A systematic review of barriers to and facilitators of the use of evidence by policymakers View Full Text


Ontology type: schema:ScholarlyArticle      Open Access: True


Article Info

DATE

2014-12

AUTHORS

Kathryn Oliver, Simon Innvar, Theo Lorenc, Jenny Woodman, James Thomas

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The gap between research and practice or policy is often described as a problem. To identify new barriers of and facilitators to the use of evidence by policymakers, and assess the state of research in this area, we updated a systematic review. METHODS: Systematic review. We searched online databases including Medline, Embase, SocSci Abstracts, CDS, DARE, Psychlit, Cochrane Library, NHSEED, HTA, PAIS, IBSS (Search dates: July 2000 - September 2012). Studies were included if they were primary research or systematic reviews about factors affecting the use of evidence in policy. Studies were coded to extract data on methods, topic, focus, results and population. RESULTS: 145 new studies were identified, of which over half were published after 2010. Thirteen systematic reviews were included. Compared with the original review, a much wider range of policy topics was found. Although still primarily in the health field, studies were also drawn from criminal justice, traffic policy, drug policy, and partnership working. The most frequently reported barriers to evidence uptake were poor access to good quality relevant research, and lack of timely research output. The most frequently reported facilitators were collaboration between researchers and policymakers, and improved relationships and skills. There is an increasing amount of research into new models of knowledge transfer, and evaluations of interventions such as knowledge brokerage. CONCLUSIONS: Timely access to good quality and relevant research evidence, collaborations with policymakers and relationship- and skills-building with policymakers are reported to be the most important factors in influencing the use of evidence. Although investigations into the use of evidence have spread beyond the health field and into more countries, the main barriers and facilitators remained the same as in the earlier review. Few studies provide clear definitions of policy, evidence or policymaker. Nor are empirical data about policy processes or implementation of policy widely available. It is therefore difficult to describe the role of evidence and other factors influencing policy. Future research and policy priorities should aim to illuminate these concepts and processes, target the factors identified in this review, and consider new methods of overcoming the barriers described. More... »

PAGES

2

References to SciGraph publications

  • 2011-12. Interventions encouraging the use of systematic reviews by health policymakers and managers: A systematic review in IMPLEMENTATION SCIENCE
  • 2012-06. Use of evidence in local public health work in Denmark in INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PUBLIC HEALTH
  • 2008-07. Research and Knowledge in Ontario Tobacco Control Networks in CANADIAN JOURNAL OF PUBLIC HEALTH
  • 2012-12. Use of health systems and policy research evidence in the health policymaking in eastern Mediterranean countries: views and practices of researchers in IMPLEMENTATION SCIENCE
  • 2009-12. A description of a knowledge broker role implemented as part of a randomized controlled trial evaluating three knowledge translation strategies in IMPLEMENTATION SCIENCE
  • 2007-12. Factors influencing the utilization of research findings by health policy-makers in a developing country: the selection of Mali's essential medicines in HEALTH RESEARCH POLICY AND SYSTEMS
  • 2005-12. Translating research into policy and practice in developing countries: a case study of magnesium sulphate for pre-eclampsia in BMC HEALTH SERVICES RESEARCH
  • 2007-12. Health systems research in Lao PDR: capacity development for getting research into policy and practice in HEALTH RESEARCH POLICY AND SYSTEMS
  • 2009-12. The use of evidence in public governmental reports on health policy: an analysis of 17 Norwegian official reports (NOU) in BMC HEALTH SERVICES RESEARCH
  • 2011-12. Getting research into policy - Herpes simplex virus type-2 (HSV-2) treatment and HIV infection: international guidelines formulation and the case of Ghana in HEALTH RESEARCH POLICY AND SYSTEMS
  • 2011-12. Effective implementation of research into practice: an overview of systematic reviews of the health literature in BMC RESEARCH NOTES
  • 2011-12. National policy development for cotrimoxazole prophylaxis in Malawi, Uganda and Zambia: the relationship between Context, Evidence and Links in HEALTH RESEARCH POLICY AND SYSTEMS
  • Identifiers

    URI

    http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1186/1472-6963-14-2

    DOI

    http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1472-6963-14-2

    DIMENSIONS

    https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1004348632

    PUBMED

    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24383766


    Indexing Status Check whether this publication has been indexed by Scopus and Web Of Science using the SN Indexing Status Tool
    Incoming Citations Browse incoming citations for this publication using opencitations.net

    JSON-LD is the canonical representation for SciGraph data.

    TIP: You can open this SciGraph record using an external JSON-LD service: JSON-LD Playground Google SDTT

    [
      {
        "@context": "https://springernature.github.io/scigraph/jsonld/sgcontext.json", 
        "about": [
          {
            "id": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/1117", 
            "inDefinedTermSet": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/", 
            "name": "Public Health and Health Services", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/11", 
            "inDefinedTermSet": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/", 
            "name": "Medical and Health Sciences", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Administrative Personnel", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Evidence-Based Practice", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Health Services Research", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Humans", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Policy Making", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }
        ], 
        "author": [
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "University of Manchester", 
              "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.5379.8", 
              "name": [
                "School of Social Sciences, University of Manchester, Bridgeford Street, M13 9PL, Manchester, UK"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Oliver", 
            "givenName": "Kathryn", 
            "id": "sg:person.01002216661.80", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01002216661.80"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "OsloMet \u2013 Oslo Metropolitan University", 
              "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.412414.6", 
              "name": [
                "Faculty of Social Sciences, Oslo University College, P.B. 4, St. Olavs Plass, NO-0130, Oslo, Norway"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Innvar", 
            "givenName": "Simon", 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "University College London", 
              "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.83440.3b", 
              "name": [
                "Department of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Public Policy (UCL STEaPP), University College London, 66-72 Gower Street, WC1E 6EA, London, UK"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Lorenc", 
            "givenName": "Theo", 
            "id": "sg:person.01317620641.74", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01317620641.74"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "University College London", 
              "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.83440.3b", 
              "name": [
                "MRC Centre of Epidemiology for Child Health, Institute of Child Health, WC1N 1EH, London, UK"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Woodman", 
            "givenName": "Jenny", 
            "id": "sg:person.01106726637.33", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01106726637.33"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "University College London", 
              "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.83440.3b", 
              "name": [
                "University of London, Institute of Education, 20 Bedford Way, WC1H 0AL, London, UK"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Thomas", 
            "givenName": "James", 
            "id": "sg:person.013365141024.91", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.013365141024.91"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }
        ], 
        "citation": [
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1017/s0266462300105069", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1000944542"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2011.03.032", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1001121779"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1093/jnci/djq529", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1001504827"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1186/1748-5908-6-43", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1002946677", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1186/1748-5908-6-43"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1186/1472-6963-5-68", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1005616183", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1186/1472-6963-5-68"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1332/174426412x6201371", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1006216440"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1093/heapol/czm013", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1007684451"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1186/1748-5908-4-23", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1007752145", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1186/1748-5908-4-23"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2010.09.051", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1012063834"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1541-1338.2012.00581.x", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1012630178"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1185/03007990802442695", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1013338243"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.cd009401.pub2", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1013608839"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1332/174426411x553034", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1016464593"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1017/s0047279410000723", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1017150942"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1186/1748-5908-7-2", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1017456761", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1186/1748-5908-7-2"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1332/174426411x603434", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1019398150"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.drugpo.2007.11.017", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1020397476"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.puhe.2011.01.001", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1020874233"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jval.2011.08.646", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1022648431"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1177/1098214011401902", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1022812880"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1177/1098214011401902", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1022812880"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-0009.2011.00643.x", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1023225594"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/s00038-011-0324-y", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1023823380", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/s00038-011-0324-y"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1186/1756-0500-4-212", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1024329300", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1186/1756-0500-4-212"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2005.10.004", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1024727832"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2005.10.004", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1024727832"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1186/1478-4505-9-s1-s5", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1024864858", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1186/1478-4505-9-s1-s5"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1093/pubmed/fdt039", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1025025511"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1471-1842.2011.00969.x", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1025968092"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1093/her/15.6.743", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1026150822"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2008.12.006", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1027356099"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1093/pubmed/fdm065", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1028266992"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-0009.2009.00583.x", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1029267663"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-0009.2009.00583.x", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1029267663"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1741-3729.2008.00549.x", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1029379905"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1741-3729.2008.00549.x", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1029379905"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1524-4733.2007.00298.x", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1029409521"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2011.09.022", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1030594001"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1093/heapro/dah201", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1030914251"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.evalprogplan.2011.02.003", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1031127104"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001249", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1031765573"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1186/1472-6963-9-177", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1031817630", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1186/1472-6963-9-177"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph7020651", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1036583660"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1258/1355819054308549", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1037251746"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1258/1355819054308549", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1037251746"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1186/1478-4505-5-11", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1037392150", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1186/1478-4505-5-11"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.healthpol.2007.09.002", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1037618965"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-0009.2008.00519.x", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1039377470"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1332/174426410x483006", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1039576908"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1177/1098214011405311", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1040984042"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1177/1098214011405311", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1040984042"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2011.09.021", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1041349698"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1360-0443.2010.03157.x", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1041525671"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1360-0443.2010.03157.x", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1041525671"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2011.01.034", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1042022843"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0021704", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1043917632"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1093/heapol/czq020", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1044986290"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.healthpol.2012.02.013", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1045557983"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1136/jech.2003.015289", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1047260814"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1258/135581902320432778", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1047668271"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1258/135581902320432778", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1047668271"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2006.04.020", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1048229069"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.322.7280.222", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1048566740"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1186/1478-4505-9-s1-s6", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1049796970", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1186/1478-4505-9-s1-s6"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1541-0072.2005.00093.x", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1049862487"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1186/1478-4505-5-2", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1050807728", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1186/1478-4505-5-2"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0195-9255(03)00070-2", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1051795696"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0195-9255(03)00070-2", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1051795696"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1093/jopart/mur040", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1059823444"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1177/1744987110392627", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1064072158"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1177/1744987110392627", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1064072158"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.14236/jhi.v11i4.566", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1067225722"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.18553/jmcp.2003.9.2.159", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1068660353"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.2105/ajph.2009.184713", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1068844881"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.2105/ajph.94.3.406", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1068879498"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.2307/3109916", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1070202686"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.3310/hta12070", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1071139011"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1074965407", 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1077058447", 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1077721060", 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/bf03403759", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1077721060", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/bf03403759"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.4135/9781849209120", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1095899839"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.4135/9781849209120", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1095899839"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }
        ], 
        "datePublished": "2014-12", 
        "datePublishedReg": "2014-12-01", 
        "description": "BACKGROUND: The gap between research and practice or policy is often described as a problem. To identify new barriers of and facilitators to the use of evidence by policymakers, and assess the state of research in this area, we updated a systematic review.\nMETHODS: Systematic review. We searched online databases including Medline, Embase, SocSci Abstracts, CDS, DARE, Psychlit, Cochrane Library, NHSEED, HTA, PAIS, IBSS (Search dates: July 2000 - September 2012). Studies were included if they were primary research or systematic reviews about factors affecting the use of evidence in policy. Studies were coded to extract data on methods, topic, focus, results and population.\nRESULTS: 145 new studies were identified, of which over half were published after 2010. Thirteen systematic reviews were included. Compared with the original review, a much wider range of policy topics was found. Although still primarily in the health field, studies were also drawn from criminal justice, traffic policy, drug policy, and partnership working. The most frequently reported barriers to evidence uptake were poor access to good quality relevant research, and lack of timely research output. The most frequently reported facilitators were collaboration between researchers and policymakers, and improved relationships and skills. There is an increasing amount of research into new models of knowledge transfer, and evaluations of interventions such as knowledge brokerage.\nCONCLUSIONS: Timely access to good quality and relevant research evidence, collaborations with policymakers and relationship- and skills-building with policymakers are reported to be the most important factors in influencing the use of evidence. Although investigations into the use of evidence have spread beyond the health field and into more countries, the main barriers and facilitators remained the same as in the earlier review. Few studies provide clear definitions of policy, evidence or policymaker. Nor are empirical data about policy processes or implementation of policy widely available. It is therefore difficult to describe the role of evidence and other factors influencing policy. Future research and policy priorities should aim to illuminate these concepts and processes, target the factors identified in this review, and consider new methods of overcoming the barriers described.", 
        "genre": "research_article", 
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1186/1472-6963-14-2", 
        "inLanguage": [
          "en"
        ], 
        "isAccessibleForFree": true, 
        "isFundedItemOf": [
          {
            "id": "sg:grant.3770700", 
            "type": "MonetaryGrant"
          }
        ], 
        "isPartOf": [
          {
            "id": "sg:journal.1327417", 
            "issn": [
              "1472-6963"
            ], 
            "name": "BMC Health Services Research", 
            "type": "Periodical"
          }, 
          {
            "issueNumber": "1", 
            "type": "PublicationIssue"
          }, 
          {
            "type": "PublicationVolume", 
            "volumeNumber": "14"
          }
        ], 
        "name": "A systematic review of barriers to and facilitators of the use of evidence by policymakers", 
        "pagination": "2", 
        "productId": [
          {
            "name": "readcube_id", 
            "type": "PropertyValue", 
            "value": [
              "14b891bb5067cc20e0be15e1d0246b3f09a74b3844a0e8e7e13d49ad7445cbb8"
            ]
          }, 
          {
            "name": "pubmed_id", 
            "type": "PropertyValue", 
            "value": [
              "24383766"
            ]
          }, 
          {
            "name": "nlm_unique_id", 
            "type": "PropertyValue", 
            "value": [
              "101088677"
            ]
          }, 
          {
            "name": "doi", 
            "type": "PropertyValue", 
            "value": [
              "10.1186/1472-6963-14-2"
            ]
          }, 
          {
            "name": "dimensions_id", 
            "type": "PropertyValue", 
            "value": [
              "pub.1004348632"
            ]
          }
        ], 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://doi.org/10.1186/1472-6963-14-2", 
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1004348632"
        ], 
        "sdDataset": "articles", 
        "sdDatePublished": "2019-04-10T19:15", 
        "sdLicense": "https://scigraph.springernature.com/explorer/license/", 
        "sdPublisher": {
          "name": "Springer Nature - SN SciGraph project", 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "sdSource": "s3://com-uberresearch-data-dimensions-target-20181106-alternative/cleanup/v134/2549eaecd7973599484d7c17b260dba0a4ecb94b/merge/v9/a6c9fde33151104705d4d7ff012ea9563521a3ce/jats-lookup/v90/0000000001_0000000264/records_8678_00000549.jsonl", 
        "type": "ScholarlyArticle", 
        "url": "http://link.springer.com/10.1186%2F1472-6963-14-2"
      }
    ]
     

    Download the RDF metadata as:  json-ld nt turtle xml License info

    HOW TO GET THIS DATA PROGRAMMATICALLY:

    JSON-LD is a popular format for linked data which is fully compatible with JSON.

    curl -H 'Accept: application/ld+json' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1186/1472-6963-14-2'

    N-Triples is a line-based linked data format ideal for batch operations.

    curl -H 'Accept: application/n-triples' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1186/1472-6963-14-2'

    Turtle is a human-readable linked data format.

    curl -H 'Accept: text/turtle' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1186/1472-6963-14-2'

    RDF/XML is a standard XML format for linked data.

    curl -H 'Accept: application/rdf+xml' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1186/1472-6963-14-2'


     

    This table displays all metadata directly associated to this object as RDF triples.

    350 TRIPLES      21 PREDICATES      106 URIs      26 LITERALS      14 BLANK NODES

    Subject Predicate Object
    1 sg:pub.10.1186/1472-6963-14-2 schema:about N52c2334d86a34dd49430a3c6e506f604
    2 N5e4410a1e9fb447cbce8ad82bc5b2504
    3 N7b38d3038446479d9b388fc9bd9b170c
    4 N8d896920e53e402a9a7e5c3559a1f11d
    5 Nda34d893109b4c9ea044a636a43dcdda
    6 anzsrc-for:11
    7 anzsrc-for:1117
    8 schema:author Ndc49a9efb3c14e0a842f96ac7a04ebe0
    9 schema:citation sg:pub.10.1007/bf03403759
    10 sg:pub.10.1007/s00038-011-0324-y
    11 sg:pub.10.1186/1472-6963-5-68
    12 sg:pub.10.1186/1472-6963-9-177
    13 sg:pub.10.1186/1478-4505-5-11
    14 sg:pub.10.1186/1478-4505-5-2
    15 sg:pub.10.1186/1478-4505-9-s1-s5
    16 sg:pub.10.1186/1478-4505-9-s1-s6
    17 sg:pub.10.1186/1748-5908-4-23
    18 sg:pub.10.1186/1748-5908-6-43
    19 sg:pub.10.1186/1748-5908-7-2
    20 sg:pub.10.1186/1756-0500-4-212
    21 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1074965407
    22 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1077058447
    23 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1077721060
    24 https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.cd009401.pub2
    25 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2008.12.006
    26 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.drugpo.2007.11.017
    27 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.evalprogplan.2011.02.003
    28 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.healthpol.2007.09.002
    29 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.healthpol.2012.02.013
    30 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2011.03.032
    31 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2011.09.022
    32 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jval.2011.08.646
    33 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.puhe.2011.01.001
    34 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2005.10.004
    35 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2006.04.020
    36 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2010.09.051
    37 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2011.01.034
    38 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2011.09.021
    39 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0195-9255(03)00070-2
    40 https://doi.org/10.1017/s0047279410000723
    41 https://doi.org/10.1017/s0266462300105069
    42 https://doi.org/10.1093/heapol/czm013
    43 https://doi.org/10.1093/heapol/czq020
    44 https://doi.org/10.1093/heapro/dah201
    45 https://doi.org/10.1093/her/15.6.743
    46 https://doi.org/10.1093/jnci/djq529
    47 https://doi.org/10.1093/jopart/mur040
    48 https://doi.org/10.1093/pubmed/fdm065
    49 https://doi.org/10.1093/pubmed/fdt039
    50 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1360-0443.2010.03157.x
    51 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-0009.2008.00519.x
    52 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-0009.2009.00583.x
    53 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-0009.2011.00643.x
    54 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1471-1842.2011.00969.x
    55 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1524-4733.2007.00298.x
    56 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1541-0072.2005.00093.x
    57 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1541-1338.2012.00581.x
    58 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1741-3729.2008.00549.x
    59 https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.322.7280.222
    60 https://doi.org/10.1136/jech.2003.015289
    61 https://doi.org/10.1177/1098214011401902
    62 https://doi.org/10.1177/1098214011405311
    63 https://doi.org/10.1177/1744987110392627
    64 https://doi.org/10.1185/03007990802442695
    65 https://doi.org/10.1258/135581902320432778
    66 https://doi.org/10.1258/1355819054308549
    67 https://doi.org/10.1332/174426410x483006
    68 https://doi.org/10.1332/174426411x553034
    69 https://doi.org/10.1332/174426411x603434
    70 https://doi.org/10.1332/174426412x6201371
    71 https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001249
    72 https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0021704
    73 https://doi.org/10.14236/jhi.v11i4.566
    74 https://doi.org/10.18553/jmcp.2003.9.2.159
    75 https://doi.org/10.2105/ajph.2009.184713
    76 https://doi.org/10.2105/ajph.94.3.406
    77 https://doi.org/10.2307/3109916
    78 https://doi.org/10.3310/hta12070
    79 https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph7020651
    80 https://doi.org/10.4135/9781849209120
    81 schema:datePublished 2014-12
    82 schema:datePublishedReg 2014-12-01
    83 schema:description BACKGROUND: The gap between research and practice or policy is often described as a problem. To identify new barriers of and facilitators to the use of evidence by policymakers, and assess the state of research in this area, we updated a systematic review. METHODS: Systematic review. We searched online databases including Medline, Embase, SocSci Abstracts, CDS, DARE, Psychlit, Cochrane Library, NHSEED, HTA, PAIS, IBSS (Search dates: July 2000 - September 2012). Studies were included if they were primary research or systematic reviews about factors affecting the use of evidence in policy. Studies were coded to extract data on methods, topic, focus, results and population. RESULTS: 145 new studies were identified, of which over half were published after 2010. Thirteen systematic reviews were included. Compared with the original review, a much wider range of policy topics was found. Although still primarily in the health field, studies were also drawn from criminal justice, traffic policy, drug policy, and partnership working. The most frequently reported barriers to evidence uptake were poor access to good quality relevant research, and lack of timely research output. The most frequently reported facilitators were collaboration between researchers and policymakers, and improved relationships and skills. There is an increasing amount of research into new models of knowledge transfer, and evaluations of interventions such as knowledge brokerage. CONCLUSIONS: Timely access to good quality and relevant research evidence, collaborations with policymakers and relationship- and skills-building with policymakers are reported to be the most important factors in influencing the use of evidence. Although investigations into the use of evidence have spread beyond the health field and into more countries, the main barriers and facilitators remained the same as in the earlier review. Few studies provide clear definitions of policy, evidence or policymaker. Nor are empirical data about policy processes or implementation of policy widely available. It is therefore difficult to describe the role of evidence and other factors influencing policy. Future research and policy priorities should aim to illuminate these concepts and processes, target the factors identified in this review, and consider new methods of overcoming the barriers described.
    84 schema:genre research_article
    85 schema:inLanguage en
    86 schema:isAccessibleForFree true
    87 schema:isPartOf N06d0d0f27a914474997e50f4ff943e27
    88 Nd7157dc5e5fc4c7eaa35997362c6beec
    89 sg:journal.1327417
    90 schema:name A systematic review of barriers to and facilitators of the use of evidence by policymakers
    91 schema:pagination 2
    92 schema:productId N313289cc793e47d3809d18224233b217
    93 N6af13e23610c4301b642d88e2ac65396
    94 Na766f02061c64870b5b7a803434e519d
    95 Nda9b73e810a448cda852877a18060fe5
    96 Nf156385a812d410da2747cf2ce738804
    97 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1004348632
    98 https://doi.org/10.1186/1472-6963-14-2
    99 schema:sdDatePublished 2019-04-10T19:15
    100 schema:sdLicense https://scigraph.springernature.com/explorer/license/
    101 schema:sdPublisher N395e76edec5948b0921ba24fabe32453
    102 schema:url http://link.springer.com/10.1186%2F1472-6963-14-2
    103 sgo:license sg:explorer/license/
    104 sgo:sdDataset articles
    105 rdf:type schema:ScholarlyArticle
    106 N06d0d0f27a914474997e50f4ff943e27 schema:volumeNumber 14
    107 rdf:type schema:PublicationVolume
    108 N24d3c4f918044dbb833bfba98068e591 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.412414.6
    109 schema:familyName Innvar
    110 schema:givenName Simon
    111 rdf:type schema:Person
    112 N313289cc793e47d3809d18224233b217 schema:name readcube_id
    113 schema:value 14b891bb5067cc20e0be15e1d0246b3f09a74b3844a0e8e7e13d49ad7445cbb8
    114 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
    115 N395e76edec5948b0921ba24fabe32453 schema:name Springer Nature - SN SciGraph project
    116 rdf:type schema:Organization
    117 N52c2334d86a34dd49430a3c6e506f604 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    118 schema:name Administrative Personnel
    119 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    120 N5e4410a1e9fb447cbce8ad82bc5b2504 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    121 schema:name Health Services Research
    122 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    123 N6af13e23610c4301b642d88e2ac65396 schema:name doi
    124 schema:value 10.1186/1472-6963-14-2
    125 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
    126 N7b38d3038446479d9b388fc9bd9b170c schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    127 schema:name Evidence-Based Practice
    128 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    129 N7bd2e20f6ee04629b380855ba688d925 rdf:first sg:person.01106726637.33
    130 rdf:rest N7dda524768a34bd2a56bcdb1f8e4fe15
    131 N7dda524768a34bd2a56bcdb1f8e4fe15 rdf:first sg:person.013365141024.91
    132 rdf:rest rdf:nil
    133 N8d896920e53e402a9a7e5c3559a1f11d schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    134 schema:name Policy Making
    135 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    136 Na766f02061c64870b5b7a803434e519d schema:name nlm_unique_id
    137 schema:value 101088677
    138 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
    139 Nb308dc9713724066abb07bb5652f4b78 rdf:first sg:person.01317620641.74
    140 rdf:rest N7bd2e20f6ee04629b380855ba688d925
    141 Nd7157dc5e5fc4c7eaa35997362c6beec schema:issueNumber 1
    142 rdf:type schema:PublicationIssue
    143 Nda34d893109b4c9ea044a636a43dcdda schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    144 schema:name Humans
    145 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    146 Nda9b73e810a448cda852877a18060fe5 schema:name pubmed_id
    147 schema:value 24383766
    148 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
    149 Ndc49a9efb3c14e0a842f96ac7a04ebe0 rdf:first sg:person.01002216661.80
    150 rdf:rest Nea1c40740b574c4288631d740163a4c1
    151 Nea1c40740b574c4288631d740163a4c1 rdf:first N24d3c4f918044dbb833bfba98068e591
    152 rdf:rest Nb308dc9713724066abb07bb5652f4b78
    153 Nf156385a812d410da2747cf2ce738804 schema:name dimensions_id
    154 schema:value pub.1004348632
    155 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
    156 anzsrc-for:11 schema:inDefinedTermSet anzsrc-for:
    157 schema:name Medical and Health Sciences
    158 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    159 anzsrc-for:1117 schema:inDefinedTermSet anzsrc-for:
    160 schema:name Public Health and Health Services
    161 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    162 sg:grant.3770700 http://pending.schema.org/fundedItem sg:pub.10.1186/1472-6963-14-2
    163 rdf:type schema:MonetaryGrant
    164 sg:journal.1327417 schema:issn 1472-6963
    165 schema:name BMC Health Services Research
    166 rdf:type schema:Periodical
    167 sg:person.01002216661.80 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.5379.8
    168 schema:familyName Oliver
    169 schema:givenName Kathryn
    170 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01002216661.80
    171 rdf:type schema:Person
    172 sg:person.01106726637.33 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.83440.3b
    173 schema:familyName Woodman
    174 schema:givenName Jenny
    175 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01106726637.33
    176 rdf:type schema:Person
    177 sg:person.01317620641.74 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.83440.3b
    178 schema:familyName Lorenc
    179 schema:givenName Theo
    180 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01317620641.74
    181 rdf:type schema:Person
    182 sg:person.013365141024.91 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.83440.3b
    183 schema:familyName Thomas
    184 schema:givenName James
    185 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.013365141024.91
    186 rdf:type schema:Person
    187 sg:pub.10.1007/bf03403759 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1077721060
    188 https://doi.org/10.1007/bf03403759
    189 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    190 sg:pub.10.1007/s00038-011-0324-y schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1023823380
    191 https://doi.org/10.1007/s00038-011-0324-y
    192 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    193 sg:pub.10.1186/1472-6963-5-68 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1005616183
    194 https://doi.org/10.1186/1472-6963-5-68
    195 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    196 sg:pub.10.1186/1472-6963-9-177 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1031817630
    197 https://doi.org/10.1186/1472-6963-9-177
    198 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    199 sg:pub.10.1186/1478-4505-5-11 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1037392150
    200 https://doi.org/10.1186/1478-4505-5-11
    201 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    202 sg:pub.10.1186/1478-4505-5-2 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1050807728
    203 https://doi.org/10.1186/1478-4505-5-2
    204 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    205 sg:pub.10.1186/1478-4505-9-s1-s5 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1024864858
    206 https://doi.org/10.1186/1478-4505-9-s1-s5
    207 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    208 sg:pub.10.1186/1478-4505-9-s1-s6 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1049796970
    209 https://doi.org/10.1186/1478-4505-9-s1-s6
    210 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    211 sg:pub.10.1186/1748-5908-4-23 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1007752145
    212 https://doi.org/10.1186/1748-5908-4-23
    213 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    214 sg:pub.10.1186/1748-5908-6-43 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1002946677
    215 https://doi.org/10.1186/1748-5908-6-43
    216 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    217 sg:pub.10.1186/1748-5908-7-2 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1017456761
    218 https://doi.org/10.1186/1748-5908-7-2
    219 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    220 sg:pub.10.1186/1756-0500-4-212 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1024329300
    221 https://doi.org/10.1186/1756-0500-4-212
    222 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    223 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1074965407 schema:CreativeWork
    224 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1077058447 schema:CreativeWork
    225 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1077721060 schema:CreativeWork
    226 https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.cd009401.pub2 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1013608839
    227 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    228 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2008.12.006 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1027356099
    229 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    230 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.drugpo.2007.11.017 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1020397476
    231 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    232 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.evalprogplan.2011.02.003 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1031127104
    233 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    234 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.healthpol.2007.09.002 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1037618965
    235 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    236 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.healthpol.2012.02.013 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1045557983
    237 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    238 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2011.03.032 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1001121779
    239 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    240 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2011.09.022 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1030594001
    241 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    242 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jval.2011.08.646 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1022648431
    243 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    244 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.puhe.2011.01.001 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1020874233
    245 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    246 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2005.10.004 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1024727832
    247 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    248 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2006.04.020 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1048229069
    249 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    250 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2010.09.051 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1012063834
    251 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    252 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2011.01.034 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1042022843
    253 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    254 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2011.09.021 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1041349698
    255 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    256 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0195-9255(03)00070-2 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1051795696
    257 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    258 https://doi.org/10.1017/s0047279410000723 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1017150942
    259 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    260 https://doi.org/10.1017/s0266462300105069 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1000944542
    261 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    262 https://doi.org/10.1093/heapol/czm013 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1007684451
    263 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    264 https://doi.org/10.1093/heapol/czq020 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1044986290
    265 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    266 https://doi.org/10.1093/heapro/dah201 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1030914251
    267 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    268 https://doi.org/10.1093/her/15.6.743 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1026150822
    269 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    270 https://doi.org/10.1093/jnci/djq529 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1001504827
    271 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    272 https://doi.org/10.1093/jopart/mur040 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1059823444
    273 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    274 https://doi.org/10.1093/pubmed/fdm065 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1028266992
    275 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    276 https://doi.org/10.1093/pubmed/fdt039 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1025025511
    277 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    278 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1360-0443.2010.03157.x schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1041525671
    279 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    280 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-0009.2008.00519.x schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1039377470
    281 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    282 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-0009.2009.00583.x schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1029267663
    283 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    284 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-0009.2011.00643.x schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1023225594
    285 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    286 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1471-1842.2011.00969.x schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1025968092
    287 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    288 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1524-4733.2007.00298.x schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1029409521
    289 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    290 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1541-0072.2005.00093.x schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1049862487
    291 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    292 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1541-1338.2012.00581.x schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1012630178
    293 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    294 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1741-3729.2008.00549.x schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1029379905
    295 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    296 https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.322.7280.222 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1048566740
    297 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    298 https://doi.org/10.1136/jech.2003.015289 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1047260814
    299 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    300 https://doi.org/10.1177/1098214011401902 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1022812880
    301 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    302 https://doi.org/10.1177/1098214011405311 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1040984042
    303 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    304 https://doi.org/10.1177/1744987110392627 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1064072158
    305 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    306 https://doi.org/10.1185/03007990802442695 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1013338243
    307 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    308 https://doi.org/10.1258/135581902320432778 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1047668271
    309 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    310 https://doi.org/10.1258/1355819054308549 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1037251746
    311 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    312 https://doi.org/10.1332/174426410x483006 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1039576908
    313 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    314 https://doi.org/10.1332/174426411x553034 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1016464593
    315 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    316 https://doi.org/10.1332/174426411x603434 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1019398150
    317 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    318 https://doi.org/10.1332/174426412x6201371 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1006216440
    319 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    320 https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001249 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1031765573
    321 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    322 https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0021704 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1043917632
    323 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    324 https://doi.org/10.14236/jhi.v11i4.566 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1067225722
    325 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    326 https://doi.org/10.18553/jmcp.2003.9.2.159 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1068660353
    327 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    328 https://doi.org/10.2105/ajph.2009.184713 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1068844881
    329 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    330 https://doi.org/10.2105/ajph.94.3.406 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1068879498
    331 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    332 https://doi.org/10.2307/3109916 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1070202686
    333 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    334 https://doi.org/10.3310/hta12070 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1071139011
    335 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    336 https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph7020651 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1036583660
    337 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    338 https://doi.org/10.4135/9781849209120 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1095899839
    339 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    340 https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.412414.6 schema:alternateName OsloMet – Oslo Metropolitan University
    341 schema:name Faculty of Social Sciences, Oslo University College, P.B. 4, St. Olavs Plass, NO-0130, Oslo, Norway
    342 rdf:type schema:Organization
    343 https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.5379.8 schema:alternateName University of Manchester
    344 schema:name School of Social Sciences, University of Manchester, Bridgeford Street, M13 9PL, Manchester, UK
    345 rdf:type schema:Organization
    346 https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.83440.3b schema:alternateName University College London
    347 schema:name Department of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Public Policy (UCL STEaPP), University College London, 66-72 Gower Street, WC1E 6EA, London, UK
    348 MRC Centre of Epidemiology for Child Health, Institute of Child Health, WC1N 1EH, London, UK
    349 University of London, Institute of Education, 20 Bedford Way, WC1H 0AL, London, UK
    350 rdf:type schema:Organization
     




    Preview window. Press ESC to close (or click here)


    ...