Demasculinization of the Anopheles gambiae X chromosome View Full Text


Ontology type: schema:ScholarlyArticle      Open Access: True


Article Info

DATE

2012-12

AUTHORS

Kalle Magnusson, Gareth J Lycett, Antonio M Mendes, Amy Lynd, Philippos-Aris Papathanos, Andrea Crisanti, Nikolai Windbichler

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In a number of organisms sex-biased genes are non-randomly distributed between autosomes and the shared sex chromosome X (or Z). Studies on Anopheles gambiae have produced conflicting results regarding the underrepresentation of male-biased genes on the X chromosome and it is unclear to what extent sexual antagonism, dosage compensation or X-inactivation in the male germline, the evolutionary forces that have been suggested to affect the chromosomal distribution of sex-biased genes, are operational in Anopheles. RESULTS: We performed a meta-analysis of sex-biased gene expression in Anopheles gambiae which provides evidence for a general underrepresentation of male-biased genes on the X-chromosome that increased in significance with the observed degree of sex-bias. A phylogenomic comparison between Drosophila melanogaster, Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus also indicates that the Anopheles X chromosome strongly disfavours the evolutionary conservation of male-biased expression and that novel male-biased genes are more likely to arise on autosomes. Finally, we demonstrate experimentally that transgenes situated on the Anopheles gambiae X chromosome are transcriptionally silenced in the male germline. CONCLUSION: The data presented here support the hypothesis that the observed demasculinization of the Anopheles X chromosome is driven by X-chromosome inactivation in the male germline and by sexual antagonism. The demasculinization appears to be the consequence of a loss of male-biased expression, rather than a failure in the establishment or the extinction of male-biased genes. More... »

PAGES

69

References to SciGraph publications

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  • Identifiers

    URI

    http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1186/1471-2148-12-69

    DOI

    http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2148-12-69

    DIMENSIONS

    https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1011822877

    PUBMED

    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22607633


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