The transcriptional programme of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium reveals a key role for tryptophan metabolism in biofilms View Full Text


Ontology type: schema:ScholarlyArticle      Open Access: True


Article Info

DATE

2009-12-11

AUTHORS

Shea Hamilton, Roy JM Bongaerts, Francis Mulholland, Brett Cochrane, Jonathan Porter, Sacha Lucchini, Hilary M Lappin-Scott, Jay CD Hinton

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Biofilm formation enhances the capacity of pathogenic Salmonella bacteria to survive stresses that are commonly encountered within food processing and during host infection. The persistence of Salmonella within the food chain has become a major health concern, as biofilms can serve as a reservoir for the contamination of food products. While the molecular mechanisms required for the survival of bacteria on surfaces are not fully understood, transcriptional studies of other bacteria have demonstrated that biofilm growth triggers the expression of specific sets of genes, compared with planktonic cells. Until now, most gene expression studies of Salmonella have focused on the effect of infection-relevant stressors on virulence or the comparison of mutant and wild-type bacteria. However little is known about the physiological responses taking place inside a Salmonella biofilm. RESULTS: We have determined the transcriptomic and proteomic profiles of biofilms of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. We discovered that 124 detectable proteins were differentially expressed in the biofilm compared with planktonic cells, and that 10% of the S. Typhimurium genome (433 genes) showed a 2-fold or more change in the biofilm compared with planktonic cells. The genes that were significantly up-regulated implicated certain cellular processes in biofilm development including amino acid metabolism, cell motility, global regulation and tolerance to stress. We found that the most highly down-regulated genes in the biofilm were located on Salmonella Pathogenicity Island 2 (SPI2), and that a functional SPI2 secretion system regulator (ssrA) was required for S. Typhimurium biofilm formation. We identified STM0341 as a gene of unknown function that was needed for biofilm growth. Genes involved in tryptophan (trp) biosynthesis and transport were up-regulated in the biofilm. Deletion of trpE led to decreased bacterial attachment and this biofilm defect was restored by exogenous tryptophan or indole. CONCLUSIONS: Biofilm growth of S. Typhimurium causes distinct changes in gene and protein expression. Our results show that aromatic amino acids make an important contribution to biofilm formation and reveal a link between SPI2 expression and surface-associated growth in S. Typhimurium. More... »

PAGES

599-599

Identifiers

URI

http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1186/1471-2164-10-599

DOI

http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2164-10-599

DIMENSIONS

https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1043659941

PUBMED

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20003355


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34 schema:description BACKGROUND: Biofilm formation enhances the capacity of pathogenic Salmonella bacteria to survive stresses that are commonly encountered within food processing and during host infection. The persistence of Salmonella within the food chain has become a major health concern, as biofilms can serve as a reservoir for the contamination of food products. While the molecular mechanisms required for the survival of bacteria on surfaces are not fully understood, transcriptional studies of other bacteria have demonstrated that biofilm growth triggers the expression of specific sets of genes, compared with planktonic cells. Until now, most gene expression studies of Salmonella have focused on the effect of infection-relevant stressors on virulence or the comparison of mutant and wild-type bacteria. However little is known about the physiological responses taking place inside a Salmonella biofilm. RESULTS: We have determined the transcriptomic and proteomic profiles of biofilms of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. We discovered that 124 detectable proteins were differentially expressed in the biofilm compared with planktonic cells, and that 10% of the S. Typhimurium genome (433 genes) showed a 2-fold or more change in the biofilm compared with planktonic cells. The genes that were significantly up-regulated implicated certain cellular processes in biofilm development including amino acid metabolism, cell motility, global regulation and tolerance to stress. We found that the most highly down-regulated genes in the biofilm were located on Salmonella Pathogenicity Island 2 (SPI2), and that a functional SPI2 secretion system regulator (ssrA) was required for S. Typhimurium biofilm formation. We identified STM0341 as a gene of unknown function that was needed for biofilm growth. Genes involved in tryptophan (trp) biosynthesis and transport were up-regulated in the biofilm. Deletion of trpE led to decreased bacterial attachment and this biofilm defect was restored by exogenous tryptophan or indole. CONCLUSIONS: Biofilm growth of S. Typhimurium causes distinct changes in gene and protein expression. Our results show that aromatic amino acids make an important contribution to biofilm formation and reveal a link between SPI2 expression and surface-associated growth in S. Typhimurium.
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41 schema:keywords Deletion of trpE
42 SPI2 expression
43 SPI2 secretion system regulator
44 STM0341
45 Salmonella
46 Salmonella bacteria
47 Salmonella biofilms
48 Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium
49 Salmonella pathogenicity island 2
50 Typhimurium biofilm formation
51 Typhimurium genome
52 acid
53 acid metabolism
54 amino acid metabolism
55 amino acids
56 aromatic amino acids
57 attachment
58 bacteria
59 bacterial attachment
60 biofilm defect
61 biofilm development
62 biofilm formation
63 biofilm growth
64 biofilms
65 biosynthesis
66 capacity
67 cell motility
68 cells
69 cellular processes
70 certain cellular processes
71 chain
72 changes
73 comparison
74 concern
75 contamination
76 contribution
77 defects
78 deletion
79 detectable protein
80 development
81 distinct changes
82 effect
83 enterica serovar Typhimurium
84 exogenous tryptophan
85 expression
86 expression studies
87 food chain
88 food processing
89 food products
90 formation
91 function
92 functional SPI2 secretion system regulator
93 gene expression studies
94 genes
95 genome
96 global regulation
97 growth
98 health concern
99 host infection
100 important contribution
101 indole
102 infection
103 infection-relevant stressors
104 island 2
105 key role
106 link
107 major health concern
108 mechanism
109 metabolism
110 molecular mechanisms
111 more changes
112 most gene expression studies
113 motility
114 pathogenic Salmonella bacteria
115 pathogenicity island 2
116 persistence
117 persistence of Salmonella
118 physiological responses
119 place
120 planktonic cells
121 process
122 processing
123 products
124 profile
125 program
126 protein
127 protein expression
128 proteomic profiles
129 regulation
130 regulator
131 reservoir
132 response
133 results
134 role
135 secretion system regulator
136 serovar Typhimurium
137 set
138 specific set
139 stress
140 stressors
141 study
142 surface
143 surface-associated growth
144 survival
145 survival of bacteria
146 system regulators
147 tolerance
148 transcriptional program
149 transcriptional studies
150 transport
151 trpE
152 tryptophan
153 tryptophan biosynthesis
154 tryptophan metabolism
155 typhimurium
156 unknown function
157 virulence
158 wild-type bacteria
159 schema:name The transcriptional programme of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium reveals a key role for tryptophan metabolism in biofilms
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