Dynamic compartment specific changes in glutathione and ascorbate levels in Arabidopsis plants exposed to different light intensities View Full Text


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Article Info

DATE

2013-07-17

AUTHORS

Elmien Heyneke, Nora Luschin-Ebengreuth, Iztok Krajcer, Volker Wolkinger, Maria Müller, Bernd Zechmann

ABSTRACT

BackgroundExcess light conditions induce the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) directly in the chloroplasts but also cause an accumulation and production of ROS in peroxisomes, cytosol and vacuoles. Antioxidants such as ascorbate and glutathione occur in all cell compartments where they detoxify ROS. In this study compartment specific changes in antioxidant levels and related enzymes were monitored among Arabidopsis wildtype plants and ascorbate and glutathione deficient mutants (vtc2-1 and pad2-1, respectively) exposed to different light intensities (50, 150 which was considered as control condition, 300, 700 and 1,500 μmol m-2 s-1) for 4 h and 14 d.ResultsThe results revealed that wildtype plants reacted to short term exposure to excess light conditions with the accumulation of ascorbate and glutathione in chloroplasts, peroxisomes and the cytosol and an increased activity of catalase in the leaves. Long term exposure led to an accumulation of ascorbate and glutathione mainly in chloroplasts. In wildtype plants an accumulation of ascorbate and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) could be observed in vacuoles when exposed to high light conditions. The pad2-1 mutant reacted to long term excess light exposure with an accumulation of ascorbate in peroxisomes whereas the vtc2-1 mutant reacted with an accumulation of glutathione in the chloroplasts (relative to the wildtype) and nuclei during long term high light conditions indicating an important role of these antioxidants in these cell compartments for the protection of the mutants against high light stress.ConclusionThe results obtained in this study demonstrate that the accumulation of ascorbate and glutathione in chloroplasts, peroxisomes and the cytosol is an important reaction of plants to short term high light stress. The accumulation of ascorbate and H2O2 along the tonoplast and in vacuoles during these conditions indicates an important route for H2O2 detoxification under these conditions. More... »

PAGES

104

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    http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1186/1471-2229-13-104

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    http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2229-13-104

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    PUBMED

    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23865417


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    33 schema:description BackgroundExcess light conditions induce the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) directly in the chloroplasts but also cause an accumulation and production of ROS in peroxisomes, cytosol and vacuoles. Antioxidants such as ascorbate and glutathione occur in all cell compartments where they detoxify ROS. In this study compartment specific changes in antioxidant levels and related enzymes were monitored among Arabidopsis wildtype plants and ascorbate and glutathione deficient mutants (vtc2-1 and pad2-1, respectively) exposed to different light intensities (50, 150 which was considered as control condition, 300, 700 and 1,500 μmol m-2 s-1) for 4 h and 14 d.ResultsThe results revealed that wildtype plants reacted to short term exposure to excess light conditions with the accumulation of ascorbate and glutathione in chloroplasts, peroxisomes and the cytosol and an increased activity of catalase in the leaves. Long term exposure led to an accumulation of ascorbate and glutathione mainly in chloroplasts. In wildtype plants an accumulation of ascorbate and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) could be observed in vacuoles when exposed to high light conditions. The pad2-1 mutant reacted to long term excess light exposure with an accumulation of ascorbate in peroxisomes whereas the vtc2-1 mutant reacted with an accumulation of glutathione in the chloroplasts (relative to the wildtype) and nuclei during long term high light conditions indicating an important role of these antioxidants in these cell compartments for the protection of the mutants against high light stress.ConclusionThe results obtained in this study demonstrate that the accumulation of ascorbate and glutathione in chloroplasts, peroxisomes and the cytosol is an important reaction of plants to short term high light stress. The accumulation of ascorbate and H2O2 along the tonoplast and in vacuoles during these conditions indicates an important route for H2O2 detoxification under these conditions.
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    40 H2O2
    41 ResultsThe results
    42 accumulation
    43 accumulation of ascorbate
    44 accumulation of glutathione
    45 activities of catalase
    46 activity
    47 antioxidant levels
    48 antioxidants
    49 ascorbate
    50 ascorbate levels
    51 catalase
    52 cell compartment
    53 changes
    54 chloroplasts
    55 compartment-specific changes
    56 compartments
    57 conditions
    58 cytosol
    59 deficient mutants
    60 detoxification
    61 different light intensities
    62 enzyme
    63 excess light conditions
    64 excess light exposure
    65 exposure
    66 generation
    67 glutathione
    68 high light conditions
    69 high light stress
    70 hydrogen peroxide
    71 important reactions
    72 important role
    73 important route
    74 intensity
    75 leaves
    76 levels
    77 light conditions
    78 light exposure
    79 light intensity
    80 light stress
    81 long-term exposure
    82 mutants
    83 nucleus
    84 oxygen species
    85 pad2-1 mutant
    86 peroxide
    87 peroxisomes
    88 plants
    89 production
    90 production of ROS
    91 protection
    92 reaction
    93 reactive oxygen species
    94 related enzymes
    95 results
    96 role
    97 route
    98 short-term exposure
    99 short-term high-light stress
    100 species
    101 specific changes
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    105 tonoplast
    106 vacuoles
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    110 schema:name Dynamic compartment specific changes in glutathione and ascorbate levels in Arabidopsis plants exposed to different light intensities
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