An attenuated strain of Bacillus anthracis (CDC 684) has a large chromosomal inversion and altered growth kinetics View Full Text


Ontology type: schema:ScholarlyArticle      Open Access: True


Article Info

DATE

2011-12

AUTHORS

Richard T Okinaka, Erin P Price, Spenser R Wolken, Jeffrey M Gruendike, Wai Kwan Chung, Talima Pearson, Gary Xie, Chris Munk, Karen K Hill, Jean Challacombe, Bruce E Ivins, James M Schupp, Stephen M Beckstrom-Sternberg, Arthur Friedlander, Paul Keim

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: An isolate originally labeled Bacillus megaterium CDC 684 was found to contain both pXO1 and pXO2, was non-hemolytic, sensitive to gamma-phage, and produced both the protective antigen and the poly-D-glutamic acid capsule. These phenotypes prompted Ezzell et al., (J. Clin. Microbiol. 28:223) to reclassify this isolate to Bacillus anthracis in 1990. RESULTS: We demonstrate that despite these B. anthracis features, the isolate is severely attenuated in a guinea pig model. This prompted whole genome sequencing and closure. The comparative analysis of CDC 684 to other sequenced B. anthracis isolates and further analysis reveals: a) CDC 684 is a close relative of a virulent strain, Vollum A0488; b) CDC 684 defines a new B. anthracis lineage (at least 51 SNPs) that includes 15 other isolates; c) the genome of CDC 684 contains a large chromosomal inversion that spans 3.3 Mbp; d) this inversion has caused a displacement of the usual spatial orientation of the origin of replication (ori) to the termination of replication (ter) from 180° in wild-type B. anthracis to 120° in CDC 684 and e) this isolate also has altered growth kinetics in liquid media. CONCLUSIONS: We propose two alternative hypotheses explaining the attenuated phenotype of this isolate. Hypothesis 1 suggests that the skewed ori/ter relationship in CDC 684 has altered its DNA replication and/or transcriptome processes resulting in altered growth kinetics and virulence capacity. Hypothesis 2 suggests that one or more of the single nucleotide polymorphisms in CDC 684 has altered the expression of a regulatory element or other genes necessary for virulence. More... »

PAGES

477

Identifiers

URI

http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1186/1471-2164-12-477

DOI

http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2164-12-477

DIMENSIONS

https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1049097109

PUBMED

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21962024


Indexing Status Check whether this publication has been indexed by Scopus and Web Of Science using the SN Indexing Status Tool
Incoming Citations Browse incoming citations for this publication using opencitations.net

JSON-LD is the canonical representation for SciGraph data.

TIP: You can open this SciGraph record using an external JSON-LD service: JSON-LD Playground Google SDTT

[
  {
    "@context": "https://springernature.github.io/scigraph/jsonld/sgcontext.json", 
    "about": [
      {
        "id": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/0604", 
        "inDefinedTermSet": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/", 
        "name": "Genetics", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/06", 
        "inDefinedTermSet": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/", 
        "name": "Biological Sciences", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Bacillus anthracis", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Base Sequence", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Chromosome Inversion", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Genome, Bacterial", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Molecular Sequence Data", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Phylogeny", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }
    ], 
    "author": [
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "Los Alamos National Laboratory", 
          "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.148313.c", 
          "name": [
            "Center for Microbial Genetics and Genomics, Northern Arizona University, 86011, Flagstaff, AZ, USA", 
            "Bioscience Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, 87545, Los Alamos, NM, USA"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Okinaka", 
        "givenName": "Richard T", 
        "id": "sg:person.01225255057.59", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01225255057.59"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "Northern Arizona University", 
          "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.261120.6", 
          "name": [
            "Center for Microbial Genetics and Genomics, Northern Arizona University, 86011, Flagstaff, AZ, USA"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Price", 
        "givenName": "Erin P", 
        "id": "sg:person.01273623405.40", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01273623405.40"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "Northern Arizona University", 
          "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.261120.6", 
          "name": [
            "Center for Microbial Genetics and Genomics, Northern Arizona University, 86011, Flagstaff, AZ, USA"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Wolken", 
        "givenName": "Spenser R", 
        "id": "sg:person.01102702714.32", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01102702714.32"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "Northern Arizona University", 
          "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.261120.6", 
          "name": [
            "Center for Microbial Genetics and Genomics, Northern Arizona University, 86011, Flagstaff, AZ, USA"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Gruendike", 
        "givenName": "Jeffrey M", 
        "id": "sg:person.0620011757.57", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0620011757.57"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "Northern Arizona University", 
          "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.261120.6", 
          "name": [
            "Center for Microbial Genetics and Genomics, Northern Arizona University, 86011, Flagstaff, AZ, USA"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Chung", 
        "givenName": "Wai Kwan", 
        "id": "sg:person.01215220755.56", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01215220755.56"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "Northern Arizona University", 
          "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.261120.6", 
          "name": [
            "Center for Microbial Genetics and Genomics, Northern Arizona University, 86011, Flagstaff, AZ, USA"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Pearson", 
        "givenName": "Talima", 
        "id": "sg:person.01050613376.39", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01050613376.39"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "Los Alamos National Laboratory", 
          "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.148313.c", 
          "name": [
            "Bioscience Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, 87545, Los Alamos, NM, USA"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Xie", 
        "givenName": "Gary", 
        "id": "sg:person.01121323671.25", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01121323671.25"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "Los Alamos National Laboratory", 
          "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.148313.c", 
          "name": [
            "Bioscience Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, 87545, Los Alamos, NM, USA"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Munk", 
        "givenName": "Chris", 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "Los Alamos National Laboratory", 
          "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.148313.c", 
          "name": [
            "Bioscience Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, 87545, Los Alamos, NM, USA"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Hill", 
        "givenName": "Karen K", 
        "id": "sg:person.012735006052.71", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.012735006052.71"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "Los Alamos National Laboratory", 
          "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.148313.c", 
          "name": [
            "Bioscience Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, 87545, Los Alamos, NM, USA"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Challacombe", 
        "givenName": "Jean", 
        "id": "sg:person.0610243562.97", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0610243562.97"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases", 
          "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.416900.a", 
          "name": [
            "Bacteriology Division, United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, Fort Detrick, 21702-5011, Frederick, MD, USA"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Ivins", 
        "givenName": "Bruce E", 
        "id": "sg:person.0620501504.23", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0620501504.23"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "Translational Genomics Research Institute", 
          "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.250942.8", 
          "name": [
            "Pathogen Genomics Division, Translational Genomics Research Institute, 85004, Phoenix, AZ, USA"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Schupp", 
        "givenName": "James M", 
        "id": "sg:person.013516202057.39", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.013516202057.39"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "Translational Genomics Research Institute", 
          "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.250942.8", 
          "name": [
            "Center for Microbial Genetics and Genomics, Northern Arizona University, 86011, Flagstaff, AZ, USA", 
            "Pathogen Genomics Division, Translational Genomics Research Institute, 85004, Phoenix, AZ, USA"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Beckstrom-Sternberg", 
        "givenName": "Stephen M", 
        "id": "sg:person.01042370301.24", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01042370301.24"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases", 
          "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.416900.a", 
          "name": [
            "Bacteriology Division, United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, Fort Detrick, 21702-5011, Frederick, MD, USA"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Friedlander", 
        "givenName": "Arthur", 
        "id": "sg:person.0743535705.03", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0743535705.03"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "Translational Genomics Research Institute", 
          "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.250942.8", 
          "name": [
            "Center for Microbial Genetics and Genomics, Northern Arizona University, 86011, Flagstaff, AZ, USA", 
            "Bioscience Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, 87545, Los Alamos, NM, USA", 
            "Pathogen Genomics Division, Translational Genomics Research Institute, 85004, Phoenix, AZ, USA"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Keim", 
        "givenName": "Paul", 
        "id": "sg:person.01105606454.11", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01105606454.11"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }
    ], 
    "citation": [
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1128/jb.00303-06", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1003569719"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0402414101", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1005616628"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0000461", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1005915272"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1128/jcm.00561-06", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1007005796"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1128/aem.68.6.2924-2933.2002", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1011455700"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1186/gb-2000-1-2-comment1002", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1011631265", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1186/gb-2000-1-2-comment1002"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1093/nar/20.17.4567", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1013031915"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/294254a0", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1018088212", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1038/294254a0"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/978-3-662-05767-4_7", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1018880873", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-662-05767-4_7"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mimet.2005.09.013", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1022321347"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mimet.2005.09.013", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1022321347"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-6632.1980.tb18910.x", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1025376768"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/0378-1119(88)90439-8", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1026877224"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/0378-1119(88)90439-8", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1026877224"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1128/jb.188.9.3382-3390.2006", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1027043401"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tim.2008.01.010", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1028159768"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1462-2920.2005.00917.x", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1029416114"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1462-2920.2005.00917.x", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1029416114"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1186/1471-2180-6-34", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1030168318", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2180-6-34"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2958.2007.05596.x", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1030914727"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/0092-8674(83)90402-6", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1035075248"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0736-4679(03)00079-9", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1037608222"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0736-4679(03)00079-9", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1037608222"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/79918", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1037992750", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1038/79918"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/79918", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1037992750", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1038/79918"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/0378-1119(86)90044-2", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1038263461"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/0378-1119(86)90044-2", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1038263461"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mam.2009.08.005", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1038843159"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1101/gr.8.3.186", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1038920266"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1186/gb-2000-1-6-research0011", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1040639042", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1186/gb-2000-1-6-research0011"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2958.1988.tb00041.x", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1040758649"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1054/modi.2001.22327", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1043194139", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1054/modi.2001.22327"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1128/jb.01656-09", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1044330695"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/nature01586", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1044426221", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1038/nature01586"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/nature01586", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1044426221", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1038/nature01586"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0006531", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1047055799"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1101/gr.8.3.175", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1048253030"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0403844101", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1049166268"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1101/gr.2.1.14", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1051474568"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/0264-410x(94)90027-2", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1052524928"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/0264-410x(94)90027-2", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1052524928"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1017/s0022172400063488", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1054799138"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1128/aem.71.12.7778-7780.2005", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1062710668"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1128/jb.170.5.2263-2266.1988", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1062716930"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1128/jb.175.4.1053-1060.1993", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1062722380"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1128/jb.177.22.6585-6592.1995", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1062724341"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1074356104", 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.2144/99273rr02", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1074522343"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1074532344", 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1077214279", 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1077877650", 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1078295601", 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1078300886", 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1079547002", 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1081725547", 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }
    ], 
    "datePublished": "2011-12", 
    "datePublishedReg": "2011-12-01", 
    "description": "BACKGROUND: An isolate originally labeled Bacillus megaterium CDC 684 was found to contain both pXO1 and pXO2, was non-hemolytic, sensitive to gamma-phage, and produced both the protective antigen and the poly-D-glutamic acid capsule. These phenotypes prompted Ezzell et al., (J. Clin. Microbiol. 28:223) to reclassify this isolate to Bacillus anthracis in 1990.\nRESULTS: We demonstrate that despite these B. anthracis features, the isolate is severely attenuated in a guinea pig model. This prompted whole genome sequencing and closure. The comparative analysis of CDC 684 to other sequenced B. anthracis isolates and further analysis reveals: a) CDC 684 is a close relative of a virulent strain, Vollum A0488; b) CDC 684 defines a new B. anthracis lineage (at least 51 SNPs) that includes 15 other isolates; c) the genome of CDC 684 contains a large chromosomal inversion that spans 3.3 Mbp; d) this inversion has caused a displacement of the usual spatial orientation of the origin of replication (ori) to the termination of replication (ter) from 180\u00b0 in wild-type B. anthracis to 120\u00b0 in CDC 684 and e) this isolate also has altered growth kinetics in liquid media.\nCONCLUSIONS: We propose two alternative hypotheses explaining the attenuated phenotype of this isolate. Hypothesis 1 suggests that the skewed ori/ter relationship in CDC 684 has altered its DNA replication and/or transcriptome processes resulting in altered growth kinetics and virulence capacity. Hypothesis 2 suggests that one or more of the single nucleotide polymorphisms in CDC 684 has altered the expression of a regulatory element or other genes necessary for virulence.", 
    "genre": "research_article", 
    "id": "sg:pub.10.1186/1471-2164-12-477", 
    "inLanguage": [
      "en"
    ], 
    "isAccessibleForFree": true, 
    "isFundedItemOf": [
      {
        "id": "sg:grant.4394227", 
        "type": "MonetaryGrant"
      }
    ], 
    "isPartOf": [
      {
        "id": "sg:journal.1023790", 
        "issn": [
          "1471-2164"
        ], 
        "name": "BMC Genomics", 
        "type": "Periodical"
      }, 
      {
        "issueNumber": "1", 
        "type": "PublicationIssue"
      }, 
      {
        "type": "PublicationVolume", 
        "volumeNumber": "12"
      }
    ], 
    "name": "An attenuated strain of Bacillus anthracis (CDC 684) has a large chromosomal inversion and altered growth kinetics", 
    "pagination": "477", 
    "productId": [
      {
        "name": "readcube_id", 
        "type": "PropertyValue", 
        "value": [
          "e9e4439f49ac3fb437f823ccf645298ef991eeacb437527e7312310e0675df4b"
        ]
      }, 
      {
        "name": "pubmed_id", 
        "type": "PropertyValue", 
        "value": [
          "21962024"
        ]
      }, 
      {
        "name": "nlm_unique_id", 
        "type": "PropertyValue", 
        "value": [
          "100965258"
        ]
      }, 
      {
        "name": "doi", 
        "type": "PropertyValue", 
        "value": [
          "10.1186/1471-2164-12-477"
        ]
      }, 
      {
        "name": "dimensions_id", 
        "type": "PropertyValue", 
        "value": [
          "pub.1049097109"
        ]
      }
    ], 
    "sameAs": [
      "https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2164-12-477", 
      "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1049097109"
    ], 
    "sdDataset": "articles", 
    "sdDatePublished": "2019-04-10T17:30", 
    "sdLicense": "https://scigraph.springernature.com/explorer/license/", 
    "sdPublisher": {
      "name": "Springer Nature - SN SciGraph project", 
      "type": "Organization"
    }, 
    "sdSource": "s3://com-uberresearch-data-dimensions-target-20181106-alternative/cleanup/v134/2549eaecd7973599484d7c17b260dba0a4ecb94b/merge/v9/a6c9fde33151104705d4d7ff012ea9563521a3ce/jats-lookup/v90/0000000001_0000000264/records_8672_00000508.jsonl", 
    "type": "ScholarlyArticle", 
    "url": "http://link.springer.com/10.1186%2F1471-2164-12-477"
  }
]
 

Download the RDF metadata as:  json-ld nt turtle xml License info

HOW TO GET THIS DATA PROGRAMMATICALLY:

JSON-LD is a popular format for linked data which is fully compatible with JSON.

curl -H 'Accept: application/ld+json' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1186/1471-2164-12-477'

N-Triples is a line-based linked data format ideal for batch operations.

curl -H 'Accept: application/n-triples' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1186/1471-2164-12-477'

Turtle is a human-readable linked data format.

curl -H 'Accept: text/turtle' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1186/1471-2164-12-477'

RDF/XML is a standard XML format for linked data.

curl -H 'Accept: application/rdf+xml' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1186/1471-2164-12-477'


 

This table displays all metadata directly associated to this object as RDF triples.

348 TRIPLES      21 PREDICATES      83 URIs      28 LITERALS      16 BLANK NODES

Subject Predicate Object
1 sg:pub.10.1186/1471-2164-12-477 schema:about N3a4ab2a8d841421db49462fab5c30c49
2 N66c684480e2249b3a5d2234c489c9b90
3 N8f79b3ab045f48ef9e0e8429bf54083b
4 Na3acc77d7d9647f5b1c48ba1d4bc6b2c
5 Nc892b87167804c52892e75a806350c2a
6 Nc9ee9b8ec077429e8912bfddd58722d4
7 Nd7d07a670c8840dc88a7231cd0c622b9
8 anzsrc-for:06
9 anzsrc-for:0604
10 schema:author N57f17ad5cfce4853bb9295adef79eb89
11 schema:citation sg:pub.10.1007/978-3-662-05767-4_7
12 sg:pub.10.1038/294254a0
13 sg:pub.10.1038/79918
14 sg:pub.10.1038/nature01586
15 sg:pub.10.1054/modi.2001.22327
16 sg:pub.10.1186/1471-2180-6-34
17 sg:pub.10.1186/gb-2000-1-2-comment1002
18 sg:pub.10.1186/gb-2000-1-6-research0011
19 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1074356104
20 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1074532344
21 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1077214279
22 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1077877650
23 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1078295601
24 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1078300886
25 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1079547002
26 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1081725547
27 https://doi.org/10.1016/0092-8674(83)90402-6
28 https://doi.org/10.1016/0264-410x(94)90027-2
29 https://doi.org/10.1016/0378-1119(86)90044-2
30 https://doi.org/10.1016/0378-1119(88)90439-8
31 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mam.2009.08.005
32 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mimet.2005.09.013
33 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tim.2008.01.010
34 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0736-4679(03)00079-9
35 https://doi.org/10.1017/s0022172400063488
36 https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0402414101
37 https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0403844101
38 https://doi.org/10.1093/nar/20.17.4567
39 https://doi.org/10.1101/gr.2.1.14
40 https://doi.org/10.1101/gr.8.3.175
41 https://doi.org/10.1101/gr.8.3.186
42 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2958.1988.tb00041.x
43 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2958.2007.05596.x
44 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1462-2920.2005.00917.x
45 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-6632.1980.tb18910.x
46 https://doi.org/10.1128/aem.68.6.2924-2933.2002
47 https://doi.org/10.1128/aem.71.12.7778-7780.2005
48 https://doi.org/10.1128/jb.00303-06
49 https://doi.org/10.1128/jb.01656-09
50 https://doi.org/10.1128/jb.170.5.2263-2266.1988
51 https://doi.org/10.1128/jb.175.4.1053-1060.1993
52 https://doi.org/10.1128/jb.177.22.6585-6592.1995
53 https://doi.org/10.1128/jb.188.9.3382-3390.2006
54 https://doi.org/10.1128/jcm.00561-06
55 https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0000461
56 https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0006531
57 https://doi.org/10.2144/99273rr02
58 schema:datePublished 2011-12
59 schema:datePublishedReg 2011-12-01
60 schema:description BACKGROUND: An isolate originally labeled Bacillus megaterium CDC 684 was found to contain both pXO1 and pXO2, was non-hemolytic, sensitive to gamma-phage, and produced both the protective antigen and the poly-D-glutamic acid capsule. These phenotypes prompted Ezzell et al., (J. Clin. Microbiol. 28:223) to reclassify this isolate to Bacillus anthracis in 1990. RESULTS: We demonstrate that despite these B. anthracis features, the isolate is severely attenuated in a guinea pig model. This prompted whole genome sequencing and closure. The comparative analysis of CDC 684 to other sequenced B. anthracis isolates and further analysis reveals: a) CDC 684 is a close relative of a virulent strain, Vollum A0488; b) CDC 684 defines a new B. anthracis lineage (at least 51 SNPs) that includes 15 other isolates; c) the genome of CDC 684 contains a large chromosomal inversion that spans 3.3 Mbp; d) this inversion has caused a displacement of the usual spatial orientation of the origin of replication (ori) to the termination of replication (ter) from 180° in wild-type B. anthracis to 120° in CDC 684 and e) this isolate also has altered growth kinetics in liquid media. CONCLUSIONS: We propose two alternative hypotheses explaining the attenuated phenotype of this isolate. Hypothesis 1 suggests that the skewed ori/ter relationship in CDC 684 has altered its DNA replication and/or transcriptome processes resulting in altered growth kinetics and virulence capacity. Hypothesis 2 suggests that one or more of the single nucleotide polymorphisms in CDC 684 has altered the expression of a regulatory element or other genes necessary for virulence.
61 schema:genre research_article
62 schema:inLanguage en
63 schema:isAccessibleForFree true
64 schema:isPartOf Nb40d8ee2592448b79b911cb2c2e3ce46
65 Nf767b42947ae487a84ae1b31b47ea2b7
66 sg:journal.1023790
67 schema:name An attenuated strain of Bacillus anthracis (CDC 684) has a large chromosomal inversion and altered growth kinetics
68 schema:pagination 477
69 schema:productId N62e129bce8ac4c76ae75fb88c29169d2
70 N7affc3b316cd4d4bae2eccf2e8ffeaec
71 N967772c48d4748b7aff8c626a4eb22c2
72 Nec5ea23da48b48e7a20797cf98f0c7f6
73 Nf61eff4c1463410db4f6408c0109d62b
74 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1049097109
75 https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2164-12-477
76 schema:sdDatePublished 2019-04-10T17:30
77 schema:sdLicense https://scigraph.springernature.com/explorer/license/
78 schema:sdPublisher N5b6c51eb1f6440ed90f8faa986bd4713
79 schema:url http://link.springer.com/10.1186%2F1471-2164-12-477
80 sgo:license sg:explorer/license/
81 sgo:sdDataset articles
82 rdf:type schema:ScholarlyArticle
83 N0af7a42de00e46039f5bfbf379d9ac20 rdf:first sg:person.01042370301.24
84 rdf:rest Ndcb5f83977804390bf6dc72d39723305
85 N223df3413b1145bd93e2a30531e54e19 rdf:first sg:person.01050613376.39
86 rdf:rest N47567163386e4ef7bf18017bc882965b
87 N2519b7a56f184105bb97ea32009ba2d6 rdf:first sg:person.013516202057.39
88 rdf:rest N0af7a42de00e46039f5bfbf379d9ac20
89 N3a4ab2a8d841421db49462fab5c30c49 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
90 schema:name Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide
91 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
92 N47567163386e4ef7bf18017bc882965b rdf:first sg:person.01121323671.25
93 rdf:rest N98a4c3b3b4db4673ad603bb0669bc098
94 N48d27e1130474d6a9f7533c5b5394d8e rdf:first sg:person.01102702714.32
95 rdf:rest N4b8962625f3240d8960201b9feec81d5
96 N4b8962625f3240d8960201b9feec81d5 rdf:first sg:person.0620011757.57
97 rdf:rest N9b420b5e2f20440c89c1f17e9182ae7b
98 N57f17ad5cfce4853bb9295adef79eb89 rdf:first sg:person.01225255057.59
99 rdf:rest N866c35af52ab4be88690e5f73994f50a
100 N5b6c51eb1f6440ed90f8faa986bd4713 schema:name Springer Nature - SN SciGraph project
101 rdf:type schema:Organization
102 N62e129bce8ac4c76ae75fb88c29169d2 schema:name dimensions_id
103 schema:value pub.1049097109
104 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
105 N66c684480e2249b3a5d2234c489c9b90 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
106 schema:name Chromosome Inversion
107 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
108 N7affc3b316cd4d4bae2eccf2e8ffeaec schema:name readcube_id
109 schema:value e9e4439f49ac3fb437f823ccf645298ef991eeacb437527e7312310e0675df4b
110 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
111 N7d44ff7bd01f496386309dbdcc2da10a rdf:first sg:person.0610243562.97
112 rdf:rest N9e6e5c923d9243f08454f057747d2009
113 N866c35af52ab4be88690e5f73994f50a rdf:first sg:person.01273623405.40
114 rdf:rest N48d27e1130474d6a9f7533c5b5394d8e
115 N8f79b3ab045f48ef9e0e8429bf54083b schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
116 schema:name Molecular Sequence Data
117 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
118 N967772c48d4748b7aff8c626a4eb22c2 schema:name nlm_unique_id
119 schema:value 100965258
120 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
121 N98a4c3b3b4db4673ad603bb0669bc098 rdf:first Ne55db5b4b1ab45839987ef84c17343cc
122 rdf:rest Ne1e210a625fa43d38aff87173d9f0f5d
123 N9b420b5e2f20440c89c1f17e9182ae7b rdf:first sg:person.01215220755.56
124 rdf:rest N223df3413b1145bd93e2a30531e54e19
125 N9e6e5c923d9243f08454f057747d2009 rdf:first sg:person.0620501504.23
126 rdf:rest N2519b7a56f184105bb97ea32009ba2d6
127 Na3acc77d7d9647f5b1c48ba1d4bc6b2c schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
128 schema:name Base Sequence
129 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
130 Nb40d8ee2592448b79b911cb2c2e3ce46 schema:issueNumber 1
131 rdf:type schema:PublicationIssue
132 Nc892b87167804c52892e75a806350c2a schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
133 schema:name Bacillus anthracis
134 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
135 Nc9ee9b8ec077429e8912bfddd58722d4 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
136 schema:name Genome, Bacterial
137 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
138 Nd7d07a670c8840dc88a7231cd0c622b9 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
139 schema:name Phylogeny
140 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
141 Ndcb5f83977804390bf6dc72d39723305 rdf:first sg:person.0743535705.03
142 rdf:rest Ne3fed2870f224ce1ae897b56f370797a
143 Ne1e210a625fa43d38aff87173d9f0f5d rdf:first sg:person.012735006052.71
144 rdf:rest N7d44ff7bd01f496386309dbdcc2da10a
145 Ne3fed2870f224ce1ae897b56f370797a rdf:first sg:person.01105606454.11
146 rdf:rest rdf:nil
147 Ne55db5b4b1ab45839987ef84c17343cc schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.148313.c
148 schema:familyName Munk
149 schema:givenName Chris
150 rdf:type schema:Person
151 Nec5ea23da48b48e7a20797cf98f0c7f6 schema:name doi
152 schema:value 10.1186/1471-2164-12-477
153 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
154 Nf61eff4c1463410db4f6408c0109d62b schema:name pubmed_id
155 schema:value 21962024
156 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
157 Nf767b42947ae487a84ae1b31b47ea2b7 schema:volumeNumber 12
158 rdf:type schema:PublicationVolume
159 anzsrc-for:06 schema:inDefinedTermSet anzsrc-for:
160 schema:name Biological Sciences
161 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
162 anzsrc-for:0604 schema:inDefinedTermSet anzsrc-for:
163 schema:name Genetics
164 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
165 sg:grant.4394227 http://pending.schema.org/fundedItem sg:pub.10.1186/1471-2164-12-477
166 rdf:type schema:MonetaryGrant
167 sg:journal.1023790 schema:issn 1471-2164
168 schema:name BMC Genomics
169 rdf:type schema:Periodical
170 sg:person.01042370301.24 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.250942.8
171 schema:familyName Beckstrom-Sternberg
172 schema:givenName Stephen M
173 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01042370301.24
174 rdf:type schema:Person
175 sg:person.01050613376.39 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.261120.6
176 schema:familyName Pearson
177 schema:givenName Talima
178 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01050613376.39
179 rdf:type schema:Person
180 sg:person.01102702714.32 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.261120.6
181 schema:familyName Wolken
182 schema:givenName Spenser R
183 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01102702714.32
184 rdf:type schema:Person
185 sg:person.01105606454.11 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.250942.8
186 schema:familyName Keim
187 schema:givenName Paul
188 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01105606454.11
189 rdf:type schema:Person
190 sg:person.01121323671.25 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.148313.c
191 schema:familyName Xie
192 schema:givenName Gary
193 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01121323671.25
194 rdf:type schema:Person
195 sg:person.01215220755.56 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.261120.6
196 schema:familyName Chung
197 schema:givenName Wai Kwan
198 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01215220755.56
199 rdf:type schema:Person
200 sg:person.01225255057.59 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.148313.c
201 schema:familyName Okinaka
202 schema:givenName Richard T
203 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01225255057.59
204 rdf:type schema:Person
205 sg:person.012735006052.71 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.148313.c
206 schema:familyName Hill
207 schema:givenName Karen K
208 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.012735006052.71
209 rdf:type schema:Person
210 sg:person.01273623405.40 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.261120.6
211 schema:familyName Price
212 schema:givenName Erin P
213 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01273623405.40
214 rdf:type schema:Person
215 sg:person.013516202057.39 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.250942.8
216 schema:familyName Schupp
217 schema:givenName James M
218 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.013516202057.39
219 rdf:type schema:Person
220 sg:person.0610243562.97 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.148313.c
221 schema:familyName Challacombe
222 schema:givenName Jean
223 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0610243562.97
224 rdf:type schema:Person
225 sg:person.0620011757.57 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.261120.6
226 schema:familyName Gruendike
227 schema:givenName Jeffrey M
228 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0620011757.57
229 rdf:type schema:Person
230 sg:person.0620501504.23 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.416900.a
231 schema:familyName Ivins
232 schema:givenName Bruce E
233 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0620501504.23
234 rdf:type schema:Person
235 sg:person.0743535705.03 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.416900.a
236 schema:familyName Friedlander
237 schema:givenName Arthur
238 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0743535705.03
239 rdf:type schema:Person
240 sg:pub.10.1007/978-3-662-05767-4_7 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1018880873
241 https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-662-05767-4_7
242 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
243 sg:pub.10.1038/294254a0 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1018088212
244 https://doi.org/10.1038/294254a0
245 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
246 sg:pub.10.1038/79918 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1037992750
247 https://doi.org/10.1038/79918
248 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
249 sg:pub.10.1038/nature01586 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1044426221
250 https://doi.org/10.1038/nature01586
251 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
252 sg:pub.10.1054/modi.2001.22327 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1043194139
253 https://doi.org/10.1054/modi.2001.22327
254 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
255 sg:pub.10.1186/1471-2180-6-34 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1030168318
256 https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2180-6-34
257 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
258 sg:pub.10.1186/gb-2000-1-2-comment1002 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1011631265
259 https://doi.org/10.1186/gb-2000-1-2-comment1002
260 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
261 sg:pub.10.1186/gb-2000-1-6-research0011 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1040639042
262 https://doi.org/10.1186/gb-2000-1-6-research0011
263 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
264 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1074356104 schema:CreativeWork
265 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1074532344 schema:CreativeWork
266 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1077214279 schema:CreativeWork
267 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1077877650 schema:CreativeWork
268 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1078295601 schema:CreativeWork
269 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1078300886 schema:CreativeWork
270 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1079547002 schema:CreativeWork
271 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1081725547 schema:CreativeWork
272 https://doi.org/10.1016/0092-8674(83)90402-6 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1035075248
273 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
274 https://doi.org/10.1016/0264-410x(94)90027-2 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1052524928
275 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
276 https://doi.org/10.1016/0378-1119(86)90044-2 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1038263461
277 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
278 https://doi.org/10.1016/0378-1119(88)90439-8 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1026877224
279 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
280 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mam.2009.08.005 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1038843159
281 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
282 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mimet.2005.09.013 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1022321347
283 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
284 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tim.2008.01.010 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1028159768
285 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
286 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0736-4679(03)00079-9 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1037608222
287 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
288 https://doi.org/10.1017/s0022172400063488 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1054799138
289 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
290 https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0402414101 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1005616628
291 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
292 https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0403844101 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1049166268
293 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
294 https://doi.org/10.1093/nar/20.17.4567 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1013031915
295 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
296 https://doi.org/10.1101/gr.2.1.14 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1051474568
297 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
298 https://doi.org/10.1101/gr.8.3.175 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1048253030
299 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
300 https://doi.org/10.1101/gr.8.3.186 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1038920266
301 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
302 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2958.1988.tb00041.x schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1040758649
303 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
304 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2958.2007.05596.x schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1030914727
305 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
306 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1462-2920.2005.00917.x schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1029416114
307 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
308 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-6632.1980.tb18910.x schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1025376768
309 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
310 https://doi.org/10.1128/aem.68.6.2924-2933.2002 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1011455700
311 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
312 https://doi.org/10.1128/aem.71.12.7778-7780.2005 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1062710668
313 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
314 https://doi.org/10.1128/jb.00303-06 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1003569719
315 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
316 https://doi.org/10.1128/jb.01656-09 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1044330695
317 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
318 https://doi.org/10.1128/jb.170.5.2263-2266.1988 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1062716930
319 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
320 https://doi.org/10.1128/jb.175.4.1053-1060.1993 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1062722380
321 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
322 https://doi.org/10.1128/jb.177.22.6585-6592.1995 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1062724341
323 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
324 https://doi.org/10.1128/jb.188.9.3382-3390.2006 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1027043401
325 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
326 https://doi.org/10.1128/jcm.00561-06 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1007005796
327 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
328 https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0000461 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1005915272
329 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
330 https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0006531 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1047055799
331 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
332 https://doi.org/10.2144/99273rr02 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1074522343
333 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
334 https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.148313.c schema:alternateName Los Alamos National Laboratory
335 schema:name Bioscience Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, 87545, Los Alamos, NM, USA
336 Center for Microbial Genetics and Genomics, Northern Arizona University, 86011, Flagstaff, AZ, USA
337 rdf:type schema:Organization
338 https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.250942.8 schema:alternateName Translational Genomics Research Institute
339 schema:name Bioscience Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, 87545, Los Alamos, NM, USA
340 Center for Microbial Genetics and Genomics, Northern Arizona University, 86011, Flagstaff, AZ, USA
341 Pathogen Genomics Division, Translational Genomics Research Institute, 85004, Phoenix, AZ, USA
342 rdf:type schema:Organization
343 https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.261120.6 schema:alternateName Northern Arizona University
344 schema:name Center for Microbial Genetics and Genomics, Northern Arizona University, 86011, Flagstaff, AZ, USA
345 rdf:type schema:Organization
346 https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.416900.a schema:alternateName United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases
347 schema:name Bacteriology Division, United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, Fort Detrick, 21702-5011, Frederick, MD, USA
348 rdf:type schema:Organization
 




Preview window. Press ESC to close (or click here)


...