Expression of the cytochrome P450s, CYP6P3 and CYP6M2 are significantly elevated in multiple pyrethroid resistant populations of Anopheles gambiae s.s. ... View Full Text


Ontology type: schema:ScholarlyArticle      Open Access: True


Article Info

DATE

2008-12

AUTHORS

Rousseau F Djouaka, Adekunle A Bakare, Ousmane N Coulibaly, Martin C Akogbeto, Hilary Ranson, Janet Hemingway, Clare Strode

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Insecticide resistance in Anopheles mosquitoes is threatening the success of malaria control programmes. This is particularly true in Benin where pyrethroid resistance has been linked to the failure of insecticide treated bed nets. The role of mutations in the insecticide target sites in conferring resistance has been clearly established. In this study, the contribution of other potential resistance mechanisms was investigated in Anopheles gambiae s.s. from a number of localities in Southern Benin and Nigeria. The mosquitoes were sampled from a variety of breeding sites in a preliminary attempt to investigate the role of contamination of mosquito breeding sites in selecting for resistance in adult mosquitoes. RESULTS: All mosquitoes sampled belonged to the M form of An. gambiae s.s. There were high levels of permethrin resistance in an agricultural area (Akron) and an urban area (Gbedjromede), low levels of resistance in mosquito samples from an oil contaminated site (Ojoo) and complete susceptibility in the rural Orogun location. The target site mutation kdrW was detected at high levels in two of the populations (Akron f = 0.86 and Gbedjromede f = 0.84) but was not detected in Ojoo or Orogun. Microarray analysis using the Anopheles gambiae detox chip identified two P450s, CYP6P3 and CYP6M2 up regulated in all three populations, the former was expressed at particularly high levels in the Akron (12.4-fold) and Ojoo (7.4-fold) populations compared to the susceptible population. Additional detoxification and redox genes were also over expressed in one or more populations including two cuticular pre-cursor genes which were elevated in two of the three resistant populations. CONCLUSION: Multiple resistance mechanisms incurred in the different breeding sites contribute to resistance to permethrin in Benin. The cytochrome P450 genes, CYP6P3 and CYP6M2 are upregulated in all three resistant populations analysed. Several additional potential resistance mechanisms were also identified that warrant further investigation. Metabolic genes were over expressed irrespective of the presence of kdr, the latter resistance mechanism being absent in one resistant population. The discovery that mosquitoes collected from different types of breeding sites display differing profiles of metabolic genes at the adult stage may reflect the influence of a range of xenobiotics on selecting for resistance in mosquitoes. More... »

PAGES

538

Identifiers

URI

http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1186/1471-2164-9-538

DOI

http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2164-9-538

DIMENSIONS

https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1048145191

PUBMED

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19014539


Indexing Status Check whether this publication has been indexed by Scopus and Web Of Science using the SN Indexing Status Tool
Incoming Citations Browse incoming citations for this publication using opencitations.net

JSON-LD is the canonical representation for SciGraph data.

TIP: You can open this SciGraph record using an external JSON-LD service: JSON-LD Playground Google SDTT

[
  {
    "@context": "https://springernature.github.io/scigraph/jsonld/sgcontext.json", 
    "about": [
      {
        "id": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/0604", 
        "inDefinedTermSet": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/", 
        "name": "Genetics", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/06", 
        "inDefinedTermSet": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/", 
        "name": "Biological Sciences", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Animals", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Anopheles", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Benin", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Gene Expression", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Genotype", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Insecticide Resistance", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Insecticides", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Mosquito Control", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Nigeria", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Permethrin", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }
    ], 
    "author": [
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "University of Ibadan", 
          "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.9582.6", 
          "name": [
            "International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, 08BP0932, Cotonou, Benin", 
            "Department of Zoology, University of Ibadan, Nigeria"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Djouaka", 
        "givenName": "Rousseau F", 
        "id": "sg:person.0773212011.50", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0773212011.50"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "University of Ibadan", 
          "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.9582.6", 
          "name": [
            "Department of Zoology, University of Ibadan, Nigeria"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Bakare", 
        "givenName": "Adekunle A", 
        "id": "sg:person.01206354475.02", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01206354475.02"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "International Institute of Tropical Agriculture", 
          "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.419367.e", 
          "name": [
            "International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, 08BP0932, Cotonou, Benin"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Coulibaly", 
        "givenName": "Ousmane N", 
        "id": "sg:person.016643475775.08", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.016643475775.08"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "Institut de Recherche pour le D\u00e9veloppement", 
          "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.473220.0", 
          "name": [
            "Centre de Recherche Entomologique de Cotonou, 06 BP 2604, Benin"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Akogbeto", 
        "givenName": "Martin C", 
        "id": "sg:person.01042505671.77", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01042505671.77"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine", 
          "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.48004.38", 
          "name": [
            "Vector Group, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Pembroke Place, Liverpool, UK"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Ranson", 
        "givenName": "Hilary", 
        "id": "sg:person.01223155323.94", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01223155323.94"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine", 
          "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.48004.38", 
          "name": [
            "Vector Group, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Pembroke Place, Liverpool, UK"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Hemingway", 
        "givenName": "Janet", 
        "id": "sg:person.0751071745.51", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0751071745.51"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine", 
          "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.48004.38", 
          "name": [
            "Vector Group, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Pembroke Place, Liverpool, UK"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Strode", 
        "givenName": "Clare", 
        "id": "sg:person.01156033435.81", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01156033435.81"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }
    ], 
    "citation": [
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0965-1748(00)00123-5", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1001373528"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2583.2003.00407.x", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1002688657"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1186/1471-2164-8-34", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1004833711", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2164-8-34"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2915.1994.tb00389.x", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1006947465"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2583.2007.00728.x", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1010143296"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2583.2007.00728.x", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1010143296"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2583.2008.00776.x", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1011292036"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2583.2008.00776.x", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1011292036"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/0048-3575(89)90079-5", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1011703407"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.3201/eid1302.060631", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1013116483"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2583.1998.72062.x", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1014891128"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.actatropica.2007.01.005", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1016434731"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1186/1475-2875-6-159", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1016746399", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1186/1475-2875-6-159"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1126/science.287.5461.2185", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1019737566"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1186/1475-2875-5-16", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1022613323", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1186/1475-2875-5-16"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-294x.2007.03617.x", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1025685236"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1186/1475-2875-6-56", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1026599818", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1186/1475-2875-6-56"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1186/1475-2875-5-22", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1027281434", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1186/1475-2875-5-22"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.95.24.14284", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1028061488"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ibmb.2006.10.011", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1028220663"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1186/1471-2164-8-36", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1028567670", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2164-8-36"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-3156.2008.02025.x", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1030630115"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-3156.2008.02025.x", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1030630115"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1006/pest.1993.1018", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1031755905"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2583.2006.00667.x", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1033431755"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1042/bj3570065", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1037322122"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1042/bj3570065", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1037322122"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2583.2000.00206.x", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1037559736"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2915.2002.00393.x", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1040648031"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2583.2000.00209.x", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1041710430"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0409348102", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1044328341"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2005.02.026", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1045902707"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1186/1471-2164-8-5", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1051790048", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2164-8-5"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/bf00259679", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1052296954", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1007/bf00259679"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/bf00259679", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1052296954", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1007/bf00259679"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0002172", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1052689855"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2915.2000.00234.x", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1053379692"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1042/0264-6021:3570065", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1056715563"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1080/01621459.1988.10478639", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1058303616"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1093/jee/68.2.153", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1059776089"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1076781", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1062446979"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1179/000349802125002581", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1064097457"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1074361341", 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1074488798", 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1075271487", 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.2004.70.591", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1076855596"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1077177844", 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.2006.74.795", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1077236718"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1077325601", 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1080978747", 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1082584105", 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1082664891", 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }
    ], 
    "datePublished": "2008-12", 
    "datePublishedReg": "2008-12-01", 
    "description": "BACKGROUND: Insecticide resistance in Anopheles mosquitoes is threatening the success of malaria control programmes. This is particularly true in Benin where pyrethroid resistance has been linked to the failure of insecticide treated bed nets. The role of mutations in the insecticide target sites in conferring resistance has been clearly established. In this study, the contribution of other potential resistance mechanisms was investigated in Anopheles gambiae s.s. from a number of localities in Southern Benin and Nigeria. The mosquitoes were sampled from a variety of breeding sites in a preliminary attempt to investigate the role of contamination of mosquito breeding sites in selecting for resistance in adult mosquitoes.\nRESULTS: All mosquitoes sampled belonged to the M form of An. gambiae s.s. There were high levels of permethrin resistance in an agricultural area (Akron) and an urban area (Gbedjromede), low levels of resistance in mosquito samples from an oil contaminated site (Ojoo) and complete susceptibility in the rural Orogun location. The target site mutation kdrW was detected at high levels in two of the populations (Akron f = 0.86 and Gbedjromede f = 0.84) but was not detected in Ojoo or Orogun. Microarray analysis using the Anopheles gambiae detox chip identified two P450s, CYP6P3 and CYP6M2 up regulated in all three populations, the former was expressed at particularly high levels in the Akron (12.4-fold) and Ojoo (7.4-fold) populations compared to the susceptible population. Additional detoxification and redox genes were also over expressed in one or more populations including two cuticular pre-cursor genes which were elevated in two of the three resistant populations.\nCONCLUSION: Multiple resistance mechanisms incurred in the different breeding sites contribute to resistance to permethrin in Benin. The cytochrome P450 genes, CYP6P3 and CYP6M2 are upregulated in all three resistant populations analysed. Several additional potential resistance mechanisms were also identified that warrant further investigation. Metabolic genes were over expressed irrespective of the presence of kdr, the latter resistance mechanism being absent in one resistant population. The discovery that mosquitoes collected from different types of breeding sites display differing profiles of metabolic genes at the adult stage may reflect the influence of a range of xenobiotics on selecting for resistance in mosquitoes.", 
    "genre": "research_article", 
    "id": "sg:pub.10.1186/1471-2164-9-538", 
    "inLanguage": [
      "en"
    ], 
    "isAccessibleForFree": true, 
    "isPartOf": [
      {
        "id": "sg:journal.1023790", 
        "issn": [
          "1471-2164"
        ], 
        "name": "BMC Genomics", 
        "type": "Periodical"
      }, 
      {
        "issueNumber": "1", 
        "type": "PublicationIssue"
      }, 
      {
        "type": "PublicationVolume", 
        "volumeNumber": "9"
      }
    ], 
    "name": "Expression of the cytochrome P450s, CYP6P3 and CYP6M2 are significantly elevated in multiple pyrethroid resistant populations of Anopheles gambiae s.s. from Southern Benin and Nigeria", 
    "pagination": "538", 
    "productId": [
      {
        "name": "readcube_id", 
        "type": "PropertyValue", 
        "value": [
          "e55aec070bec8ffe1ffa0ad01841739ddfdb8badd940c38c740d1079138e6eb3"
        ]
      }, 
      {
        "name": "pubmed_id", 
        "type": "PropertyValue", 
        "value": [
          "19014539"
        ]
      }, 
      {
        "name": "nlm_unique_id", 
        "type": "PropertyValue", 
        "value": [
          "100965258"
        ]
      }, 
      {
        "name": "doi", 
        "type": "PropertyValue", 
        "value": [
          "10.1186/1471-2164-9-538"
        ]
      }, 
      {
        "name": "dimensions_id", 
        "type": "PropertyValue", 
        "value": [
          "pub.1048145191"
        ]
      }
    ], 
    "sameAs": [
      "https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2164-9-538", 
      "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1048145191"
    ], 
    "sdDataset": "articles", 
    "sdDatePublished": "2019-04-10T19:07", 
    "sdLicense": "https://scigraph.springernature.com/explorer/license/", 
    "sdPublisher": {
      "name": "Springer Nature - SN SciGraph project", 
      "type": "Organization"
    }, 
    "sdSource": "s3://com-uberresearch-data-dimensions-target-20181106-alternative/cleanup/v134/2549eaecd7973599484d7c17b260dba0a4ecb94b/merge/v9/a6c9fde33151104705d4d7ff012ea9563521a3ce/jats-lookup/v90/0000000001_0000000264/records_8678_00000508.jsonl", 
    "type": "ScholarlyArticle", 
    "url": "http://link.springer.com/10.1186%2F1471-2164-9-538"
  }
]
 

Download the RDF metadata as:  json-ld nt turtle xml License info

HOW TO GET THIS DATA PROGRAMMATICALLY:

JSON-LD is a popular format for linked data which is fully compatible with JSON.

curl -H 'Accept: application/ld+json' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1186/1471-2164-9-538'

N-Triples is a line-based linked data format ideal for batch operations.

curl -H 'Accept: application/n-triples' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1186/1471-2164-9-538'

Turtle is a human-readable linked data format.

curl -H 'Accept: text/turtle' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1186/1471-2164-9-538'

RDF/XML is a standard XML format for linked data.

curl -H 'Accept: application/rdf+xml' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1186/1471-2164-9-538'


 

This table displays all metadata directly associated to this object as RDF triples.

309 TRIPLES      21 PREDICATES      88 URIs      33 LITERALS      21 BLANK NODES

Subject Predicate Object
1 sg:pub.10.1186/1471-2164-9-538 schema:about N08a4091f1c854492bc85d4a9b610afb0
2 N1866c3ad19d94ca9a2ed16e570905065
3 N325c0676acd84b19bca76580193ee18e
4 N6487102d07e345d683ddc188bc99db0a
5 N6c194d4a21fa44fd89c7aa58d408aa4a
6 N7f82503f9fe244b3bb6cddad7536a3f3
7 N8327fcd117504d549c1989e107bf3cfc
8 Naacfc70220c74495b8df9fcace247381
9 Nc1d69b0b6bab4822973ce3e97432d3b9
10 Nc4f5bfa0f4144fa289381e6c02193ffa
11 Nc4f909faec154536b90c2b357ad96c31
12 Nf7bc499ec9a1444bb621100294f0e40b
13 anzsrc-for:06
14 anzsrc-for:0604
15 schema:author N9bd5fac9da84475084c1f8c40ab41f9d
16 schema:citation sg:pub.10.1007/bf00259679
17 sg:pub.10.1186/1471-2164-8-34
18 sg:pub.10.1186/1471-2164-8-36
19 sg:pub.10.1186/1471-2164-8-5
20 sg:pub.10.1186/1475-2875-5-16
21 sg:pub.10.1186/1475-2875-5-22
22 sg:pub.10.1186/1475-2875-6-159
23 sg:pub.10.1186/1475-2875-6-56
24 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1074361341
25 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1074488798
26 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1075271487
27 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1077177844
28 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1077325601
29 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1080978747
30 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1082584105
31 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1082664891
32 https://doi.org/10.1006/pest.1993.1018
33 https://doi.org/10.1016/0048-3575(89)90079-5
34 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.actatropica.2007.01.005
35 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2005.02.026
36 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ibmb.2006.10.011
37 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0965-1748(00)00123-5
38 https://doi.org/10.1042/0264-6021:3570065
39 https://doi.org/10.1042/bj3570065
40 https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2583.1998.72062.x
41 https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2583.2000.00206.x
42 https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2583.2000.00209.x
43 https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2583.2003.00407.x
44 https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2915.2000.00234.x
45 https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2915.2002.00393.x
46 https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0409348102
47 https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.95.24.14284
48 https://doi.org/10.1080/01621459.1988.10478639
49 https://doi.org/10.1093/jee/68.2.153
50 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2583.2006.00667.x
51 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2583.2007.00728.x
52 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2583.2008.00776.x
53 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2915.1994.tb00389.x
54 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-294x.2007.03617.x
55 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-3156.2008.02025.x
56 https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1076781
57 https://doi.org/10.1126/science.287.5461.2185
58 https://doi.org/10.1179/000349802125002581
59 https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0002172
60 https://doi.org/10.3201/eid1302.060631
61 https://doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.2004.70.591
62 https://doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.2006.74.795
63 schema:datePublished 2008-12
64 schema:datePublishedReg 2008-12-01
65 schema:description BACKGROUND: Insecticide resistance in Anopheles mosquitoes is threatening the success of malaria control programmes. This is particularly true in Benin where pyrethroid resistance has been linked to the failure of insecticide treated bed nets. The role of mutations in the insecticide target sites in conferring resistance has been clearly established. In this study, the contribution of other potential resistance mechanisms was investigated in Anopheles gambiae s.s. from a number of localities in Southern Benin and Nigeria. The mosquitoes were sampled from a variety of breeding sites in a preliminary attempt to investigate the role of contamination of mosquito breeding sites in selecting for resistance in adult mosquitoes. RESULTS: All mosquitoes sampled belonged to the M form of An. gambiae s.s. There were high levels of permethrin resistance in an agricultural area (Akron) and an urban area (Gbedjromede), low levels of resistance in mosquito samples from an oil contaminated site (Ojoo) and complete susceptibility in the rural Orogun location. The target site mutation kdrW was detected at high levels in two of the populations (Akron f = 0.86 and Gbedjromede f = 0.84) but was not detected in Ojoo or Orogun. Microarray analysis using the Anopheles gambiae detox chip identified two P450s, CYP6P3 and CYP6M2 up regulated in all three populations, the former was expressed at particularly high levels in the Akron (12.4-fold) and Ojoo (7.4-fold) populations compared to the susceptible population. Additional detoxification and redox genes were also over expressed in one or more populations including two cuticular pre-cursor genes which were elevated in two of the three resistant populations. CONCLUSION: Multiple resistance mechanisms incurred in the different breeding sites contribute to resistance to permethrin in Benin. The cytochrome P450 genes, CYP6P3 and CYP6M2 are upregulated in all three resistant populations analysed. Several additional potential resistance mechanisms were also identified that warrant further investigation. Metabolic genes were over expressed irrespective of the presence of kdr, the latter resistance mechanism being absent in one resistant population. The discovery that mosquitoes collected from different types of breeding sites display differing profiles of metabolic genes at the adult stage may reflect the influence of a range of xenobiotics on selecting for resistance in mosquitoes.
66 schema:genre research_article
67 schema:inLanguage en
68 schema:isAccessibleForFree true
69 schema:isPartOf Nd4fe060e59214980ae43a66ccd2b79af
70 Nee3a2f146c0d4b5db2129a71f50782cd
71 sg:journal.1023790
72 schema:name Expression of the cytochrome P450s, CYP6P3 and CYP6M2 are significantly elevated in multiple pyrethroid resistant populations of Anopheles gambiae s.s. from Southern Benin and Nigeria
73 schema:pagination 538
74 schema:productId N0ec1fdd47d8d46e7890ab4bfe6d07a69
75 N1f5a0b51f4c74d6b9ecfc6596fe6ca26
76 N5462cec11c80437db642b0ee2ab0d30c
77 Nb654056f9444442290eb0ee38c004641
78 Nffe1a8f9fd7e4ff6a4160371a788dced
79 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1048145191
80 https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2164-9-538
81 schema:sdDatePublished 2019-04-10T19:07
82 schema:sdLicense https://scigraph.springernature.com/explorer/license/
83 schema:sdPublisher N91d304cae6704b18b492f5cf693ce660
84 schema:url http://link.springer.com/10.1186%2F1471-2164-9-538
85 sgo:license sg:explorer/license/
86 sgo:sdDataset articles
87 rdf:type schema:ScholarlyArticle
88 N08a4091f1c854492bc85d4a9b610afb0 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
89 schema:name Genotype
90 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
91 N0ec1fdd47d8d46e7890ab4bfe6d07a69 schema:name pubmed_id
92 schema:value 19014539
93 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
94 N12f9f0a0b2284219a582cf755a473a30 rdf:first sg:person.016643475775.08
95 rdf:rest N78b58a87f8b6404291aee3ff4165781d
96 N1866c3ad19d94ca9a2ed16e570905065 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
97 schema:name Permethrin
98 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
99 N1f5a0b51f4c74d6b9ecfc6596fe6ca26 schema:name nlm_unique_id
100 schema:value 100965258
101 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
102 N325c0676acd84b19bca76580193ee18e schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
103 schema:name Animals
104 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
105 N3e23287727dc499aac7f308f54985d3f rdf:first sg:person.01156033435.81
106 rdf:rest rdf:nil
107 N5462cec11c80437db642b0ee2ab0d30c schema:name doi
108 schema:value 10.1186/1471-2164-9-538
109 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
110 N5e4a348f3f464ba6992843df80b5f520 rdf:first sg:person.0751071745.51
111 rdf:rest N3e23287727dc499aac7f308f54985d3f
112 N6487102d07e345d683ddc188bc99db0a schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
113 schema:name Mosquito Control
114 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
115 N692cd613e3e145cba43df82ab1bc3c82 rdf:first sg:person.01223155323.94
116 rdf:rest N5e4a348f3f464ba6992843df80b5f520
117 N6c194d4a21fa44fd89c7aa58d408aa4a schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
118 schema:name Insecticides
119 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
120 N78b58a87f8b6404291aee3ff4165781d rdf:first sg:person.01042505671.77
121 rdf:rest N692cd613e3e145cba43df82ab1bc3c82
122 N7f82503f9fe244b3bb6cddad7536a3f3 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
123 schema:name Insecticide Resistance
124 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
125 N819c5ebe7ee945f6a2b2cb988cdbcef5 rdf:first sg:person.01206354475.02
126 rdf:rest N12f9f0a0b2284219a582cf755a473a30
127 N8327fcd117504d549c1989e107bf3cfc schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
128 schema:name Anopheles
129 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
130 N91d304cae6704b18b492f5cf693ce660 schema:name Springer Nature - SN SciGraph project
131 rdf:type schema:Organization
132 N9bd5fac9da84475084c1f8c40ab41f9d rdf:first sg:person.0773212011.50
133 rdf:rest N819c5ebe7ee945f6a2b2cb988cdbcef5
134 Naacfc70220c74495b8df9fcace247381 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
135 schema:name Benin
136 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
137 Nb654056f9444442290eb0ee38c004641 schema:name dimensions_id
138 schema:value pub.1048145191
139 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
140 Nc1d69b0b6bab4822973ce3e97432d3b9 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
141 schema:name Nigeria
142 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
143 Nc4f5bfa0f4144fa289381e6c02193ffa schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
144 schema:name Gene Expression
145 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
146 Nc4f909faec154536b90c2b357ad96c31 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
147 schema:name Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis
148 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
149 Nd4fe060e59214980ae43a66ccd2b79af schema:volumeNumber 9
150 rdf:type schema:PublicationVolume
151 Nee3a2f146c0d4b5db2129a71f50782cd schema:issueNumber 1
152 rdf:type schema:PublicationIssue
153 Nf7bc499ec9a1444bb621100294f0e40b schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
154 schema:name Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System
155 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
156 Nffe1a8f9fd7e4ff6a4160371a788dced schema:name readcube_id
157 schema:value e55aec070bec8ffe1ffa0ad01841739ddfdb8badd940c38c740d1079138e6eb3
158 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
159 anzsrc-for:06 schema:inDefinedTermSet anzsrc-for:
160 schema:name Biological Sciences
161 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
162 anzsrc-for:0604 schema:inDefinedTermSet anzsrc-for:
163 schema:name Genetics
164 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
165 sg:journal.1023790 schema:issn 1471-2164
166 schema:name BMC Genomics
167 rdf:type schema:Periodical
168 sg:person.01042505671.77 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.473220.0
169 schema:familyName Akogbeto
170 schema:givenName Martin C
171 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01042505671.77
172 rdf:type schema:Person
173 sg:person.01156033435.81 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.48004.38
174 schema:familyName Strode
175 schema:givenName Clare
176 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01156033435.81
177 rdf:type schema:Person
178 sg:person.01206354475.02 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.9582.6
179 schema:familyName Bakare
180 schema:givenName Adekunle A
181 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01206354475.02
182 rdf:type schema:Person
183 sg:person.01223155323.94 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.48004.38
184 schema:familyName Ranson
185 schema:givenName Hilary
186 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01223155323.94
187 rdf:type schema:Person
188 sg:person.016643475775.08 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.419367.e
189 schema:familyName Coulibaly
190 schema:givenName Ousmane N
191 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.016643475775.08
192 rdf:type schema:Person
193 sg:person.0751071745.51 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.48004.38
194 schema:familyName Hemingway
195 schema:givenName Janet
196 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0751071745.51
197 rdf:type schema:Person
198 sg:person.0773212011.50 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.9582.6
199 schema:familyName Djouaka
200 schema:givenName Rousseau F
201 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0773212011.50
202 rdf:type schema:Person
203 sg:pub.10.1007/bf00259679 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1052296954
204 https://doi.org/10.1007/bf00259679
205 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
206 sg:pub.10.1186/1471-2164-8-34 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1004833711
207 https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2164-8-34
208 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
209 sg:pub.10.1186/1471-2164-8-36 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1028567670
210 https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2164-8-36
211 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
212 sg:pub.10.1186/1471-2164-8-5 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1051790048
213 https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2164-8-5
214 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
215 sg:pub.10.1186/1475-2875-5-16 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1022613323
216 https://doi.org/10.1186/1475-2875-5-16
217 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
218 sg:pub.10.1186/1475-2875-5-22 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1027281434
219 https://doi.org/10.1186/1475-2875-5-22
220 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
221 sg:pub.10.1186/1475-2875-6-159 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1016746399
222 https://doi.org/10.1186/1475-2875-6-159
223 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
224 sg:pub.10.1186/1475-2875-6-56 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1026599818
225 https://doi.org/10.1186/1475-2875-6-56
226 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
227 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1074361341 schema:CreativeWork
228 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1074488798 schema:CreativeWork
229 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1075271487 schema:CreativeWork
230 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1077177844 schema:CreativeWork
231 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1077325601 schema:CreativeWork
232 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1080978747 schema:CreativeWork
233 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1082584105 schema:CreativeWork
234 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1082664891 schema:CreativeWork
235 https://doi.org/10.1006/pest.1993.1018 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1031755905
236 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
237 https://doi.org/10.1016/0048-3575(89)90079-5 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1011703407
238 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
239 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.actatropica.2007.01.005 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1016434731
240 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
241 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2005.02.026 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1045902707
242 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
243 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ibmb.2006.10.011 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1028220663
244 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
245 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0965-1748(00)00123-5 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1001373528
246 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
247 https://doi.org/10.1042/0264-6021:3570065 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1056715563
248 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
249 https://doi.org/10.1042/bj3570065 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1037322122
250 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
251 https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2583.1998.72062.x schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1014891128
252 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
253 https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2583.2000.00206.x schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1037559736
254 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
255 https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2583.2000.00209.x schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1041710430
256 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
257 https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2583.2003.00407.x schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1002688657
258 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
259 https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2915.2000.00234.x schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1053379692
260 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
261 https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2915.2002.00393.x schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1040648031
262 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
263 https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0409348102 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1044328341
264 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
265 https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.95.24.14284 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1028061488
266 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
267 https://doi.org/10.1080/01621459.1988.10478639 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1058303616
268 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
269 https://doi.org/10.1093/jee/68.2.153 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1059776089
270 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
271 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2583.2006.00667.x schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1033431755
272 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
273 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2583.2007.00728.x schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1010143296
274 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
275 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2583.2008.00776.x schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1011292036
276 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
277 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2915.1994.tb00389.x schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1006947465
278 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
279 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-294x.2007.03617.x schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1025685236
280 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
281 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-3156.2008.02025.x schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1030630115
282 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
283 https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1076781 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1062446979
284 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
285 https://doi.org/10.1126/science.287.5461.2185 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1019737566
286 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
287 https://doi.org/10.1179/000349802125002581 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1064097457
288 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
289 https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0002172 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1052689855
290 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
291 https://doi.org/10.3201/eid1302.060631 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1013116483
292 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
293 https://doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.2004.70.591 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1076855596
294 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
295 https://doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.2006.74.795 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1077236718
296 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
297 https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.419367.e schema:alternateName International Institute of Tropical Agriculture
298 schema:name International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, 08BP0932, Cotonou, Benin
299 rdf:type schema:Organization
300 https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.473220.0 schema:alternateName Institut de Recherche pour le Développement
301 schema:name Centre de Recherche Entomologique de Cotonou, 06 BP 2604, Benin
302 rdf:type schema:Organization
303 https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.48004.38 schema:alternateName Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine
304 schema:name Vector Group, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Pembroke Place, Liverpool, UK
305 rdf:type schema:Organization
306 https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.9582.6 schema:alternateName University of Ibadan
307 schema:name Department of Zoology, University of Ibadan, Nigeria
308 International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, 08BP0932, Cotonou, Benin
309 rdf:type schema:Organization
 




Preview window. Press ESC to close (or click here)


...