2007-3007
97 https://doi.org/10.2174/1381612053382359
98 https://doi.org/10.3945/ajcn.2008.26919
99 https://doi.org/10.3945/ajcn.2009.28625
100 schema:datePublished 2012-12
101 schema:datePublishedReg 2012-12-01
102 schema:description BACKGROUND: Previous reviews (2005 to 2009) on preterm infants given probiotics or prebiotics with breast milk or mixed feeds focused on prevention of Necrotizing Enterocolitis, sepsis and diarrhea. This review assessed if probiotics, prebiotics led to improved growth and clinical outcomes in formula fed preterm infants. METHODS: Cochrane methodology was followed using randomized controlled trials (RCTs) which compared preterm formula containing probiotic(s) or prebiotic(s) to conventional preterm formula in preterm infants. The mean difference (MD) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) were reported for continuous outcomes, risk ratio (RR) and corresponding 95% CI for dichotomous outcomes. Heterogeneity was assessed by visual inspection of forest plots and a chi² test. An I² test assessed inconsistencies across studies. I²> 50% represented substantial heterogeneity. RESULTS: Four probiotics studies (N=212), 4 prebiotics studies (N=126) were included. Probiotics: There were no significant differences in weight gain (MD 1.96, 95% CI: -2.64 to 6.56, 2 studies, n=34) or in maximal enteral feed (MD 35.20, 95% CI: -7.61 to 78.02, 2 studies, n=34), number of stools per day increased significantly in probiotic group (MD 1.60, 95% CI: 1.20 to 2.00, 1 study, n=20). Prebiotics: Galacto-oligosaccharide/Fructo-oligosaccharide (GOS/FOS) yielded no significant difference in weight gain (MD 0.04, 95% CI: -2.65 to 2.73, 2 studies, n=50), GOS/FOS yielded no significant differences in length gain (MD 0.01, 95% CI: -0.03 to 0.04, 2 studies, n=50). There were no significant differences in head growth (MD -0.01, 95% CI: -0.02 to 0.00, 2 studies, n=76) or age at full enteral feed (MD -0.79, 95% CI: -2.20 to 0.61, 2 studies, n=86). Stool frequency increased significantly in prebiotic group (MD 0.80, 95% CI: 0.48 to 1.1, 2 studies, n=86). GOS/FOS and FOS yielded higher bifidobacteria counts in prebiotics group (MD 2.10, 95% CI: 0.96 to 3.24, n=27) and (MD 0.48, 95% CI: 0.28 to 0.68, n=56). CONCLUSIONS: There is not enough evidence to state that supplementation with probiotics or prebiotics results in improved growth and clinical outcomes in exclusively formula fed preterm infants.
103 schema:genre research_article
104 schema:inLanguage en
105 schema:isAccessibleForFree true
106 schema:isPartOf N4232f5a728734753bc033078ae8b639e
107 Nf115ff6b07514a878c110f3a8b54bdf2
108 sg:journal.1031283
109 schema:name Probiotics, prebiotics infant formula use in preterm or low birth weight infants: a systematic review
110 schema:pagination 58
111 schema:productId N2853cc38a6ae435ebd9329db7301dca3
112 N84ec90f7901e4e7da2365ad48c5ce13c
113 Nc67780c7f8c647e085818aa413f4aae8
114 Ncd06c9f084854e7784df3eee8b289dc5
115 Ndb69644789024f6b9cb3107e91e2f712
116 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1038796593
117 https://doi.org/10.1186/1475-2891-11-58
118 schema:sdDatePublished 2019-04-10T16:03
119 schema:sdLicense https://scigraph.springernature.com/explorer/license/
120 schema:sdPublisher N6e0e5303920c48d5a7fe52d7f70071fa
121 schema:url http://link.springer.com/10.1186%2F1475-2891-11-58
122 sgo:license sg:explorer/license/
123 sgo:sdDataset articles
124 rdf:type schema:ScholarlyArticle
125 N0a4e5dc228764638ae14513a0668983b rdf:first sg:person.01023270234.96
126 rdf:rest rdf:nil
127 N19261c4aef804739b86427b3c9f4d6ad rdf:first sg:person.01276313472.81
128 rdf:rest N0a4e5dc228764638ae14513a0668983b
129 N19a8a5976cef4a6a9dcaa0dde00c3f74 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
130 schema:name Infant
131 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
132 N2853cc38a6ae435ebd9329db7301dca3 schema:name nlm_unique_id
133 schema:value 101152213
134 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
135 N314affbea6274c7a88bc4c71f31ca8c8 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
136 schema:name Child Development
137 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
138 N41df91d8f9b64b3eaf12934f3ec9e96d rdf:first sg:person.0705415066.07
139 rdf:rest N19261c4aef804739b86427b3c9f4d6ad
140 N4232f5a728734753bc033078ae8b639e schema:volumeNumber 11
141 rdf:type schema:PublicationVolume
142 N4af849bc8ef143c5868eb358b59f71f3 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
143 schema:name Infant, Newborn
144 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
145 N503565a930b34a1fa1c1deff4ffe676e schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
146 schema:name Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
147 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
148 N609a280f88644f3da16f31a097d6f35d schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
149 schema:name Evidence-Based Medicine
150 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
151 N68d6f2ccaabc4d5f82ea4195aaf1f8f3 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
152 schema:name Prebiotics
153 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
154 N6e0e5303920c48d5a7fe52d7f70071fa schema:name Springer Nature - SN SciGraph project
155 rdf:type schema:Organization
156 N706463ad125744c1a6ddef5698982357 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
157 schema:name Defecation
158 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
159 N82f57dedebd74baca6e44796a89ec2ff schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
160 schema:name Humans
161 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
162 N84ec90f7901e4e7da2365ad48c5ce13c schema:name doi
163 schema:value 10.1186/1475-2891-11-58
164 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
165 N9c94c032c6ea4a72a8fb118574da0ba5 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
166 schema:name Infant Formula
167 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
168 N9f28cccf9e3f434993c8be16adbe8ff0 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
169 schema:name Infant, Low Birth Weight
170 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
171 Nbbbb7034602843f9a80416636f97569e rdf:first sg:person.0676662444.02
172 rdf:rest Nd70b14ad496a45f180a6de1a94e95101
173 Nc67780c7f8c647e085818aa413f4aae8 schema:name dimensions_id
174 schema:value pub.1038796593
175 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
176 Ncd06c9f084854e7784df3eee8b289dc5 schema:name readcube_id
177 schema:value b8cf5459b8e3669cc32db6504d006c52a215dfe94c8776ebcd6edf1a7c3e6983
178 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
179 Nd70b14ad496a45f180a6de1a94e95101 rdf:first sg:person.0603400266.08
180 rdf:rest N41df91d8f9b64b3eaf12934f3ec9e96d
181 Ndb69644789024f6b9cb3107e91e2f712 schema:name pubmed_id
182 schema:value 22928998
183 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
184 Ndf9ae0bf66c64cf6a1906b4e7fe95c6b schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
185 schema:name Weight Gain
186 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
187 Ne3dfb0f8afd949fea4bbea7aeec31975 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
188 schema:name Probiotics
189 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
190 Nf08927c2299841f988d45efa24bfd622 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
191 schema:name Infant, Premature
192 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
193 Nf115ff6b07514a878c110f3a8b54bdf2 schema:issueNumber 1
194 rdf:type schema:PublicationIssue
195 Nf205a7a98547446fa50bbf0392d4525b schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
196 schema:name Energy Intake
197 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
198 anzsrc-for:11 schema:inDefinedTermSet anzsrc-for:
199 schema:name Medical and Health Sciences
200 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
201 anzsrc-for:1114 schema:inDefinedTermSet anzsrc-for:
202 schema:name Paediatrics and Reproductive Medicine
203 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
204 sg:journal.1031283 schema:issn 1475-2891
205 schema:name Nutrition Journal
206 rdf:type schema:Periodical
207 sg:person.01023270234.96 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.11956.3a
208 schema:familyName Blaauw
209 schema:givenName Reneé
210 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01023270234.96
211 rdf:type schema:Person
212 sg:person.01276313472.81 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.11956.3a
213 schema:familyName Young
214 schema:givenName Taryn
215 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01276313472.81
216 rdf:type schema:Person
217 sg:person.0603400266.08 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.11956.3a
218 schema:familyName Musekiwa
219 schema:givenName Alfred
220 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0603400266.08
221 rdf:type schema:Person
222 sg:person.0676662444.02 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.11956.3a
223 schema:familyName Mugambi
224 schema:givenName Mary N
225 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0676662444.02
226 rdf:type schema:Person
227 sg:person.0705415066.07 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.11956.3a
228 schema:familyName Lombard
229 schema:givenName Martani
230 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0705415066.07
231 rdf:type schema:Person
232 sg:pub.10.1007/978-1-61779-191-8_6 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1012611385
233 https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-61779-191-8_6
234 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
235 sg:pub.10.1007/s10620-006-9123-3 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1001121693
236 https://doi.org/10.1007/s10620-006-9123-3
237 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
238 sg:pub.10.1038/jp.2011.51 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1047795939
239 https://doi.org/10.1038/jp.2011.51
240 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
241 sg:pub.10.1186/1471-2431-8-46 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1002855687
242 https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2431-8-46
243 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
244 sg:pub.10.1203/pdr.0b013e318181b7fa schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1032351473
245 https://doi.org/10.1203/pdr.0b013e318181b7fa
246 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
247 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1076591839 schema:CreativeWork
248 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1076591845 schema:CreativeWork
249 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1109246181 schema:CreativeWork
250 https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.cd004827.pub3 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1027252743
251 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
252 https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.cd005496.pub3 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1008669876
253 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
254 https://doi.org/10.1002/9780470712184 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1109246181
255 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
256 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clnu.2004.09.005 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1037148520
257 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
258 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clp.2008.09.010 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1002534122
259 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
260 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.earlhumdev.2006.07.003 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1008948017
261 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
262 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.earlhumdev.2006.12.002 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1008105886
263 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
264 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.idairyj.2007.01.014 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1042963457
265 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
266 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2005.08.019 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1032224224
267 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
268 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpeds.2005.03.054 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1012317020
269 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
270 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpeds.2007.11.005 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1031967511
271 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
272 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpeds.2009.09.006 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1008608554
273 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
274 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpeds.2009.09.051 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1002704447
275 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
276 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0140-6736(07)60748-x schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1044425014
277 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
278 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0271-5317(01)00395-5 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1006936986
279 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
280 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0378-3782(03)00090-2 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1032650268
281 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
282 https://doi.org/10.1016/s1201-9712(99)90024-3 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1044195833
283 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
284 https://doi.org/10.1016/s1521-6918(03)00074-x schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1010938387
285 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
286 https://doi.org/10.1017/cbo9780511545672.003 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1021487014
287 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
288 https://doi.org/10.1017/s0007114508981447 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1021136525
289 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
290 https://doi.org/10.1017/s0007114509289069 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1048623934
291 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
292 https://doi.org/10.1017/s0007114510003405 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1012972326
293 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
294 https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-3083.2002.01005.x schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1046246151
295 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
296 https://doi.org/10.1079/bjn20041357 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1009444401
297 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
298 https://doi.org/10.1080/08035250500486652 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1058341505
299 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
300 https://doi.org/10.1080/08035320510043529 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1058341904
301 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
302 https://doi.org/10.1080/08035320510043853 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1058341924
303 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
304 https://doi.org/10.1080/08910600310014377 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1058345807
305 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
306 https://doi.org/10.1086/504324 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1005094764
307 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
308 https://doi.org/10.1089/bfm.2008.0114 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1041939659
309 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
310 https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/22.7.845 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1081348037
311 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
312 https://doi.org/10.1093/jn/137.11.2568s schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1077504068
313 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
314 https://doi.org/10.1093/jn/137.11.2585s schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1077504072
315 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
316 https://doi.org/10.1093/tropej/fmn091 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1060060715
317 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
318 https://doi.org/10.1097/00001574-200403000-00017 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1028515686
319 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
320 https://doi.org/10.1097/00005176-200303000-00019 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1035367553
321 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
322 https://doi.org/10.1097/00005176-200404000-00001 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1018597495
323 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
324 https://doi.org/10.1097/00005176-200404000-00017 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1012676666
325 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
326 https://doi.org/10.1097/00006454-198611000-00013 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1041941545
327 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
328 https://doi.org/10.1097/01.mpg.0000252184.89922.5f schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1052876439
329 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
330 https://doi.org/10.1097/01.nt.0000303311.36663.39 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1036343681
331 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
332 https://doi.org/10.1097/inf.0b013e3181c36eb9 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1044008075
333 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
334 https://doi.org/10.1097/mog.0b013e3282f0cffc schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1008424042
335 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
336 https://doi.org/10.1097/mpg.0b013e3181344694 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1053151539
337 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
338 https://doi.org/10.1097/mpg.0b013e31815affec schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1006993664
339 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
340 https://doi.org/10.1097/mpg.0b013e31818de195 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1042179042
341 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
342 https://doi.org/10.1097/mpg.0b013e3181926aec schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1006343628
343 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
344 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2249.2007.03587.x schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1031031961
345 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
346 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2672.2006.02963.x schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1025627650
347 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
348 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2672.2007.03520.x schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1020292254
349 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
350 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1651-2227.2003.tb00476.x schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1027301599
351 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
352 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1651-2227.2003.tb00648.x schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1051450430
353 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
354 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1651-2227.2003.tb00654.x schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1003760812
355 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
356 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1651-2227.2005.tb02152.x schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1026127341
357 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
358 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1651-2227.2005.tb02153.x schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1028337468
359 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
360 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1651-2227.2006.tb02351.x schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1016550567
361 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
362 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1742-1241.2004.00353.x schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1022295248
363 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
364 https://doi.org/10.1128/jcm.00767-06 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1037224050
365 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
366 https://doi.org/10.1136/adc.2007.115824 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1052937797
367 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
368 https://doi.org/10.1136/adc.69.5_spec_no.483 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1042867667
369 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
370 https://doi.org/10.1136/adc.69.5_spec_no.488 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1009476279
371 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
372 https://doi.org/10.1136/fn.76.2.f101 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1003955282
373 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
374 https://doi.org/10.1136/fn.86.3.f178 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1000509797
375 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
376 https://doi.org/10.1136/fn.88.1.f52 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1004347635
377 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
378 https://doi.org/10.1136/gut.52.7.988 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1010235559
379 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
380 https://doi.org/10.1159/000063096 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1016496372
381 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
382 https://doi.org/10.1159/000097449 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1016172346
383 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
384 https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2004-1463 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1076987788
385 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
386 https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2004-2137 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1076987815
387 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
388 https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2005-0245 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1067824218
389 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
390 https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2007-3007 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1067826658
391 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
392 https://doi.org/10.2174/1381612053382359 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1069165467
393 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
394 https://doi.org/10.3945/ajcn.2008.26919 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1011895149
395 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
396 https://doi.org/10.3945/ajcn.2009.28625 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1053114395
397 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
398 https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.11956.3a schema:alternateName Stellenbosch University
399 schema:name Centre for Evidence-Based Health Care, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Tygerberg, South Africa
400 Division of Human Nutrition, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, P.O Box 19063, 7505, Tygerberg, South Africa
401 Wits Reproductive Health & HIV Institute (WRHI), Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa
402 rdf:type schema:Organization
 




Preview window. Press ESC to close (or click here)


...