Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 efficiently binds to human fetal astrocytes and induces neuroinflammatory responses independent of infection View Full Text


Ontology type: schema:ScholarlyArticle      Open Access: True


Article Info

DATE

2007-12

AUTHORS

Jinliang Li, Galina Bentsman, Mary Jane Potash, David J Volsky

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: HIV-1 infects human astrocytes in vitro and in vivo but the frequency of infected cells is low and its biological significance is unknown. In studies in vitro, recombinant gp120 alone can induce profound effects on astrocyte biology, suggesting that HIV-1 interaction with astrocytes and its functional consequences extend beyond the limited levels of infection in these cells. Here we determined the relative efficiencies of HIV-1 binding and infection in human fetal astrocytes (HFA), mainly at the single cell level, using HIV-1 tagged with green fluorescence protein (GFP)-Vpr fusion proteins, termed HIV-GFP, to detect virus binding and HIV-1 expressing Rev and NefGFP fusion proteins to detect productive infection. RESULTS: Essentially all HFA in a population bound HIV-GFP specifically and independently of CCR5 and CXCR4. The dynamics of this binding at 37 degrees C resembled binding of an HIV fusion mutant to CD4-positive cells, indicating that most of HIV-GFP arrested infection of HFA at the stage of virus-cell fusion. Despite extensive binding, only about 1% of HFA were detectably infected by HIV-RevGFP or HIV-NefGFP, but this proportion increased to the majority of HFA when the viruses were pseudotyped with vesicular stomatitis virus envelope glycoprotein G, confirming that HFA impose a restriction upon HIV-1 entry. Exposure of HFA to HIV-1 through its native proteins rapidly induced synthesis of interleukin-6 and interleukin-8 with increased mRNA detected within 3 h and increased protein detected within 18 h of exposure. CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that HIV-1 binding to human astrocytes, although extensive, is not generally followed by virus entry and replication. Astrocytes respond to HIV-1 binding by rapidly increased cytokine production suggesting a role of this virus-brain cell interaction in HIV-1 neuropathogenesis. More... »

PAGES

31

References to SciGraph publications

  • 1995-11. Decreased expression of AMPA receptor messenger RNA and protein in AIDS: A model for HIV-associated neurotoxicity in NATURE MEDICINE
  • 2003-05. Identification of gene products suppressed by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection or gp120 exposure of primary human astrocytes by rapid subtraction hybridization in JOURNAL OF NEUROVIROLOGY
  • 2004-01. Effects of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 on astrocyte gene expression and function: Potential role in neuropathogenesis in JOURNAL OF NEUROVIROLOGY
  • 1998-06. Structure of an HIV gp120 envelope glycoprotein in complex with the CD4 receptor and a neutralizing human antibody in NATURE
  • 2003-05. Differential transcriptional regulation by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and gp120 in human astrocytes in JOURNAL OF NEUROVIROLOGY
  • 2004-01. Innate immune responses and control of acute simian immunodeficiency virus replication in the central nervous system in JOURNAL OF NEUROVIROLOGY
  • 1999-01. Replication of different clones of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in primary fetal human astrocytes: enhancement of viral gene expression by Nef. in JOURNAL OF NEUROVIROLOGY
  • 2002-05. Identification and cloning of human astrocyte genes displaying elevated expression after infection with HIV-1 or exposure to HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein by rapid subtraction hybridization, RaSH in ONCOGENE
  • 2004-01. Effects of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 on astrocyte gene expression and function: potential role in neuropathogenesis. in JOURNAL OF NEUROVIROLOGY
  • 2001-07. CXCR4-activated astrocyte glutamate release via TNFα: amplification by microglia triggers neurotoxicity in NATURE NEUROSCIENCE
  • 1997-02. CCR3 and CCR5 are co-receptors for HIV-1 infection of microglia in NATURE
  • 1999-01. Chemokines and chemokine receptors in CNS pathology. in JOURNAL OF NEUROVIROLOGY
  • 2005-01. The neuropathogenesis of AIDS in NATURE REVIEWS IMMUNOLOGY
  • 1999-01. Chemokine and chemokine receptor expression in the central nervous system. in JOURNAL OF NEUROVIROLOGY
  • 2001-04. Pathways to neuronal injury and apoptosis in HIV-associated dementia in NATURE
  • 2004-01. Innate immune responses and control of acute simian immunodeficiency virus replication in the central nervous system. in JOURNAL OF NEUROVIROLOGY
  • 1998-01. Chemokine receptors in the human brain and their relationship to HIV infection. in JOURNAL OF NEUROVIROLOGY
  • 1999-09. Detection and localisation of HIV-1 DNA and RNA in fixed adult AIDS brain by polymerase chain reaction/ in situ hybridisation technique in ACTA NEUROPATHOLOGICA
  • 2000-01. Upregulated expression of interleukin-8, RANTES and chemokine receptors in human astrocytic cells infected with HIV-1. in JOURNAL OF NEUROVIROLOGY
  • Identifiers

    URI

    http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1186/1471-2202-8-31

    DOI

    http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2202-8-31

    DIMENSIONS

    https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1010513136

    PUBMED

    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17498309


    Indexing Status Check whether this publication has been indexed by Scopus and Web Of Science using the SN Indexing Status Tool
    Incoming Citations Browse incoming citations for this publication using opencitations.net

    JSON-LD is the canonical representation for SciGraph data.

    TIP: You can open this SciGraph record using an external JSON-LD service: JSON-LD Playground Google SDTT

    [
      {
        "@context": "https://springernature.github.io/scigraph/jsonld/sgcontext.json", 
        "about": [
          {
            "id": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/1108", 
            "inDefinedTermSet": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/", 
            "name": "Medical Microbiology", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/11", 
            "inDefinedTermSet": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/", 
            "name": "Medical and Health Sciences", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Astrocytes", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Binding Sites", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Brain", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Cell Adhesion", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Cells, Cultured", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Cytokines", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "HIV Infections", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "HIV-1", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "HeLa Cells", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Humans", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Immunologic Factors", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Inflammation", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Protein Binding", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Virion", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Virus Internalization", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }
        ], 
        "author": [
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "City Of Hope National Medical Center", 
              "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.410425.6", 
              "name": [
                "Molecular Virology Division, St. Luke's-Roosevelt Hospital Center and Columbia University, 432 West 58th Street, 10019, New York, NY, USA", 
                "Division of Virology, Beckman Research Institute of the City of Hope, 1500 East Duarte Road, 91010-3011, Duarte, CA, USA"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Li", 
            "givenName": "Jinliang", 
            "id": "sg:person.01137315166.18", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01137315166.18"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "Columbia University", 
              "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.21729.3f", 
              "name": [
                "Molecular Virology Division, St. Luke's-Roosevelt Hospital Center and Columbia University, 432 West 58th Street, 10019, New York, NY, USA"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Bentsman", 
            "givenName": "Galina", 
            "id": "sg:person.01107663650.47", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01107663650.47"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "Columbia University", 
              "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.21729.3f", 
              "name": [
                "Molecular Virology Division, St. Luke's-Roosevelt Hospital Center and Columbia University, 432 West 58th Street, 10019, New York, NY, USA"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Potash", 
            "givenName": "Mary Jane", 
            "id": "sg:person.01225141030.60", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01225141030.60"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "Columbia University", 
              "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.21729.3f", 
              "name": [
                "Molecular Virology Division, St. Luke's-Roosevelt Hospital Center and Columbia University, 432 West 58th Street, 10019, New York, NY, USA"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Volsky", 
            "givenName": "David J", 
            "id": "sg:person.01025652136.24", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01025652136.24"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }
        ], 
        "citation": [
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1002/ana.1011", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1000736542"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1083/jcb.200203150", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1001582225"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/nri1527", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1001952502", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/nri1527"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/nri1527", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1001952502", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/nri1527"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0042-6822(03)00181-8", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1004661948"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0042-6822(03)00181-8", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1004661948"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0402140101", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1005509088"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/89490", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1006514698", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/89490"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/89490", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1006514698", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/89490"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1097/00005072-199211000-00003", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1007949334"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.84.10.3526", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1008080102"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1128/jvi.75.17.7925-7933.2001", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1008272495"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/0192-0561(94)00088-6", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1009585075"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1056/nejm199504063321407", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1010047466"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1097/00005072-199311000-00002", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1010264881"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/nm1195-1174", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1010632691", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/nm1195-1174"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/nm1195-1174", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1010632691", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/nm1195-1174"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0306-4522(98)00714-3", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1010732643"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1093/jnen/60.9.885", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1010754213"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0736-5748(99)00083-0", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1011254416"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.yexcr.2003.07.011", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1013366665"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.yexcr.2003.07.011", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1013366665"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0500649102", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1013771032"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0006-8993(98)01371-7", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1013950530"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mcn.2004.07.003", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1014346850"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1128/jvi.74.19.9214-9221.2000", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1015385444"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0959-4388(00)00223-3", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1016542228"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.91.2.494", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1017559072"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0301-0082(00)00067-8", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1018189315"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0002-9440(10)65013-4", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1018307960"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1002/glia.20262", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1018564264"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1002/glia.20262", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1018564264"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/35073667", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1018601522", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/35073667"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/35073667", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1018601522", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/35073667"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/385645a0", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1019213748", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/385645a0"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0092-8674(00)81393-8", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1021611232"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1006/cimm.1996.0217", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1022970610"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jneuroim.2004.08.032", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1023281118"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/sj.onc.1205445", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1023412469", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.onc.1205445"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/sj.onc.1205445", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1023412469", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.onc.1205445"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1006/viro.2000.0640", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1026068753"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1080/13550280390201263", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1027525991", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1080/13550280390201263"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1097/00002030-199509000-00004", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1028960621"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1097/00002030-199509000-00004", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1028960621"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1074/jbc.271.26.15303", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1029502559"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1097/00019052-199606000-00013", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1030329752"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1097/00019052-199606000-00013", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1030329752"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1002/ana.410390606", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1030997709"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0165-5728(96)00160-9", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1031455603"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1124/mol.106.025973", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1032069696"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1128/jvi.76.7.3179-3188.2002", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1032133311"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1172/jci119002", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1034437832"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1086/323478", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1035018870"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jneuroim.2006.05.020", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1036310586"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1128/jvi.77.11.6138-6152.2003", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1037465517"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1097/00002030-199509020-00004", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1038077219"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1097/00002030-199509020-00004", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1038077219"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/31405", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1038246480", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/31405"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/31405", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1038246480", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/31405"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1128/jvi.79.15.9618-9624.2005", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1038274511"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1002/glia.20148", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1040962014"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1074/jbc.m205107200", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1041910174"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.95.6.3117", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1042138569"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/s004010051113", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1043156048", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/s004010051113"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1080/13550280390201119", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1043644569", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1080/13550280390201119"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1750-3639.2003.tb00014.x", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1045225223"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1084/jem.176.6.1703", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1045401895"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1750-3639.1991.tb00656.x", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1046039724"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1128/jvi.78.8.4120-4133.2004", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1046178765"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.83.18.7089", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1047875933"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0046-8177(83)80220-2", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1048641793"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jneuroim.2004.08.030", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1049362147"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1002/glia.20358", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1051087952"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1002/glia.1051", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1051597234"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1080/753312747", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1058426993", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1080/753312747"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1080/753312749", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1058426995", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1080/753312749"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1080/jnv.10.s1.15.20", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1058429354", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1080/jnv.10.s1.15.20"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1080/jnv.10.s1.25.32", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1058429356", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1080/jnv.10.s1.25.32"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1089/088922201316912745", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1059199591"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1089/aid.1994.10.1207", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1059223783"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1097/00002030-199901140-00003", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1060144191"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1097/00002030-199901140-00003", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1060144191"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1097/00002030-199901140-00003", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1060144191"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1126/science.298.5593.556", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1062578571"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1212/wnl.44.3_part_1.474", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1064372356"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1212/wnl.44.3_part_1.481", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1064372357"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.3109/13550280009006384", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1070985796", 
              "https://doi.org/10.3109/13550280009006384"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.3109/13550289809114531", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1070986068", 
              "https://doi.org/10.3109/13550289809114531"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.3109/13550289909021993", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1070986117", 
              "https://doi.org/10.3109/13550289909021993"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.3109/13550289909029740", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1070986142", 
              "https://doi.org/10.3109/13550289909029740"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.3109/13550289909029741", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1070986143", 
              "https://doi.org/10.3109/13550289909029741"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1074494572", 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1074504000", 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1074519442", 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1124/mol.57.4.667", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1074608112"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.173.4.2762", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1076874990"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1076951746", 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1077305464", 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1077847943", 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1078905897", 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1082550502", 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1082643864", 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1082653955", 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1082701735", 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1082723883", 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1083288865", 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }
        ], 
        "datePublished": "2007-12", 
        "datePublishedReg": "2007-12-01", 
        "description": "BACKGROUND: HIV-1 infects human astrocytes in vitro and in vivo but the frequency of infected cells is low and its biological significance is unknown. In studies in vitro, recombinant gp120 alone can induce profound effects on astrocyte biology, suggesting that HIV-1 interaction with astrocytes and its functional consequences extend beyond the limited levels of infection in these cells. Here we determined the relative efficiencies of HIV-1 binding and infection in human fetal astrocytes (HFA), mainly at the single cell level, using HIV-1 tagged with green fluorescence protein (GFP)-Vpr fusion proteins, termed HIV-GFP, to detect virus binding and HIV-1 expressing Rev and NefGFP fusion proteins to detect productive infection.\nRESULTS: Essentially all HFA in a population bound HIV-GFP specifically and independently of CCR5 and CXCR4. The dynamics of this binding at 37 degrees C resembled binding of an HIV fusion mutant to CD4-positive cells, indicating that most of HIV-GFP arrested infection of HFA at the stage of virus-cell fusion. Despite extensive binding, only about 1% of HFA were detectably infected by HIV-RevGFP or HIV-NefGFP, but this proportion increased to the majority of HFA when the viruses were pseudotyped with vesicular stomatitis virus envelope glycoprotein G, confirming that HFA impose a restriction upon HIV-1 entry. Exposure of HFA to HIV-1 through its native proteins rapidly induced synthesis of interleukin-6 and interleukin-8 with increased mRNA detected within 3 h and increased protein detected within 18 h of exposure.\nCONCLUSION: Our results indicate that HIV-1 binding to human astrocytes, although extensive, is not generally followed by virus entry and replication. Astrocytes respond to HIV-1 binding by rapidly increased cytokine production suggesting a role of this virus-brain cell interaction in HIV-1 neuropathogenesis.", 
        "genre": "research_article", 
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1186/1471-2202-8-31", 
        "inLanguage": [
          "en"
        ], 
        "isAccessibleForFree": true, 
        "isFundedItemOf": [
          {
            "id": "sg:grant.2437365", 
            "type": "MonetaryGrant"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:grant.2617049", 
            "type": "MonetaryGrant"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:grant.2485763", 
            "type": "MonetaryGrant"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:grant.2559236", 
            "type": "MonetaryGrant"
          }
        ], 
        "isPartOf": [
          {
            "id": "sg:journal.1024257", 
            "issn": [
              "1471-2202"
            ], 
            "name": "BMC Neuroscience", 
            "type": "Periodical"
          }, 
          {
            "issueNumber": "1", 
            "type": "PublicationIssue"
          }, 
          {
            "type": "PublicationVolume", 
            "volumeNumber": "8"
          }
        ], 
        "name": "Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 efficiently binds to human fetal astrocytes and induces neuroinflammatory responses independent of infection", 
        "pagination": "31", 
        "productId": [
          {
            "name": "readcube_id", 
            "type": "PropertyValue", 
            "value": [
              "3215c9683e7c4999b92b0d1f7e363c18fc55f9019a1f19458e3779e2f3a2024c"
            ]
          }, 
          {
            "name": "pubmed_id", 
            "type": "PropertyValue", 
            "value": [
              "17498309"
            ]
          }, 
          {
            "name": "nlm_unique_id", 
            "type": "PropertyValue", 
            "value": [
              "100966986"
            ]
          }, 
          {
            "name": "doi", 
            "type": "PropertyValue", 
            "value": [
              "10.1186/1471-2202-8-31"
            ]
          }, 
          {
            "name": "dimensions_id", 
            "type": "PropertyValue", 
            "value": [
              "pub.1010513136"
            ]
          }
        ], 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2202-8-31", 
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1010513136"
        ], 
        "sdDataset": "articles", 
        "sdDatePublished": "2019-04-10T18:18", 
        "sdLicense": "https://scigraph.springernature.com/explorer/license/", 
        "sdPublisher": {
          "name": "Springer Nature - SN SciGraph project", 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "sdSource": "s3://com-uberresearch-data-dimensions-target-20181106-alternative/cleanup/v134/2549eaecd7973599484d7c17b260dba0a4ecb94b/merge/v9/a6c9fde33151104705d4d7ff012ea9563521a3ce/jats-lookup/v90/0000000001_0000000264/records_8675_00000503.jsonl", 
        "type": "ScholarlyArticle", 
        "url": "http://link.springer.com/10.1186%2F1471-2202-8-31"
      }
    ]
     

    Download the RDF metadata as:  json-ld nt turtle xml License info

    HOW TO GET THIS DATA PROGRAMMATICALLY:

    JSON-LD is a popular format for linked data which is fully compatible with JSON.

    curl -H 'Accept: application/ld+json' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1186/1471-2202-8-31'

    N-Triples is a line-based linked data format ideal for batch operations.

    curl -H 'Accept: application/n-triples' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1186/1471-2202-8-31'

    Turtle is a human-readable linked data format.

    curl -H 'Accept: text/turtle' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1186/1471-2202-8-31'

    RDF/XML is a standard XML format for linked data.

    curl -H 'Accept: application/rdf+xml' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1186/1471-2202-8-31'


     

    This table displays all metadata directly associated to this object as RDF triples.

    443 TRIPLES      21 PREDICATES      136 URIs      36 LITERALS      24 BLANK NODES

    Subject Predicate Object
    1 sg:pub.10.1186/1471-2202-8-31 schema:about N163db9bea1c140718ec5513ec161ab5c
    2 N22643ac9eaff4599af94282747f0153a
    3 N2891d67a8efc4879b48c2c4cdd2407b9
    4 N2e08d2a4a17b4f7c867b2a12121aaaef
    5 N3469bd82401c40aab055c6917122db4f
    6 N48cdd4d0f4ee4b06ae2ec7bdc0655b51
    7 N570b4655370741ac9a66c91212dacc8b
    8 N71b5dbedf49e4182bffcc4d271f4e834
    9 N90ed5947a404439b968d9e3ed680ba04
    10 Na5e86c284497478d872d8198794bbb16
    11 Nab99b6ed9bf04270a24496991c5973c5
    12 Nabe0140a7f01447aac06ba85299a85e9
    13 Ndf0d4763d49a402ea33ec4a2f816f8f5
    14 Ne13330b876f74f798a5af242da14b98e
    15 Neb067389fe8b469883edeb9a64264a7b
    16 anzsrc-for:11
    17 anzsrc-for:1108
    18 schema:author Ndcb78fcc4f5b472a8324902672fb31cb
    19 schema:citation sg:pub.10.1007/s004010051113
    20 sg:pub.10.1038/31405
    21 sg:pub.10.1038/35073667
    22 sg:pub.10.1038/385645a0
    23 sg:pub.10.1038/89490
    24 sg:pub.10.1038/nm1195-1174
    25 sg:pub.10.1038/nri1527
    26 sg:pub.10.1038/sj.onc.1205445
    27 sg:pub.10.1080/13550280390201119
    28 sg:pub.10.1080/13550280390201263
    29 sg:pub.10.1080/753312747
    30 sg:pub.10.1080/753312749
    31 sg:pub.10.1080/jnv.10.s1.15.20
    32 sg:pub.10.1080/jnv.10.s1.25.32
    33 sg:pub.10.3109/13550280009006384
    34 sg:pub.10.3109/13550289809114531
    35 sg:pub.10.3109/13550289909021993
    36 sg:pub.10.3109/13550289909029740
    37 sg:pub.10.3109/13550289909029741
    38 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1074494572
    39 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1074504000
    40 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1074519442
    41 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1076951746
    42 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1077305464
    43 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1077847943
    44 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1078905897
    45 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1082550502
    46 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1082643864
    47 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1082653955
    48 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1082701735
    49 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1082723883
    50 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1083288865
    51 https://doi.org/10.1002/ana.1011
    52 https://doi.org/10.1002/ana.410390606
    53 https://doi.org/10.1002/glia.1051
    54 https://doi.org/10.1002/glia.20148
    55 https://doi.org/10.1002/glia.20262
    56 https://doi.org/10.1002/glia.20358
    57 https://doi.org/10.1006/cimm.1996.0217
    58 https://doi.org/10.1006/viro.2000.0640
    59 https://doi.org/10.1016/0192-0561(94)00088-6
    60 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jneuroim.2004.08.030
    61 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jneuroim.2004.08.032
    62 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jneuroim.2006.05.020
    63 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mcn.2004.07.003
    64 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.yexcr.2003.07.011
    65 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0002-9440(10)65013-4
    66 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0006-8993(98)01371-7
    67 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0042-6822(03)00181-8
    68 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0046-8177(83)80220-2
    69 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0092-8674(00)81393-8
    70 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0165-5728(96)00160-9
    71 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0301-0082(00)00067-8
    72 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0306-4522(98)00714-3
    73 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0736-5748(99)00083-0
    74 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0959-4388(00)00223-3
    75 https://doi.org/10.1056/nejm199504063321407
    76 https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0402140101
    77 https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0500649102
    78 https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.83.18.7089
    79 https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.84.10.3526
    80 https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.91.2.494
    81 https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.95.6.3117
    82 https://doi.org/10.1074/jbc.271.26.15303
    83 https://doi.org/10.1074/jbc.m205107200
    84 https://doi.org/10.1083/jcb.200203150
    85 https://doi.org/10.1084/jem.176.6.1703
    86 https://doi.org/10.1086/323478
    87 https://doi.org/10.1089/088922201316912745
    88 https://doi.org/10.1089/aid.1994.10.1207
    89 https://doi.org/10.1093/jnen/60.9.885
    90 https://doi.org/10.1097/00002030-199509000-00004
    91 https://doi.org/10.1097/00002030-199509020-00004
    92 https://doi.org/10.1097/00002030-199901140-00003
    93 https://doi.org/10.1097/00005072-199211000-00003
    94 https://doi.org/10.1097/00005072-199311000-00002
    95 https://doi.org/10.1097/00019052-199606000-00013
    96 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1750-3639.1991.tb00656.x
    97 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1750-3639.2003.tb00014.x
    98 https://doi.org/10.1124/mol.106.025973
    99 https://doi.org/10.1124/mol.57.4.667
    100 https://doi.org/10.1126/science.298.5593.556
    101 https://doi.org/10.1128/jvi.74.19.9214-9221.2000
    102 https://doi.org/10.1128/jvi.75.17.7925-7933.2001
    103 https://doi.org/10.1128/jvi.76.7.3179-3188.2002
    104 https://doi.org/10.1128/jvi.77.11.6138-6152.2003
    105 https://doi.org/10.1128/jvi.78.8.4120-4133.2004
    106 https://doi.org/10.1128/jvi.79.15.9618-9624.2005
    107 https://doi.org/10.1172/jci119002
    108 https://doi.org/10.1212/wnl.44.3_part_1.474
    109 https://doi.org/10.1212/wnl.44.3_part_1.481
    110 https://doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.173.4.2762
    111 schema:datePublished 2007-12
    112 schema:datePublishedReg 2007-12-01
    113 schema:description BACKGROUND: HIV-1 infects human astrocytes in vitro and in vivo but the frequency of infected cells is low and its biological significance is unknown. In studies in vitro, recombinant gp120 alone can induce profound effects on astrocyte biology, suggesting that HIV-1 interaction with astrocytes and its functional consequences extend beyond the limited levels of infection in these cells. Here we determined the relative efficiencies of HIV-1 binding and infection in human fetal astrocytes (HFA), mainly at the single cell level, using HIV-1 tagged with green fluorescence protein (GFP)-Vpr fusion proteins, termed HIV-GFP, to detect virus binding and HIV-1 expressing Rev and NefGFP fusion proteins to detect productive infection. RESULTS: Essentially all HFA in a population bound HIV-GFP specifically and independently of CCR5 and CXCR4. The dynamics of this binding at 37 degrees C resembled binding of an HIV fusion mutant to CD4-positive cells, indicating that most of HIV-GFP arrested infection of HFA at the stage of virus-cell fusion. Despite extensive binding, only about 1% of HFA were detectably infected by HIV-RevGFP or HIV-NefGFP, but this proportion increased to the majority of HFA when the viruses were pseudotyped with vesicular stomatitis virus envelope glycoprotein G, confirming that HFA impose a restriction upon HIV-1 entry. Exposure of HFA to HIV-1 through its native proteins rapidly induced synthesis of interleukin-6 and interleukin-8 with increased mRNA detected within 3 h and increased protein detected within 18 h of exposure. CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that HIV-1 binding to human astrocytes, although extensive, is not generally followed by virus entry and replication. Astrocytes respond to HIV-1 binding by rapidly increased cytokine production suggesting a role of this virus-brain cell interaction in HIV-1 neuropathogenesis.
    114 schema:genre research_article
    115 schema:inLanguage en
    116 schema:isAccessibleForFree true
    117 schema:isPartOf N8a35ee53df7248a2ae7422091805de79
    118 Nbea10bb08b1f4d99a417ff54618f543a
    119 sg:journal.1024257
    120 schema:name Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 efficiently binds to human fetal astrocytes and induces neuroinflammatory responses independent of infection
    121 schema:pagination 31
    122 schema:productId N74eabee51e7e4f99a339536ad55aeca2
    123 N8bc52c33791d4632a4f9de99e9cc13aa
    124 N98db260f59a247568fa925c9a96ecccf
    125 Nb942f91582c54f0ab6deeee1f55086b2
    126 Nc8b9c9a8ed40487c9553c702208b9a29
    127 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1010513136
    128 https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2202-8-31
    129 schema:sdDatePublished 2019-04-10T18:18
    130 schema:sdLicense https://scigraph.springernature.com/explorer/license/
    131 schema:sdPublisher Nf3ce1f4a062a4d30b19787aae4330599
    132 schema:url http://link.springer.com/10.1186%2F1471-2202-8-31
    133 sgo:license sg:explorer/license/
    134 sgo:sdDataset articles
    135 rdf:type schema:ScholarlyArticle
    136 N163db9bea1c140718ec5513ec161ab5c schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    137 schema:name Humans
    138 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    139 N1be2116a2c994658867ec1e3259f34b3 rdf:first sg:person.01107663650.47
    140 rdf:rest N80b1b974a9f648e6a32978095f3d3a09
    141 N22643ac9eaff4599af94282747f0153a schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    142 schema:name Astrocytes
    143 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    144 N2891d67a8efc4879b48c2c4cdd2407b9 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    145 schema:name HIV Infections
    146 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    147 N2e08d2a4a17b4f7c867b2a12121aaaef schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    148 schema:name HeLa Cells
    149 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    150 N3469bd82401c40aab055c6917122db4f schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    151 schema:name Protein Binding
    152 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    153 N48cdd4d0f4ee4b06ae2ec7bdc0655b51 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    154 schema:name Inflammation
    155 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    156 N570b4655370741ac9a66c91212dacc8b schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    157 schema:name Brain
    158 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    159 N71b5dbedf49e4182bffcc4d271f4e834 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    160 schema:name Virion
    161 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    162 N74eabee51e7e4f99a339536ad55aeca2 schema:name doi
    163 schema:value 10.1186/1471-2202-8-31
    164 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
    165 N80b1b974a9f648e6a32978095f3d3a09 rdf:first sg:person.01225141030.60
    166 rdf:rest Ne209998e723442d58be4838cfd0bdbb7
    167 N8a35ee53df7248a2ae7422091805de79 schema:issueNumber 1
    168 rdf:type schema:PublicationIssue
    169 N8bc52c33791d4632a4f9de99e9cc13aa schema:name readcube_id
    170 schema:value 3215c9683e7c4999b92b0d1f7e363c18fc55f9019a1f19458e3779e2f3a2024c
    171 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
    172 N90ed5947a404439b968d9e3ed680ba04 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    173 schema:name Immunologic Factors
    174 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    175 N98db260f59a247568fa925c9a96ecccf schema:name pubmed_id
    176 schema:value 17498309
    177 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
    178 Na5e86c284497478d872d8198794bbb16 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    179 schema:name Binding Sites
    180 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    181 Nab99b6ed9bf04270a24496991c5973c5 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    182 schema:name HIV-1
    183 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    184 Nabe0140a7f01447aac06ba85299a85e9 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    185 schema:name Cells, Cultured
    186 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    187 Nb942f91582c54f0ab6deeee1f55086b2 schema:name nlm_unique_id
    188 schema:value 100966986
    189 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
    190 Nbea10bb08b1f4d99a417ff54618f543a schema:volumeNumber 8
    191 rdf:type schema:PublicationVolume
    192 Nc8b9c9a8ed40487c9553c702208b9a29 schema:name dimensions_id
    193 schema:value pub.1010513136
    194 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
    195 Ndcb78fcc4f5b472a8324902672fb31cb rdf:first sg:person.01137315166.18
    196 rdf:rest N1be2116a2c994658867ec1e3259f34b3
    197 Ndf0d4763d49a402ea33ec4a2f816f8f5 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    198 schema:name Cytokines
    199 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    200 Ne13330b876f74f798a5af242da14b98e schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    201 schema:name Virus Internalization
    202 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    203 Ne209998e723442d58be4838cfd0bdbb7 rdf:first sg:person.01025652136.24
    204 rdf:rest rdf:nil
    205 Neb067389fe8b469883edeb9a64264a7b schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    206 schema:name Cell Adhesion
    207 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    208 Nf3ce1f4a062a4d30b19787aae4330599 schema:name Springer Nature - SN SciGraph project
    209 rdf:type schema:Organization
    210 anzsrc-for:11 schema:inDefinedTermSet anzsrc-for:
    211 schema:name Medical and Health Sciences
    212 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    213 anzsrc-for:1108 schema:inDefinedTermSet anzsrc-for:
    214 schema:name Medical Microbiology
    215 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    216 sg:grant.2437365 http://pending.schema.org/fundedItem sg:pub.10.1186/1471-2202-8-31
    217 rdf:type schema:MonetaryGrant
    218 sg:grant.2485763 http://pending.schema.org/fundedItem sg:pub.10.1186/1471-2202-8-31
    219 rdf:type schema:MonetaryGrant
    220 sg:grant.2559236 http://pending.schema.org/fundedItem sg:pub.10.1186/1471-2202-8-31
    221 rdf:type schema:MonetaryGrant
    222 sg:grant.2617049 http://pending.schema.org/fundedItem sg:pub.10.1186/1471-2202-8-31
    223 rdf:type schema:MonetaryGrant
    224 sg:journal.1024257 schema:issn 1471-2202
    225 schema:name BMC Neuroscience
    226 rdf:type schema:Periodical
    227 sg:person.01025652136.24 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.21729.3f
    228 schema:familyName Volsky
    229 schema:givenName David J
    230 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01025652136.24
    231 rdf:type schema:Person
    232 sg:person.01107663650.47 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.21729.3f
    233 schema:familyName Bentsman
    234 schema:givenName Galina
    235 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01107663650.47
    236 rdf:type schema:Person
    237 sg:person.01137315166.18 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.410425.6
    238 schema:familyName Li
    239 schema:givenName Jinliang
    240 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01137315166.18
    241 rdf:type schema:Person
    242 sg:person.01225141030.60 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.21729.3f
    243 schema:familyName Potash
    244 schema:givenName Mary Jane
    245 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01225141030.60
    246 rdf:type schema:Person
    247 sg:pub.10.1007/s004010051113 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1043156048
    248 https://doi.org/10.1007/s004010051113
    249 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    250 sg:pub.10.1038/31405 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1038246480
    251 https://doi.org/10.1038/31405
    252 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    253 sg:pub.10.1038/35073667 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1018601522
    254 https://doi.org/10.1038/35073667
    255 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    256 sg:pub.10.1038/385645a0 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1019213748
    257 https://doi.org/10.1038/385645a0
    258 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    259 sg:pub.10.1038/89490 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1006514698
    260 https://doi.org/10.1038/89490
    261 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    262 sg:pub.10.1038/nm1195-1174 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1010632691
    263 https://doi.org/10.1038/nm1195-1174
    264 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    265 sg:pub.10.1038/nri1527 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1001952502
    266 https://doi.org/10.1038/nri1527
    267 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    268 sg:pub.10.1038/sj.onc.1205445 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1023412469
    269 https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.onc.1205445
    270 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    271 sg:pub.10.1080/13550280390201119 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1043644569
    272 https://doi.org/10.1080/13550280390201119
    273 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    274 sg:pub.10.1080/13550280390201263 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1027525991
    275 https://doi.org/10.1080/13550280390201263
    276 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    277 sg:pub.10.1080/753312747 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1058426993
    278 https://doi.org/10.1080/753312747
    279 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    280 sg:pub.10.1080/753312749 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1058426995
    281 https://doi.org/10.1080/753312749
    282 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    283 sg:pub.10.1080/jnv.10.s1.15.20 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1058429354
    284 https://doi.org/10.1080/jnv.10.s1.15.20
    285 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    286 sg:pub.10.1080/jnv.10.s1.25.32 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1058429356
    287 https://doi.org/10.1080/jnv.10.s1.25.32
    288 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    289 sg:pub.10.3109/13550280009006384 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1070985796
    290 https://doi.org/10.3109/13550280009006384
    291 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    292 sg:pub.10.3109/13550289809114531 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1070986068
    293 https://doi.org/10.3109/13550289809114531
    294 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    295 sg:pub.10.3109/13550289909021993 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1070986117
    296 https://doi.org/10.3109/13550289909021993
    297 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    298 sg:pub.10.3109/13550289909029740 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1070986142
    299 https://doi.org/10.3109/13550289909029740
    300 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    301 sg:pub.10.3109/13550289909029741 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1070986143
    302 https://doi.org/10.3109/13550289909029741
    303 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    304 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1074494572 schema:CreativeWork
    305 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1074504000 schema:CreativeWork
    306 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1074519442 schema:CreativeWork
    307 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1076951746 schema:CreativeWork
    308 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1077305464 schema:CreativeWork
    309 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1077847943 schema:CreativeWork
    310 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1078905897 schema:CreativeWork
    311 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1082550502 schema:CreativeWork
    312 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1082643864 schema:CreativeWork
    313 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1082653955 schema:CreativeWork
    314 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1082701735 schema:CreativeWork
    315 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1082723883 schema:CreativeWork
    316 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1083288865 schema:CreativeWork
    317 https://doi.org/10.1002/ana.1011 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1000736542
    318 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    319 https://doi.org/10.1002/ana.410390606 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1030997709
    320 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    321 https://doi.org/10.1002/glia.1051 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1051597234
    322 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    323 https://doi.org/10.1002/glia.20148 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1040962014
    324 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    325 https://doi.org/10.1002/glia.20262 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1018564264
    326 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    327 https://doi.org/10.1002/glia.20358 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1051087952
    328 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    329 https://doi.org/10.1006/cimm.1996.0217 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1022970610
    330 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    331 https://doi.org/10.1006/viro.2000.0640 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1026068753
    332 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    333 https://doi.org/10.1016/0192-0561(94)00088-6 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1009585075
    334 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    335 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jneuroim.2004.08.030 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1049362147
    336 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    337 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jneuroim.2004.08.032 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1023281118
    338 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    339 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jneuroim.2006.05.020 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1036310586
    340 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    341 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mcn.2004.07.003 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1014346850
    342 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    343 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.yexcr.2003.07.011 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1013366665
    344 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    345 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0002-9440(10)65013-4 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1018307960
    346 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    347 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0006-8993(98)01371-7 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1013950530
    348 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    349 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0042-6822(03)00181-8 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1004661948
    350 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    351 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0046-8177(83)80220-2 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1048641793
    352 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    353 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0092-8674(00)81393-8 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1021611232
    354 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    355 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0165-5728(96)00160-9 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1031455603
    356 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    357 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0301-0082(00)00067-8 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1018189315
    358 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    359 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0306-4522(98)00714-3 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1010732643
    360 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    361 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0736-5748(99)00083-0 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1011254416
    362 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    363 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0959-4388(00)00223-3 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1016542228
    364 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    365 https://doi.org/10.1056/nejm199504063321407 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1010047466
    366 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    367 https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0402140101 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1005509088
    368 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    369 https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0500649102 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1013771032
    370 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    371 https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.83.18.7089 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1047875933
    372 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    373 https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.84.10.3526 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1008080102
    374 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    375 https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.91.2.494 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1017559072
    376 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    377 https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.95.6.3117 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1042138569
    378 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    379 https://doi.org/10.1074/jbc.271.26.15303 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1029502559
    380 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    381 https://doi.org/10.1074/jbc.m205107200 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1041910174
    382 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    383 https://doi.org/10.1083/jcb.200203150 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1001582225
    384 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    385 https://doi.org/10.1084/jem.176.6.1703 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1045401895
    386 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    387 https://doi.org/10.1086/323478 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1035018870
    388 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    389 https://doi.org/10.1089/088922201316912745 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1059199591
    390 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    391 https://doi.org/10.1089/aid.1994.10.1207 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1059223783
    392 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    393 https://doi.org/10.1093/jnen/60.9.885 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1010754213
    394 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    395 https://doi.org/10.1097/00002030-199509000-00004 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1028960621
    396 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    397 https://doi.org/10.1097/00002030-199509020-00004 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1038077219
    398 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    399 https://doi.org/10.1097/00002030-199901140-00003 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1060144191
    400 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    401 https://doi.org/10.1097/00005072-199211000-00003 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1007949334
    402 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    403 https://doi.org/10.1097/00005072-199311000-00002 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1010264881
    404 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    405 https://doi.org/10.1097/00019052-199606000-00013 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1030329752
    406 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    407 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1750-3639.1991.tb00656.x schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1046039724
    408 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    409 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1750-3639.2003.tb00014.x schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1045225223
    410 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    411 https://doi.org/10.1124/mol.106.025973 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1032069696
    412 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    413 https://doi.org/10.1124/mol.57.4.667 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1074608112
    414 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    415 https://doi.org/10.1126/science.298.5593.556 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1062578571
    416 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    417 https://doi.org/10.1128/jvi.74.19.9214-9221.2000 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1015385444
    418 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    419 https://doi.org/10.1128/jvi.75.17.7925-7933.2001 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1008272495
    420 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    421 https://doi.org/10.1128/jvi.76.7.3179-3188.2002 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1032133311
    422 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    423 https://doi.org/10.1128/jvi.77.11.6138-6152.2003 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1037465517
    424 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    425 https://doi.org/10.1128/jvi.78.8.4120-4133.2004 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1046178765
    426 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    427 https://doi.org/10.1128/jvi.79.15.9618-9624.2005 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1038274511
    428 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    429 https://doi.org/10.1172/jci119002 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1034437832
    430 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    431 https://doi.org/10.1212/wnl.44.3_part_1.474 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1064372356
    432 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    433 https://doi.org/10.1212/wnl.44.3_part_1.481 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1064372357
    434 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    435 https://doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.173.4.2762 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1076874990
    436 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    437 https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.21729.3f schema:alternateName Columbia University
    438 schema:name Molecular Virology Division, St. Luke's-Roosevelt Hospital Center and Columbia University, 432 West 58th Street, 10019, New York, NY, USA
    439 rdf:type schema:Organization
    440 https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.410425.6 schema:alternateName City Of Hope National Medical Center
    441 schema:name Division of Virology, Beckman Research Institute of the City of Hope, 1500 East Duarte Road, 91010-3011, Duarte, CA, USA
    442 Molecular Virology Division, St. Luke's-Roosevelt Hospital Center and Columbia University, 432 West 58th Street, 10019, New York, NY, USA
    443 rdf:type schema:Organization
     




    Preview window. Press ESC to close (or click here)


    ...