Improving understanding in the research informed consent process: a systematic review of 54 interventions tested in randomized control trials View Full Text


Ontology type: schema:ScholarlyArticle      Open Access: True


Article Info

DATE

2013-12

AUTHORS

Adam Nishimura, Jantey Carey, Patricia J Erwin, Jon C Tilburt, M Hassan Murad, Jennifer B McCormick

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Obtaining informed consent is a cornerstone of biomedical research, yet participants comprehension of presented information is often low. The most effective interventions to improve understanding rates have not been identified. PURPOSE: To systematically analyze the random controlled trials testing interventions to research informed consent process. The primary outcome of interest was quantitative rates of participant understanding; secondary outcomes were rates of information retention, satisfaction, and accrual. Interventional categories included multimedia, enhanced consent documents, extended discussions, test/feedback quizzes, and miscellaneous methods. METHODS: The search spanned from database inception through September 2010. It was run on Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid EMBASE, Ovid CINAHL, Ovid PsycInfo and Cochrane CENTRAL, ISI Web of Science and Scopus. Five reviewers working independently and in duplicate screened full abstract text to determine eligibility. We included only RCTs. 39 out of 1523 articles fulfilled review criteria (2.6%), with a total of 54 interventions. A data extraction form was created in Distiller, an online reference management system, through an iterative process. One author collected data on study design, population, demographics, intervention, and analytical technique. RESULTS: Meta-analysis was possible on 22 interventions: multimedia, enhanced form, and extended discussion categories; all 54 interventions were assessed by review. Meta-analysis of multimedia approaches was associated with a non-significant increase in understanding scores (SMD 0.30, 95% CI, -0.23 to 0.84); enhanced consent form, with significant increase (SMD 1.73, 95% CI, 0.99 to 2.47); and extended discussion, with significant increase (SMD 0.53, 95% CI, 0.21 to 0.84). By review, 31% of multimedia interventions showed significant improvement in understanding; 41% for enhanced consent form; 50% for extended discussion; 33% for test/feedback; and 29% for miscellaneous.Multiple sources of variation existed between included studies: control processes, the presence of a human proctor, real vs. simulated protocol, and assessment formats. CONCLUSIONS: Enhanced consent forms and extended discussions were most effective in improving participant understanding. Interventions of all categories had no negative impact on participant satisfaction or study accrual. Identification of best practices for studies of informed consent interventions would aid future systematic comparisons. More... »

PAGES

28

Identifiers

URI

http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1186/1472-6939-14-28

DOI

http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1472-6939-14-28

DIMENSIONS

https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1000899274

PUBMED

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23879694


Indexing Status Check whether this publication has been indexed by Scopus and Web Of Science using the SN Indexing Status Tool
Incoming Citations Browse incoming citations for this publication using opencitations.net

JSON-LD is the canonical representation for SciGraph data.

TIP: You can open this SciGraph record using an external JSON-LD service: JSON-LD Playground Google SDTT

[
  {
    "@context": "https://springernature.github.io/scigraph/jsonld/sgcontext.json", 
    "about": [
      {
        "id": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/1117", 
        "inDefinedTermSet": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/", 
        "name": "Public Health and Health Services", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/11", 
        "inDefinedTermSet": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/", 
        "name": "Medical and Health Sciences", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Communication", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Comprehension", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Confounding Factors (Epidemiology)", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Consent Forms", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Humans", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Informed Consent", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Internet", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Multimedia", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Research Design", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }
    ], 
    "author": [
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "University of Washington", 
          "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.34477.33", 
          "name": [
            "University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Nishimura", 
        "givenName": "Adam", 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "Mayo Clinic", 
          "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.66875.3a", 
          "name": [
            "Mayo Clinic, 200 First St SW, 55905, Rochester, MN, USA", 
            "Knowledge and Evaluation Research Unit, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Carey", 
        "givenName": "Jantey", 
        "id": "sg:person.01166543767.28", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01166543767.28"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "Mayo Clinic", 
          "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.66875.3a", 
          "name": [
            "Mayo Clinic, 200 First St SW, 55905, Rochester, MN, USA"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Erwin", 
        "givenName": "Patricia J", 
        "id": "sg:person.07671043277.27", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.07671043277.27"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "Mayo Clinic", 
          "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.66875.3a", 
          "name": [
            "Mayo Clinic, 200 First St SW, 55905, Rochester, MN, USA", 
            "Department of Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA", 
            "Biomedical Ethics Research Unit, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Tilburt", 
        "givenName": "Jon C", 
        "id": "sg:person.01207252124.87", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01207252124.87"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "Mayo Clinic", 
          "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.66875.3a", 
          "name": [
            "Mayo Clinic, 200 First St SW, 55905, Rochester, MN, USA", 
            "Department of Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA", 
            "Knowledge and Evaluation Research Unit, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Murad", 
        "givenName": "M Hassan", 
        "id": "sg:person.012157544257.74", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.012157544257.74"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "Mayo Clinic", 
          "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.66875.3a", 
          "name": [
            "Mayo Clinic, 200 First St SW, 55905, Rochester, MN, USA", 
            "Department of Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA", 
            "Biomedical Ethics Research Unit, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "McCormick", 
        "givenName": "Jennifer B", 
        "id": "sg:person.01364356136.43", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01364356136.43"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }
    ], 
    "citation": [
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0738-3991(96)00968-8", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1002469992"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1097/00126334-200302010-00008", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1003363680"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1080/02841860600849067", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1004867086"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.327.7414.557", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1005003882"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1080/03610738108259796", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1006409983"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/0738-3991(94)00705-q", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1006553612"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2125.2009.03565.x", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1014898690"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2125.2009.03565.x", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1014898690"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.1978.03290250045026", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1015860331"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/s11606-011-1778-6", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1016119464", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1007/s11606-011-1778-6"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1080/03610738308258441", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1016287923"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1037/a0015421", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1017441160"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.cd003717.pub2", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1017599217"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.schres.2004.06.009", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1017630800"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1080/03610738708259321", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1018648532"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1001/archinte.1969.00300160072011", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1020796310"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1472-8206.2007.00472.x", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1023620163"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1056/nejmsb1106942", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1026459844"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.293.6554.1065", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1026622469"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amjsurg.2009.02.010", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1026750788"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1002/pon.1070", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1027660722"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1080/10810730.2010.492560", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1027915447"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1097/00019442-200203000-00005", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1027918912"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pec.2009.02.007", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1028212192"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0197-2456(00)00048-9", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1028419204"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0738-3991(03)00162-9", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1031444427"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1097/jgp.0b013e31802dd379", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1031571208"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.326.7382.219", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1033841727"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.280.22.1951", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1033849730"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-genom-082509-141711", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1034098171"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/sj.bjc.6603943", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1034398874", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.bjc.6603943"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/0197-2456(86)90046-2", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1034546744"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/0197-2456(86)90046-2", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1034546744"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.292.13.1593", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1035828023"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1136/jme.2006.018192", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1036689793"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1136/jme.2006.018192", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1036689793"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/0738-3991(94)90069-8", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1039945821"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1136/jme.25.3.263", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1044692480"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1136/jme.25.3.263", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1044692480"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0022-3476(98)70347-6", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1046310874"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.299.10.1182", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1049416046"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1093/jnci/90.9.668", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1050236130"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1177/1740774507085144", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1052410533"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1177/1740774507085144", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1052410533"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1186/1472-6939-11-8", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1052592215", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1186/1472-6939-11-8"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1001/archinte.123.6.682", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1054105271"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1089/blr.2011.9800", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1059238986"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1093/phe/phn040", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1059973509"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.b2535", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1062802292"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.b2535", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1062802292"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.162.1.186", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1063496212"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.ps.52.6.780", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1063506617"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1200/jco.2003.07.022", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1064203716"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2007-3860", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1067826835"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1074547405", 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.2307/3564117", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1076721767"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.2307/3564285", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1076813498"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.2307/3563750", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1076871585"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1077613649", 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1077892235", 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1077918732", 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1077947847", 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1078141348", 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.5694/j.1326-5377.2010.tb03561.x", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1078141348"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1078222020", 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1078222020", 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1078222020", 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1078222020", 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1078222020", 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1200/jco.1996.14.3.984", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1082882806"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1083174860", 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1017/cbo9780511814600", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1098692047"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }
    ], 
    "datePublished": "2013-12", 
    "datePublishedReg": "2013-12-01", 
    "description": "BACKGROUND: Obtaining informed consent is a cornerstone of biomedical research, yet participants comprehension of presented information is often low. The most effective interventions to improve understanding rates have not been identified.\nPURPOSE: To systematically analyze the random controlled trials testing interventions to research informed consent process. The primary outcome of interest was quantitative rates of participant understanding; secondary outcomes were rates of information retention, satisfaction, and accrual. Interventional categories included multimedia, enhanced consent documents, extended discussions, test/feedback quizzes, and miscellaneous methods.\nMETHODS: The search spanned from database inception through September 2010. It was run on Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid EMBASE, Ovid CINAHL, Ovid PsycInfo and Cochrane CENTRAL, ISI Web of Science and Scopus. Five reviewers working independently and in duplicate screened full abstract text to determine eligibility. We included only RCTs. 39 out of 1523 articles fulfilled review criteria (2.6%), with a total of 54 interventions. A data extraction form was created in Distiller, an online reference management system, through an iterative process. One author collected data on study design, population, demographics, intervention, and analytical technique.\nRESULTS: Meta-analysis was possible on 22 interventions: multimedia, enhanced form, and extended discussion categories; all 54 interventions were assessed by review. Meta-analysis of multimedia approaches was associated with a non-significant increase in understanding scores (SMD 0.30, 95% CI, -0.23 to 0.84); enhanced consent form, with significant increase (SMD 1.73, 95% CI, 0.99 to 2.47); and extended discussion, with significant increase (SMD 0.53, 95% CI, 0.21 to 0.84). By review, 31% of multimedia interventions showed significant improvement in understanding; 41% for enhanced consent form; 50% for extended discussion; 33% for test/feedback; and 29% for miscellaneous.Multiple sources of variation existed between included studies: control processes, the presence of a human proctor, real vs. simulated protocol, and assessment formats.\nCONCLUSIONS: Enhanced consent forms and extended discussions were most effective in improving participant understanding. Interventions of all categories had no negative impact on participant satisfaction or study accrual. Identification of best practices for studies of informed consent interventions would aid future systematic comparisons.", 
    "genre": "research_article", 
    "id": "sg:pub.10.1186/1472-6939-14-28", 
    "inLanguage": [
      "en"
    ], 
    "isAccessibleForFree": true, 
    "isFundedItemOf": [
      {
        "id": "sg:grant.2705219", 
        "type": "MonetaryGrant"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:grant.2705122", 
        "type": "MonetaryGrant"
      }
    ], 
    "isPartOf": [
      {
        "id": "sg:journal.1028430", 
        "issn": [
          "1472-6939"
        ], 
        "name": "BMC Medical Ethics", 
        "type": "Periodical"
      }, 
      {
        "issueNumber": "1", 
        "type": "PublicationIssue"
      }, 
      {
        "type": "PublicationVolume", 
        "volumeNumber": "14"
      }
    ], 
    "name": "Improving understanding in the research informed consent process: a systematic review of 54 interventions tested in randomized control trials", 
    "pagination": "28", 
    "productId": [
      {
        "name": "readcube_id", 
        "type": "PropertyValue", 
        "value": [
          "04487468b368d438710c4409abefc83baa8e7faadf3cb268b398f869efa6e182"
        ]
      }, 
      {
        "name": "pubmed_id", 
        "type": "PropertyValue", 
        "value": [
          "23879694"
        ]
      }, 
      {
        "name": "nlm_unique_id", 
        "type": "PropertyValue", 
        "value": [
          "101088680"
        ]
      }, 
      {
        "name": "doi", 
        "type": "PropertyValue", 
        "value": [
          "10.1186/1472-6939-14-28"
        ]
      }, 
      {
        "name": "dimensions_id", 
        "type": "PropertyValue", 
        "value": [
          "pub.1000899274"
        ]
      }
    ], 
    "sameAs": [
      "https://doi.org/10.1186/1472-6939-14-28", 
      "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1000899274"
    ], 
    "sdDataset": "articles", 
    "sdDatePublished": "2019-04-10T20:46", 
    "sdLicense": "https://scigraph.springernature.com/explorer/license/", 
    "sdPublisher": {
      "name": "Springer Nature - SN SciGraph project", 
      "type": "Organization"
    }, 
    "sdSource": "s3://com-uberresearch-data-dimensions-target-20181106-alternative/cleanup/v134/2549eaecd7973599484d7c17b260dba0a4ecb94b/merge/v9/a6c9fde33151104705d4d7ff012ea9563521a3ce/jats-lookup/v90/0000000001_0000000264/records_8684_00000509.jsonl", 
    "type": "ScholarlyArticle", 
    "url": "http://link.springer.com/10.1186%2F1472-6939-14-28"
  }
]
 

Download the RDF metadata as:  json-ld nt turtle xml License info

HOW TO GET THIS DATA PROGRAMMATICALLY:

JSON-LD is a popular format for linked data which is fully compatible with JSON.

curl -H 'Accept: application/ld+json' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1186/1472-6939-14-28'

N-Triples is a line-based linked data format ideal for batch operations.

curl -H 'Accept: application/n-triples' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1186/1472-6939-14-28'

Turtle is a human-readable linked data format.

curl -H 'Accept: text/turtle' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1186/1472-6939-14-28'

RDF/XML is a standard XML format for linked data.

curl -H 'Accept: application/rdf+xml' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1186/1472-6939-14-28'


 

This table displays all metadata directly associated to this object as RDF triples.

333 TRIPLES      21 PREDICATES      101 URIs      31 LITERALS      19 BLANK NODES

Subject Predicate Object
1 sg:pub.10.1186/1472-6939-14-28 schema:about N46153b15d0424f0aaf0ebc625c3ddd8b
2 N64a806b6a3ac421dab9d5fe45fa079b2
3 N698419e1ed484b9e9e0f569cd7040419
4 N6cae26ec347c4d2eb730fc147f70b2ef
5 N6e82f4122f494df2a6bd0afd9b9ffef9
6 N984e173e44764009b9cda14e139f9138
7 Nb096d9d367a34525ac8835d383204996
8 Nbf1e062c88c945999054cee6872c2863
9 Nf8ad25ca0690470dba12d5e5a4a6352b
10 Nff967a24f9e64cde9142d87c009c3a0d
11 anzsrc-for:11
12 anzsrc-for:1117
13 schema:author Nbd2776279f064b1fbbebb501aa9b8ff4
14 schema:citation sg:pub.10.1007/s11606-011-1778-6
15 sg:pub.10.1038/sj.bjc.6603943
16 sg:pub.10.1186/1472-6939-11-8
17 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1074547405
18 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1077613649
19 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1077892235
20 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1077918732
21 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1077947847
22 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1078141348
23 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1078222020
24 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1083174860
25 https://doi.org/10.1001/archinte.123.6.682
26 https://doi.org/10.1001/archinte.1969.00300160072011
27 https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.1978.03290250045026
28 https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.280.22.1951
29 https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.292.13.1593
30 https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.299.10.1182
31 https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.cd003717.pub2
32 https://doi.org/10.1002/pon.1070
33 https://doi.org/10.1016/0197-2456(86)90046-2
34 https://doi.org/10.1016/0738-3991(94)00705-q
35 https://doi.org/10.1016/0738-3991(94)90069-8
36 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amjsurg.2009.02.010
37 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pec.2009.02.007
38 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.schres.2004.06.009
39 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0022-3476(98)70347-6
40 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0197-2456(00)00048-9
41 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0738-3991(03)00162-9
42 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0738-3991(96)00968-8
43 https://doi.org/10.1017/cbo9780511814600
44 https://doi.org/10.1037/a0015421
45 https://doi.org/10.1056/nejmsb1106942
46 https://doi.org/10.1080/02841860600849067
47 https://doi.org/10.1080/03610738108259796
48 https://doi.org/10.1080/03610738308258441
49 https://doi.org/10.1080/03610738708259321
50 https://doi.org/10.1080/10810730.2010.492560
51 https://doi.org/10.1089/blr.2011.9800
52 https://doi.org/10.1093/jnci/90.9.668
53 https://doi.org/10.1093/phe/phn040
54 https://doi.org/10.1097/00019442-200203000-00005
55 https://doi.org/10.1097/00126334-200302010-00008
56 https://doi.org/10.1097/jgp.0b013e31802dd379
57 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2125.2009.03565.x
58 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1472-8206.2007.00472.x
59 https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.293.6554.1065
60 https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.326.7382.219
61 https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.327.7414.557
62 https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.b2535
63 https://doi.org/10.1136/jme.2006.018192
64 https://doi.org/10.1136/jme.25.3.263
65 https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-genom-082509-141711
66 https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.162.1.186
67 https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.ps.52.6.780
68 https://doi.org/10.1177/1740774507085144
69 https://doi.org/10.1200/jco.1996.14.3.984
70 https://doi.org/10.1200/jco.2003.07.022
71 https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2007-3860
72 https://doi.org/10.2307/3563750
73 https://doi.org/10.2307/3564117
74 https://doi.org/10.2307/3564285
75 https://doi.org/10.5694/j.1326-5377.2010.tb03561.x
76 schema:datePublished 2013-12
77 schema:datePublishedReg 2013-12-01
78 schema:description BACKGROUND: Obtaining informed consent is a cornerstone of biomedical research, yet participants comprehension of presented information is often low. The most effective interventions to improve understanding rates have not been identified. PURPOSE: To systematically analyze the random controlled trials testing interventions to research informed consent process. The primary outcome of interest was quantitative rates of participant understanding; secondary outcomes were rates of information retention, satisfaction, and accrual. Interventional categories included multimedia, enhanced consent documents, extended discussions, test/feedback quizzes, and miscellaneous methods. METHODS: The search spanned from database inception through September 2010. It was run on Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid EMBASE, Ovid CINAHL, Ovid PsycInfo and Cochrane CENTRAL, ISI Web of Science and Scopus. Five reviewers working independently and in duplicate screened full abstract text to determine eligibility. We included only RCTs. 39 out of 1523 articles fulfilled review criteria (2.6%), with a total of 54 interventions. A data extraction form was created in Distiller, an online reference management system, through an iterative process. One author collected data on study design, population, demographics, intervention, and analytical technique. RESULTS: Meta-analysis was possible on 22 interventions: multimedia, enhanced form, and extended discussion categories; all 54 interventions were assessed by review. Meta-analysis of multimedia approaches was associated with a non-significant increase in understanding scores (SMD 0.30, 95% CI, -0.23 to 0.84); enhanced consent form, with significant increase (SMD 1.73, 95% CI, 0.99 to 2.47); and extended discussion, with significant increase (SMD 0.53, 95% CI, 0.21 to 0.84). By review, 31% of multimedia interventions showed significant improvement in understanding; 41% for enhanced consent form; 50% for extended discussion; 33% for test/feedback; and 29% for miscellaneous.Multiple sources of variation existed between included studies: control processes, the presence of a human proctor, real vs. simulated protocol, and assessment formats. CONCLUSIONS: Enhanced consent forms and extended discussions were most effective in improving participant understanding. Interventions of all categories had no negative impact on participant satisfaction or study accrual. Identification of best practices for studies of informed consent interventions would aid future systematic comparisons.
79 schema:genre research_article
80 schema:inLanguage en
81 schema:isAccessibleForFree true
82 schema:isPartOf Nad736d86914f40d1929e3ab4b0de714f
83 Nf0d1ac05b3b94ec79f9223de17679ece
84 sg:journal.1028430
85 schema:name Improving understanding in the research informed consent process: a systematic review of 54 interventions tested in randomized control trials
86 schema:pagination 28
87 schema:productId N31305d4a45fb46fa8d232a25491f34ed
88 N8829de61f0644ebea5b7cbdc81b40bb8
89 Ncfe42d4f98534cf8a89123ef688fbe47
90 Nd746397390f84fb8888e1b1340be07a5
91 Ne18bfc1c09eb4258b0608116e93c4bfd
92 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1000899274
93 https://doi.org/10.1186/1472-6939-14-28
94 schema:sdDatePublished 2019-04-10T20:46
95 schema:sdLicense https://scigraph.springernature.com/explorer/license/
96 schema:sdPublisher N82174ac4fd744080854691cae7e260d2
97 schema:url http://link.springer.com/10.1186%2F1472-6939-14-28
98 sgo:license sg:explorer/license/
99 sgo:sdDataset articles
100 rdf:type schema:ScholarlyArticle
101 N31305d4a45fb46fa8d232a25491f34ed schema:name pubmed_id
102 schema:value 23879694
103 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
104 N46153b15d0424f0aaf0ebc625c3ddd8b schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
105 schema:name Informed Consent
106 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
107 N5c8b34d294b54f249078c8e4fb0f8a1f rdf:first sg:person.012157544257.74
108 rdf:rest Naa5f937a51794c8da2cc80e56cc8391c
109 N611b7ee2a8dd4d9abe21c6c5fffee687 rdf:first sg:person.07671043277.27
110 rdf:rest Nc811e4bf289d4aaf859fca8236d6418e
111 N64a806b6a3ac421dab9d5fe45fa079b2 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
112 schema:name Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
113 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
114 N68e5fdf87cad44e4a46c66ca40ff78c4 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.34477.33
115 schema:familyName Nishimura
116 schema:givenName Adam
117 rdf:type schema:Person
118 N698419e1ed484b9e9e0f569cd7040419 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
119 schema:name Research Design
120 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
121 N6cae26ec347c4d2eb730fc147f70b2ef schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
122 schema:name Confounding Factors (Epidemiology)
123 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
124 N6e82f4122f494df2a6bd0afd9b9ffef9 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
125 schema:name Humans
126 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
127 N82174ac4fd744080854691cae7e260d2 schema:name Springer Nature - SN SciGraph project
128 rdf:type schema:Organization
129 N8829de61f0644ebea5b7cbdc81b40bb8 schema:name readcube_id
130 schema:value 04487468b368d438710c4409abefc83baa8e7faadf3cb268b398f869efa6e182
131 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
132 N9182779d2b04414a9d8734b1317ad9a7 rdf:first sg:person.01166543767.28
133 rdf:rest N611b7ee2a8dd4d9abe21c6c5fffee687
134 N984e173e44764009b9cda14e139f9138 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
135 schema:name Multimedia
136 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
137 Naa5f937a51794c8da2cc80e56cc8391c rdf:first sg:person.01364356136.43
138 rdf:rest rdf:nil
139 Nad736d86914f40d1929e3ab4b0de714f schema:issueNumber 1
140 rdf:type schema:PublicationIssue
141 Nb096d9d367a34525ac8835d383204996 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
142 schema:name Internet
143 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
144 Nbd2776279f064b1fbbebb501aa9b8ff4 rdf:first N68e5fdf87cad44e4a46c66ca40ff78c4
145 rdf:rest N9182779d2b04414a9d8734b1317ad9a7
146 Nbf1e062c88c945999054cee6872c2863 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
147 schema:name Consent Forms
148 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
149 Nc811e4bf289d4aaf859fca8236d6418e rdf:first sg:person.01207252124.87
150 rdf:rest N5c8b34d294b54f249078c8e4fb0f8a1f
151 Ncfe42d4f98534cf8a89123ef688fbe47 schema:name doi
152 schema:value 10.1186/1472-6939-14-28
153 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
154 Nd746397390f84fb8888e1b1340be07a5 schema:name dimensions_id
155 schema:value pub.1000899274
156 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
157 Ne18bfc1c09eb4258b0608116e93c4bfd schema:name nlm_unique_id
158 schema:value 101088680
159 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
160 Nf0d1ac05b3b94ec79f9223de17679ece schema:volumeNumber 14
161 rdf:type schema:PublicationVolume
162 Nf8ad25ca0690470dba12d5e5a4a6352b schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
163 schema:name Comprehension
164 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
165 Nff967a24f9e64cde9142d87c009c3a0d schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
166 schema:name Communication
167 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
168 anzsrc-for:11 schema:inDefinedTermSet anzsrc-for:
169 schema:name Medical and Health Sciences
170 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
171 anzsrc-for:1117 schema:inDefinedTermSet anzsrc-for:
172 schema:name Public Health and Health Services
173 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
174 sg:grant.2705122 http://pending.schema.org/fundedItem sg:pub.10.1186/1472-6939-14-28
175 rdf:type schema:MonetaryGrant
176 sg:grant.2705219 http://pending.schema.org/fundedItem sg:pub.10.1186/1472-6939-14-28
177 rdf:type schema:MonetaryGrant
178 sg:journal.1028430 schema:issn 1472-6939
179 schema:name BMC Medical Ethics
180 rdf:type schema:Periodical
181 sg:person.01166543767.28 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.66875.3a
182 schema:familyName Carey
183 schema:givenName Jantey
184 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01166543767.28
185 rdf:type schema:Person
186 sg:person.01207252124.87 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.66875.3a
187 schema:familyName Tilburt
188 schema:givenName Jon C
189 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01207252124.87
190 rdf:type schema:Person
191 sg:person.012157544257.74 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.66875.3a
192 schema:familyName Murad
193 schema:givenName M Hassan
194 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.012157544257.74
195 rdf:type schema:Person
196 sg:person.01364356136.43 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.66875.3a
197 schema:familyName McCormick
198 schema:givenName Jennifer B
199 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01364356136.43
200 rdf:type schema:Person
201 sg:person.07671043277.27 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.66875.3a
202 schema:familyName Erwin
203 schema:givenName Patricia J
204 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.07671043277.27
205 rdf:type schema:Person
206 sg:pub.10.1007/s11606-011-1778-6 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1016119464
207 https://doi.org/10.1007/s11606-011-1778-6
208 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
209 sg:pub.10.1038/sj.bjc.6603943 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1034398874
210 https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.bjc.6603943
211 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
212 sg:pub.10.1186/1472-6939-11-8 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1052592215
213 https://doi.org/10.1186/1472-6939-11-8
214 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
215 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1074547405 schema:CreativeWork
216 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1077613649 schema:CreativeWork
217 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1077892235 schema:CreativeWork
218 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1077918732 schema:CreativeWork
219 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1077947847 schema:CreativeWork
220 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1078141348 schema:CreativeWork
221 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1078222020 schema:CreativeWork
222 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1083174860 schema:CreativeWork
223 https://doi.org/10.1001/archinte.123.6.682 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1054105271
224 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
225 https://doi.org/10.1001/archinte.1969.00300160072011 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1020796310
226 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
227 https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.1978.03290250045026 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1015860331
228 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
229 https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.280.22.1951 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1033849730
230 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
231 https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.292.13.1593 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1035828023
232 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
233 https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.299.10.1182 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1049416046
234 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
235 https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.cd003717.pub2 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1017599217
236 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
237 https://doi.org/10.1002/pon.1070 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1027660722
238 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
239 https://doi.org/10.1016/0197-2456(86)90046-2 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1034546744
240 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
241 https://doi.org/10.1016/0738-3991(94)00705-q schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1006553612
242 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
243 https://doi.org/10.1016/0738-3991(94)90069-8 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1039945821
244 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
245 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amjsurg.2009.02.010 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1026750788
246 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
247 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pec.2009.02.007 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1028212192
248 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
249 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.schres.2004.06.009 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1017630800
250 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
251 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0022-3476(98)70347-6 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1046310874
252 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
253 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0197-2456(00)00048-9 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1028419204
254 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
255 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0738-3991(03)00162-9 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1031444427
256 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
257 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0738-3991(96)00968-8 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1002469992
258 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
259 https://doi.org/10.1017/cbo9780511814600 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1098692047
260 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
261 https://doi.org/10.1037/a0015421 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1017441160
262 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
263 https://doi.org/10.1056/nejmsb1106942 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1026459844
264 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
265 https://doi.org/10.1080/02841860600849067 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1004867086
266 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
267 https://doi.org/10.1080/03610738108259796 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1006409983
268 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
269 https://doi.org/10.1080/03610738308258441 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1016287923
270 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
271 https://doi.org/10.1080/03610738708259321 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1018648532
272 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
273 https://doi.org/10.1080/10810730.2010.492560 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1027915447
274 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
275 https://doi.org/10.1089/blr.2011.9800 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1059238986
276 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
277 https://doi.org/10.1093/jnci/90.9.668 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1050236130
278 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
279 https://doi.org/10.1093/phe/phn040 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1059973509
280 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
281 https://doi.org/10.1097/00019442-200203000-00005 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1027918912
282 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
283 https://doi.org/10.1097/00126334-200302010-00008 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1003363680
284 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
285 https://doi.org/10.1097/jgp.0b013e31802dd379 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1031571208
286 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
287 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2125.2009.03565.x schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1014898690
288 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
289 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1472-8206.2007.00472.x schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1023620163
290 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
291 https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.293.6554.1065 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1026622469
292 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
293 https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.326.7382.219 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1033841727
294 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
295 https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.327.7414.557 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1005003882
296 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
297 https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.b2535 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1062802292
298 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
299 https://doi.org/10.1136/jme.2006.018192 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1036689793
300 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
301 https://doi.org/10.1136/jme.25.3.263 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1044692480
302 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
303 https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-genom-082509-141711 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1034098171
304 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
305 https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.162.1.186 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1063496212
306 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
307 https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.ps.52.6.780 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1063506617
308 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
309 https://doi.org/10.1177/1740774507085144 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1052410533
310 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
311 https://doi.org/10.1200/jco.1996.14.3.984 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1082882806
312 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
313 https://doi.org/10.1200/jco.2003.07.022 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1064203716
314 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
315 https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2007-3860 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1067826835
316 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
317 https://doi.org/10.2307/3563750 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1076871585
318 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
319 https://doi.org/10.2307/3564117 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1076721767
320 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
321 https://doi.org/10.2307/3564285 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1076813498
322 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
323 https://doi.org/10.5694/j.1326-5377.2010.tb03561.x schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1078141348
324 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
325 https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.34477.33 schema:alternateName University of Washington
326 schema:name University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA
327 rdf:type schema:Organization
328 https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.66875.3a schema:alternateName Mayo Clinic
329 schema:name Biomedical Ethics Research Unit, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA
330 Department of Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA
331 Knowledge and Evaluation Research Unit, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA
332 Mayo Clinic, 200 First St SW, 55905, Rochester, MN, USA
333 rdf:type schema:Organization
 




Preview window. Press ESC to close (or click here)


...