Local and systemic changes in expression of resistance genes, nb-lrr genes and their putative microRNAs in Norway spruce after wounding ... View Full Text


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Article Info

DATE

2012-07-09

AUTHORS

Carl Gunnar Fossdal, Nadeem Yaqoob, Paal Krokene, Harald Kvaalen, Halvor Solheim, Igor A Yakovlev

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: NB-LRR resistance proteins are involved in recognizing pathogens and other exogenous stressors in plants. Resistance proteins are the first step in induced defence responses and a better understanding of their regulation is important to understand the mechanisms of plant defence. Much of the post-transcriptional regulation in plants is controlled by microRNAs (miRNA). We examined the expression of five Norway spruce miRNA that may regulate NB-LRR related transcripts in secondary phloem (bark) of resistant Norway spruce after wounding and inoculation with the necrotrophic blue stain fungus Ceratocystis polonica. RESULTS: The plants of this clone recovered from both the pathogen inoculations and wounding alone. We found local and systemic induction of the resistance marker genes PaChi4, PaPAL and PaPX3 indicative of an effective induced host defence response. There were minor local and systemic changes in the expression of five miRNAs and 21 NB-LRRs between healthy and treated plants. Only five putative NB-LRRs (PaLRR1, PaLRR3, PaLRR14, PaLRR15 and PaLRR16) showed significant increases greater than two-fold as a local response to C. polonica. Of all NB-LRRs only PaLRR3, the most highly differentially regulated NB-LRR, showed a significant increase also due to wounding. The five miRNAs showed indications of an initial local and systemic down-regulation at day 1, followed by a later increase up to and beyond the constitutive levels at day 6. However, the initial down-regulation was significant only for miR3693 and miR3705. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, local and systemic expression changes were evident only for the established resistance marker genes and PaLRR3. The minor expression changes observed both for the followed miRNAs and their predicted NB-LRR targets suggest that the expression of most NB-LRR genes are maintained close to their constitutive levels in stressed and healthy Norway spruce plants. More... »

PAGES

105-105

References to SciGraph publications

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  • Identifiers

    URI

    http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1186/1471-2229-12-105

    DOI

    http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2229-12-105

    DIMENSIONS

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    PUBMED

    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22776433


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    38 schema:description BACKGROUND: NB-LRR resistance proteins are involved in recognizing pathogens and other exogenous stressors in plants. Resistance proteins are the first step in induced defence responses and a better understanding of their regulation is important to understand the mechanisms of plant defence. Much of the post-transcriptional regulation in plants is controlled by microRNAs (miRNA). We examined the expression of five Norway spruce miRNA that may regulate NB-LRR related transcripts in secondary phloem (bark) of resistant Norway spruce after wounding and inoculation with the necrotrophic blue stain fungus Ceratocystis polonica. RESULTS: The plants of this clone recovered from both the pathogen inoculations and wounding alone. We found local and systemic induction of the resistance marker genes PaChi4, PaPAL and PaPX3 indicative of an effective induced host defence response. There were minor local and systemic changes in the expression of five miRNAs and 21 NB-LRRs between healthy and treated plants. Only five putative NB-LRRs (PaLRR1, PaLRR3, PaLRR14, PaLRR15 and PaLRR16) showed significant increases greater than two-fold as a local response to C. polonica. Of all NB-LRRs only PaLRR3, the most highly differentially regulated NB-LRR, showed a significant increase also due to wounding. The five miRNAs showed indications of an initial local and systemic down-regulation at day 1, followed by a later increase up to and beyond the constitutive levels at day 6. However, the initial down-regulation was significant only for miR3693 and miR3705. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, local and systemic expression changes were evident only for the established resistance marker genes and PaLRR3. The minor expression changes observed both for the followed miRNAs and their predicted NB-LRR targets suggest that the expression of most NB-LRR genes are maintained close to their constitutive levels in stressed and healthy Norway spruce plants.
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    47 NB-LRR genes
    48 NB-LRR resistance proteins
    49 NB-LRR targets
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    52 Norway spruce miRNA
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    59 changes
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    61 constitutive levels
    62 day 1
    63 day 6
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    67 exogenous stressors
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    71 fungus Ceratocystis polonica
    72 genes
    73 genes PaChi4
    74 healthy Norway spruce plants
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    77 indications
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    81 induction
    82 inoculation
    83 late increase
    84 levels
    85 local response
    86 marker genes
    87 mechanism
    88 miR3693
    89 miRNA
    90 miRNAs
    91 microRNAs
    92 minor expression changes
    93 most NB-LRR genes
    94 necrotrophic blue stain fungus Ceratocystis polonica
    95 papal
    96 pathogen Ceratocystis polonica
    97 pathogen inoculation
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    103 post-transcriptional regulation
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