Causal inference based on counterfactuals View Full Text


Ontology type: schema:ScholarlyArticle      Open Access: True


Article Info

DATE

2005-12

AUTHORS

M Höfler

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The counterfactual or potential outcome model has become increasingly standard for causal inference in epidemiological and medical studies. DISCUSSION: This paper provides an overview on the counterfactual and related approaches. A variety of conceptual as well as practical issues when estimating causal effects are reviewed. These include causal interactions, imperfect experiments, adjustment for confounding, time-varying exposures, competing risks and the probability of causation. It is argued that the counterfactual model of causal effects captures the main aspects of causality in health sciences and relates to many statistical procedures. SUMMARY: Counterfactuals are the basis of causal inference in medicine and epidemiology. Nevertheless, the estimation of counterfactual differences pose several difficulties, primarily in observational studies. These problems, however, reflect fundamental barriers only when learning from observations, and this does not invalidate the counterfactual concept. More... »

PAGES

28

References to SciGraph publications

Identifiers

URI

http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1186/1471-2288-5-28

DOI

http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2288-5-28

DIMENSIONS

https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1051372650

PUBMED

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16159397


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JSON-LD is a popular format for linked data which is fully compatible with JSON.

curl -H 'Accept: application/ld+json' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1186/1471-2288-5-28'

N-Triples is a line-based linked data format ideal for batch operations.

curl -H 'Accept: application/n-triples' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1186/1471-2288-5-28'

Turtle is a human-readable linked data format.

curl -H 'Accept: text/turtle' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1186/1471-2288-5-28'

RDF/XML is a standard XML format for linked data.

curl -H 'Accept: application/rdf+xml' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1186/1471-2288-5-28'


 

This table displays all metadata directly associated to this object as RDF triples.

269 TRIPLES      21 PREDICATES      92 URIs      29 LITERALS      17 BLANK NODES

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