One hundred years of the cosmological constant: from “superfluous stunt” to dark energy View Full Text


Ontology type: schema:ScholarlyArticle      Open Access: True


Article Info

DATE

2018-04

AUTHORS

Cormac O’Raifeartaigh, Michael O’Keeffe, Werner Nahm, Simon Mitton

ABSTRACT

We present a centennial review of the history of the term known as the cosmological constant. First introduced to the general theory of relativity by Einstein in 1917 in order to describe a universe that was assumed to be static, the term fell from favour in the wake of the discovery of the expanding universe, only to make a dramatic return in recent times. We consider historical and philosophical aspects of the cosmological constant over four main epochs; (i) the use of the term in static cosmologies (both Newtonian and relativistic): (ii) the marginalization of the term following the discovery of cosmic expansion: (iii) the use of the term to address specific cosmic puzzles such as the timespan of expansion, the formation of galaxies and the redshifts of the quasars: (iv) the re-emergence of the term in today’s Λ-CDM cosmology. We find that the cosmological constant was never truly banished from theoretical models of the universe, but was marginalized by astronomers for reasons of convenience. We also find that the return of the term to the forefront of modern cosmology did not occur as an abrupt paradigm shift due to one particular set of observations, but as the result of a number of empirical advances such as the measurement of present cosmic expansion using the Hubble Space Telescope, the measurement of past expansion using type SN Ia supernovae as standard candles, and the measurement of perturbations in the cosmic microwave background by balloon and satellite. We give a brief overview of contemporary interpretations of the physics underlying the cosmic constant and conclude with a synopsis of the famous cosmological constant problem. More... »

PAGES

73-117

References to SciGraph publications

  • 1937-02. The Cosmological Constants in NATURE
  • 2017-08. Cornering natural SUSY at LHC Run II and beyond in JOURNAL OF HIGH ENERGY PHYSICS
  • 1994-09. The Hubble constant and Virgo cluster distance from observations of Cepheid variables in NATURE
  • 1933. Die allgemeinen Prinzipien der Wellenmechanik in QUANTENTHEORIE
  • 2014-02. Einstein’s conversion from his static to an expanding universe in THE EUROPEAN PHYSICAL JOURNAL H
  • 1967-12. Absorption Lines in Quasi-stellar Objects in NATURE
  • 1999. The Cosmological Woes of Newtonian Gravitation Theory in THE EXPANDING WORLDS OF GENERAL RELATIVITY
  • 1931-05. The Beginning of the World from the Point of View of Quantum Theory in NATURE
  • 1967-08. Red-shift Magnitude Relation for Quasi-stellar Objects in NATURE
  • 1974. Confrontation of Lemaître Models and the Cosmological Constant with Observations in CONFRONTATION OF COSMOLOGICAL THEORIES WITH OBSERVATIONAL DATA
  • 1963-03. 3C 273 : A Star-Like Object with Large Red-Shift in NATURE
  • 1939-01. The Expanding Universe and the Origin of the Great Nebulæ in NATURE
  • 1956-09. The Evolutionary Universe in SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN
  • 1990-12. The cosmological constant and cold dark matter in NATURE
  • 2013. General Relativity in NONE
  • 1922-12. Bemerkung zu der Arbeit von A. Friedmann „Über die Krümmung des Raumes“ in ZEITSCHRIFT FÜR PHYSIK
  • 2012-05. Preludes to dark energy: zero-point energy and vacuum speculations in ARCHIVE FOR HISTORY OF EXACT SCIENCES
  • 2001-12. The Cosmological Constant in LIVING REVIEWS IN RELATIVITY
  • 2015-09. Einstein’s cosmology review of 1933: a new perspective on the Einstein-de Sitter model of the cosmos in THE EUROPEAN PHYSICAL JOURNAL H
  • 1974. Is the Zero-Point Energy Real? in PHYSICAL REALITY AND MATHEMATICAL DESCRIPTION
  • 1928-02. Zur Quantenelektrodynamik ladungsfreier Felder in ZEITSCHRIFT FÜR PHYSIK
  • 1923-12. Notiz zu der Arbeit von A. Friedmann „Über die Krümmung des Raumes“ in ZEITSCHRIFT FÜR PHYSIK
  • 1921. Geometrie und Erfahrung, Erweiterte Fassung des Festvortrages Gehalten an der Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin am 27. Januar 1921 in NONE
  • 2017-08. Einstein’s 1917 static model of the universe: a centennial review in THE EUROPEAN PHYSICAL JOURNAL H
  • 2009-02. Einstein, de Sitter and the beginning of relativistic cosmology in 1917 in GENERAL RELATIVITY AND GRAVITATION
  • 2011-11. Editorial note to: Brandon Carter, Large number coincidences and the anthropic principle in cosmology in GENERAL RELATIVITY AND GRAVITATION
  • 2014-02. Einstein’s cosmic model of 1931 revisited: an analysis and translation of a forgotten model of the universe in THE EUROPEAN PHYSICAL JOURNAL H
  • 2013-08. Editorial note to: Georges Lemaître, A homogeneous universe of constant mass and increasing radius accounting for the radial velocity of extra-galactic nebulae in GENERAL RELATIVITY AND GRAVITATION
  • 2001-01. Lambda: The Constant That Refuses to Die in ARCHIVE FOR HISTORY OF EXACT SCIENCES
  • 1994-10. Distance to the Virgo cluster galaxy M100 from Hubble Space Telescope observations of Cepheids in NATURE
  • 1969. Essential Relativity, Special, General, and Cosmological in NONE
  • 1995-10. The observational case for a low-density Universe with a non-zero cosmological constant in NATURE
  • 1957-08. Attractive Forces between Flat Plates in NATURE
  • 2000-04. A flat Universe from high-resolution maps of the cosmic microwave background radiation in NATURE
  • 2010-11. An anthropic myth: Fred Hoyle’s carbon-12 resonance level in ARCHIVE FOR HISTORY OF EXACT SCIENCES
  • 1922-12. Über die Krümmung des Raumes in ZEITSCHRIFT FÜR PHYSIK
  • 2014-09. Einstein’s steady-state theory: an abandoned model of the cosmos in THE EUROPEAN PHYSICAL JOURNAL H
  • 1988-05. The Mystery of the Cosmological Constant in SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN
  • 1966-12. Relation between the Red-shifts of Quasi-stellar Objects and their Radio Magnitudes in NATURE
  • 1986-05. The mean mass density of the Universe in NATURE
  • 1975-10. An accelerating Universe in NATURE
  • 1995-11. The cosmological constant is back in GENERAL RELATIVITY AND GRAVITATION
  • 1974. Large Number Coincidences and the Anthropic Principle in Cosmology in CONFRONTATION OF COSMOLOGICAL THEORIES WITH OBSERVATIONAL DATA
  • 2005. False Vacuum: Early Universe Cosmology and the Development of Inflation in THE UNIVERSE OF GENERAL RELATIVITY
  • 1978-05. Accelerating Universe revisited in NATURE
  • Identifiers

    URI

    http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1140/epjh/e2017-80061-7

    DOI

    http://dx.doi.org/10.1140/epjh/e2017-80061-7

    DIMENSIONS

    https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1101630758


    Indexing Status Check whether this publication has been indexed by Scopus and Web Of Science using the SN Indexing Status Tool
    Incoming Citations Browse incoming citations for this publication using opencitations.net

    JSON-LD is the canonical representation for SciGraph data.

    TIP: You can open this SciGraph record using an external JSON-LD service: JSON-LD Playground Google SDTT

    [
      {
        "@context": "https://springernature.github.io/scigraph/jsonld/sgcontext.json", 
        "about": [
          {
            "id": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/0201", 
            "inDefinedTermSet": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/", 
            "name": "Astronomical and Space Sciences", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/02", 
            "inDefinedTermSet": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/", 
            "name": "Physical Sciences", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }
        ], 
        "author": [
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "Waterford Institute of Technology", 
              "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.24349.38", 
              "name": [
                "School of Science and Computing, Waterford Institute of Technology, Cork Road, Waterford, Ireland"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "O\u2019Raifeartaigh", 
            "givenName": "Cormac", 
            "id": "sg:person.011230062575.59", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.011230062575.59"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "Waterford Institute of Technology", 
              "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.24349.38", 
              "name": [
                "School of Science and Computing, Waterford Institute of Technology, Cork Road, Waterford, Ireland"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "O\u2019Keeffe", 
            "givenName": "Michael", 
            "id": "sg:person.012163247165.39", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.012163247165.39"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "Dublin Institute For Advanced Studies", 
              "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.55940.3d", 
              "name": [
                "School of Theoretical Physics, Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, 10 Burlington Road, Dublin 2, Ireland"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Nahm", 
            "givenName": "Werner", 
            "id": "sg:person.012717125415.13", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.012717125415.13"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "University of Cambridge", 
              "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.5335.0", 
              "name": [
                "St Edmund\u2019s College, University of Cambridge, CB3 0BN, Cambridge, UK"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Mitton", 
            "givenName": "Simon", 
            "id": "sg:person.0642771471.93", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0642771471.93"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }
        ], 
        "citation": [
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1103/physrevd.72.021301", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1002851727"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1103/physrevd.72.021301", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1002851727"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/0550-3213(88)90097-1", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1002928360"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/0550-3213(88)90097-1", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1002928360"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/0-8176-4454-7_13", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1003235181", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/0-8176-4454-7_13"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1003495205", 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1003495205", 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1002/asna.18951370902", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1003622539"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1088/0143-0807/20/6/307", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1003949465"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/371385a0", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1004777709", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/371385a0"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s1355-2198(98)00034-3", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1004889690"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/s10714-011-1257-8", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1004984178", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/s10714-011-1257-8"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1140/epjh/e2015-50061-y", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1005186898", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1140/epjh/e2015-50061-y"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/78.1.3", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1006189499"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1103/physrevd.56.r4439", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1006494567"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1103/physrevd.56.r4439", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1006494567"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/0550-3213(75)90194-7", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1006641645"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/0550-3213(75)90194-7", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1006641645"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/0039-3681(90)90034-6", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1007052360"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/0370-2693(91)91167-t", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1007748962"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/0370-2693(91)91167-t", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1007748962"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/108.5.372", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1007876247"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/978-94-010-2274-3_8", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1008504277", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-010-2274-3_8"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/90.7.668", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1009409394"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/371757a0", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1009869782", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/371757a0"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1103/physrevlett.80.1582", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1010059472"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1103/physrevlett.80.1582", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1010059472"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/bf01327395", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1010114502", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/bf01327395"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/139323a0", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1010165153", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/139323a0"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/139323a0", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1010165153", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/139323a0"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/148.3.249", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1011792895"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1088/0034-4885/47/8/002", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1013122734"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.15.3.168", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1015163949"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/bf02108229", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1015729622", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/bf02108229"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/bf02108229", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1015729622", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/bf02108229"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/s004070000025", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1016644700", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/s004070000025"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1098/rsta.1983.0092", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1017367507"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0920-5632(98)00505-2", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1018438107"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s1355-2198(02)00033-3", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1018518440"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s1355-2198(02)00033-3", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1018518440"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/273208a0", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1020131476", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/273208a0"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/978-1-4757-1135-6", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1020347852", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4757-1135-6"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/978-1-4757-1135-6", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1020347852", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4757-1135-6"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1103/physrev.73.803", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1020852981"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1103/physrev.73.803", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1020852981"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1140/epjh/e2014-50011-x", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1021391553", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1140/epjh/e2014-50011-x"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/978-94-010-2220-0_3", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1021518775", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-010-2220-0_3"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/141.4.445", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1021958206"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.16.6.409", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1022129466"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/bf01328424", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1023143771", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/bf01328424"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1140/epjh/e2013-40038-x", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1023250266", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1140/epjh/e2013-40038-x"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.20.1.12", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1024164342"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1103/revmodphys.21.367", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1024820709"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1103/revmodphys.21.367", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1024820709"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1103/physrevlett.86.3475", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1025272894"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1103/physrevlett.86.3475", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1025272894"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.physletb.2016.12.048", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1026074268"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1088/0264-9381/21/1/015", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1027543993"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1086/317322", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1029344448"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/127706b0", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1029407344", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/127706b0"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/127706b0", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1029407344", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/127706b0"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1080/00033790701317692", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1029577322"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/348705a0", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1029639768", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/348705a0"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.aa.30.090192.002435", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1030118184"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/180334b0", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1030146781", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/180334b0"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/978-94-007-5410-2", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1030227199", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-007-5410-2"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/978-94-007-5410-2", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1030227199", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-007-5410-2"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/2161092a0", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1030321905", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/2161092a0"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/0550-3213(87)90129-5", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1031516064"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/0550-3213(87)90129-5", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1031516064"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0920-5632(03)02075-9", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1031681513"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0920-5632(03)02075-9", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1031681513"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1140/epjh/e2013-40037-6", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1031699672", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1140/epjh/e2013-40037-6"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/s00407-010-0068-8", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1031892678", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/s00407-010-0068-8"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/s00407-010-0068-8", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1031892678", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/s00407-010-0068-8"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/257454a0", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1031961379", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/257454a0"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/257454a0", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1031961379", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/257454a0"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/978-3-642-52619-0_2", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1033263997", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-52619-0_2"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/215919a0", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1033507584", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/215919a0"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/215919a0", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1033507584", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/215919a0"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/s10714-008-0664-y", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1034473758", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/s10714-008-0664-y"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/s00407-011-0092-3", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1034495116", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/s00407-011-0092-3"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/35010035", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1035144401", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/35010035"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/35010035", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1035144401", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/35010035"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1086/506470", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1035712465"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/s10714-013-1547-4", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1036216391", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/s10714-013-1547-4"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1112/plms/s2-42.1.90", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1036439088"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/bf02055793", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1039025769", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/bf02055793"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/0370-2693(82)91219-9", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1039994479"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/0370-2693(82)91219-9", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1039994479"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/377600a0", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1040084232", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/377600a0"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/108.3.252", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1040228259"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/2121334a0", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1040478357", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/2121334a0"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/2121334a0", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1040478357", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/2121334a0"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/978-94-010-2220-0_25", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1040980252", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-010-2220-0_25"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1098/rsta.2003.1290", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1041230603"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/92.1.3", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1042272405"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.18.3.213", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1043363436"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-6632.1975.tb31416.x", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1043840097"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1103/physrevd.62.044011", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1044229861"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1103/physrevd.62.044011", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1044229861"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-6632.1975.tb31461.x", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1044264637"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/bf01332580", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1044436352", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/bf01332580"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/143116a0", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1045842311", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/143116a0"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/143116a0", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1045842311", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/143116a0"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1002/andp.19163540702", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1046463341"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/91.5.483", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1048004204"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1098/rspa.1951.0089", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1048699591"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/1971040a0", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1050410716", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/1971040a0"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.16.7.474", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1050536041"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1103/physrevd.23.347", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1051325941"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1103/physrevd.23.347", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1051325941"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/b978-0-08-057149-2.50010-2", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1051396496"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1098/rspa.1931.0170", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1051462818"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/978-3-642-49903-6", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1051646703", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-49903-6"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/978-3-642-49903-6", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1051646703", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-49903-6"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1103/revmodphys.75.559", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1051656783"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1103/revmodphys.75.559", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1051656783"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1086/317323", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1051756615"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/0370-2693(84)91370-4", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1052011618"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/0370-2693(84)91370-4", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1052011618"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/321027a0", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1052246583", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/321027a0"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/91.5.490", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1052402698"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1103/physrevlett.74.846", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1052655620"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1103/physrevlett.74.846", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1052655620"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0960-0779(02)00219-9", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1052822058"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0960-0779(02)00219-9", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1052822058"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1002/sapm192541188", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1052875455"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1002/j.2326-1951.1985.tb02779.x", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1052917095"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/0370-2693(82)90541-x", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1052999697"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/0370-2693(82)90541-x", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1052999697"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/scientificamerican0588-106", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1056542224", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/scientificamerican0588-106"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/scientificamerican0956-136", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1056600279", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/scientificamerican0956-136"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1063/1.3021960", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1057893401"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1063/pt.3.1750", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1058141511"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1070/pu1968v011n03abeh003927", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1058169530"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1086/107297", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1058446061"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1086/126770", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1058464039"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1086/126942", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1058464211"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1086/143323", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1058474614"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1086/143681", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1058474972"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1086/146483", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1058477774"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1086/147041", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1058478332"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1086/147385", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1058478676"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1086/147815", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1058479106"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1086/148217", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1058479508"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1086/148245", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1058479536"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1086/149122", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1058480413"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1086/153273", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1058484563"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1086/153325", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1058484615"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1086/162425", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1058493715"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1086/171590", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1058502880"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1086/172970", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1058504260"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1086/180079", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1058509590"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1086/180110", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1058509621"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1086/182101", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1058511612"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1086/185100", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1058514609"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1086/186504", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1058516013"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1086/186506", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1058516015"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1086/186582", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1058516091"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1086/186645", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1058516154"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1086/186761", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1058516270"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1086/300499", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1058608115"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1086/305846", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1058613368"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1086/306308", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1058613830"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1086/307221", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1058614743"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1086/377226", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1058670318"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1088/0143-0807/30/4/020", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1059036249"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1088/2058-7058/23/01/33", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1059190921"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1103/physrev.38.1758", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1060446384"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1103/physrev.38.1758", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1060446384"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1103/physrev.39.835", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1060446734"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1103/physrev.39.835", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1060446734"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1103/physrev.55.654", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1060450501"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1103/physrev.55.654", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1060450501"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1103/physrev.70.572.2", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1060452954"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1103/physrev.70.572.2", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1060452954"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1103/physrev.74.1737", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1060454281"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1103/physrev.74.1737", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1060454281"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1103/physrev.84.60", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1060458599"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1103/physrev.84.60", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1060458599"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1103/physrevd.27.2848", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1060690478"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1103/physrevd.27.2848", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1060690478"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1103/physrevd.28.679", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1060690992"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1103/physrevd.28.679", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1060690992"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1103/physrevd.37.3406", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1060695725"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1103/physrevd.37.3406", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1060695725"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1103/physrevlett.34.777", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1060779295"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1103/physrevlett.34.777", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1060779295"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1103/physrevlett.38.255", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1060781319"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1103/physrevlett.38.255", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1060781319"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1103/physrevlett.48.1220", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1060787014"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1103/physrevlett.48.1220", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1060787014"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1103/physrevlett.49.1110", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1060787561"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1103/physrevlett.49.1110", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1060787561"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1103/physrevlett.52.2090", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1060789988"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1103/physrevlett.52.2090", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1060789988"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1103/physrevlett.59.2607", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1060795998"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1103/physrevlett.59.2607", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1060795998"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1103/revmodphys.22.153", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1060837370"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1103/revmodphys.22.153", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1060837370"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1103/revmodphys.5.62", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1060838882"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1103/revmodphys.5.62", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1060838882"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1103/revmodphys.61.1", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1060839166"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1103/revmodphys.61.1", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1060839166"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1119/1.19534", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1062242471"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1070462", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1062446410"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1111446", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1062452141"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1126231", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1062453677"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1126/science.271.5251.957", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1062552251"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1126/science.75.1945.367", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1062647160"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1126/science.76.1967.221", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1062647754"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1142/s0217732386000129", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1062917014"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1142/s0218271811020718", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1062969364"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1142/s0218271813300188", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1062969531"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1143/jpsj.76.111015", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1063123272"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.12942/lrr-2001-1", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1064758136", 
              "https://doi.org/10.12942/lrr-2001-1"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.5860/choice.37-5644", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1073365222"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1017/cco9781139024525.009", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1089458841"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/978-1-4612-0639-2_8", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1089530049", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4612-0639-2_8"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/978-1-4612-0639-2_8", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1089530049", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4612-0639-2_8"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1140/epjh/e2017-80002-5", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1090743278", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1140/epjh/e2017-80002-5"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1140/epjh/e2017-80002-5", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1090743278", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1140/epjh/e2017-80002-5"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1088/1361-6633/aa7bb1", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1091381184"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/jhep08(2017)115", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1091393156", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/jhep08(2017)115"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1088/1361-6633/aa8e64", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1091932130"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1103/physrevlett.119.161101", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1092254426"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1103/physrevlett.119.161101", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1092254426"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.3847/2041-8213/aa8f41", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1092268505"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.3847/2041-8213/aa920c", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1092268525"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1017/cbo9780511564208", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1098709426"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1017/cbo9781139878319", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1098736791"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.4159/harvard.9780674331471", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1099330779"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1103/physrevlett.119.251301", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1099865543"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1103/physrevlett.119.251301", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1099865543"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1103/physrevlett.119.251304", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1099865569"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1103/physrevlett.119.251304", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1099865569"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1103/physrevlett.119.251304", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1099865569"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }
        ], 
        "datePublished": "2018-04", 
        "datePublishedReg": "2018-04-01", 
        "description": "We present a centennial review of the history of the term known as the cosmological constant. First introduced to the general theory of relativity by Einstein in 1917 in order to describe a universe that was assumed to be static, the term fell from favour in the wake of the discovery of the expanding universe, only to make a dramatic return in recent times. We consider historical and philosophical aspects of the cosmological constant over four main epochs; (i) the use of the term in static cosmologies (both Newtonian and relativistic): (ii) the marginalization of the term following the discovery of cosmic expansion: (iii) the use of the term to address specific cosmic puzzles such as the timespan of expansion, the formation of galaxies and the redshifts of the quasars: (iv) the re-emergence of the term in today\u2019s \u039b-CDM cosmology. We find that the cosmological constant was never truly banished from theoretical models of the universe, but was marginalized by astronomers for reasons of convenience. We also find that the return of the term to the forefront of modern cosmology did not occur as an abrupt paradigm shift due to one particular set of observations, but as the result of a number of empirical advances such as the measurement of present cosmic expansion using the Hubble Space Telescope, the measurement of past expansion using type SN Ia supernovae as standard candles, and the measurement of perturbations in the cosmic microwave background by balloon and satellite. We give a brief overview of contemporary interpretations of the physics underlying the cosmic constant and conclude with a synopsis of the famous cosmological constant problem.", 
        "genre": "research_article", 
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1140/epjh/e2017-80061-7", 
        "inLanguage": [
          "en"
        ], 
        "isAccessibleForFree": true, 
        "isPartOf": [
          {
            "id": "sg:journal.1136311", 
            "issn": [
              "2102-6459", 
              "2102-6467"
            ], 
            "name": "The European Physical Journal H", 
            "type": "Periodical"
          }, 
          {
            "issueNumber": "1", 
            "type": "PublicationIssue"
          }, 
          {
            "type": "PublicationVolume", 
            "volumeNumber": "43"
          }
        ], 
        "name": "One hundred years of the cosmological constant: from \u201csuperfluous stunt\u201d to dark energy", 
        "pagination": "73-117", 
        "productId": [
          {
            "name": "readcube_id", 
            "type": "PropertyValue", 
            "value": [
              "2ebad9a46256447bd057cfb2f3aaa8330ec99ee6f7494ed7e5931c07079f03d5"
            ]
          }, 
          {
            "name": "doi", 
            "type": "PropertyValue", 
            "value": [
              "10.1140/epjh/e2017-80061-7"
            ]
          }, 
          {
            "name": "dimensions_id", 
            "type": "PropertyValue", 
            "value": [
              "pub.1101630758"
            ]
          }
        ], 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://doi.org/10.1140/epjh/e2017-80061-7", 
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1101630758"
        ], 
        "sdDataset": "articles", 
        "sdDatePublished": "2019-04-11T11:51", 
        "sdLicense": "https://scigraph.springernature.com/explorer/license/", 
        "sdPublisher": {
          "name": "Springer Nature - SN SciGraph project", 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "sdSource": "s3://com-uberresearch-data-dimensions-target-20181106-alternative/cleanup/v134/2549eaecd7973599484d7c17b260dba0a4ecb94b/merge/v9/a6c9fde33151104705d4d7ff012ea9563521a3ce/jats-lookup/v90/0000000359_0000000359/records_29182_00000003.jsonl", 
        "type": "ScholarlyArticle", 
        "url": "https://link.springer.com/10.1140%2Fepjh%2Fe2017-80061-7"
      }
    ]
     

    Download the RDF metadata as:  json-ld nt turtle xml License info

    HOW TO GET THIS DATA PROGRAMMATICALLY:

    JSON-LD is a popular format for linked data which is fully compatible with JSON.

    curl -H 'Accept: application/ld+json' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1140/epjh/e2017-80061-7'

    N-Triples is a line-based linked data format ideal for batch operations.

    curl -H 'Accept: application/n-triples' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1140/epjh/e2017-80061-7'

    Turtle is a human-readable linked data format.

    curl -H 'Accept: text/turtle' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1140/epjh/e2017-80061-7'

    RDF/XML is a standard XML format for linked data.

    curl -H 'Accept: application/rdf+xml' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1140/epjh/e2017-80061-7'


     

    This table displays all metadata directly associated to this object as RDF triples.

    675 TRIPLES      21 PREDICATES      208 URIs      19 LITERALS      7 BLANK NODES

    Subject Predicate Object
    1 sg:pub.10.1140/epjh/e2017-80061-7 schema:about anzsrc-for:02
    2 anzsrc-for:0201
    3 schema:author N633c80994f584918aeec19567102c71b
    4 schema:citation sg:pub.10.1007/0-8176-4454-7_13
    5 sg:pub.10.1007/978-1-4612-0639-2_8
    6 sg:pub.10.1007/978-1-4757-1135-6
    7 sg:pub.10.1007/978-3-642-49903-6
    8 sg:pub.10.1007/978-3-642-52619-0_2
    9 sg:pub.10.1007/978-94-007-5410-2
    10 sg:pub.10.1007/978-94-010-2220-0_25
    11 sg:pub.10.1007/978-94-010-2220-0_3
    12 sg:pub.10.1007/978-94-010-2274-3_8
    13 sg:pub.10.1007/bf01327395
    14 sg:pub.10.1007/bf01328424
    15 sg:pub.10.1007/bf01332580
    16 sg:pub.10.1007/bf02055793
    17 sg:pub.10.1007/bf02108229
    18 sg:pub.10.1007/jhep08(2017)115
    19 sg:pub.10.1007/s00407-010-0068-8
    20 sg:pub.10.1007/s00407-011-0092-3
    21 sg:pub.10.1007/s004070000025
    22 sg:pub.10.1007/s10714-008-0664-y
    23 sg:pub.10.1007/s10714-011-1257-8
    24 sg:pub.10.1007/s10714-013-1547-4
    25 sg:pub.10.1038/127706b0
    26 sg:pub.10.1038/139323a0
    27 sg:pub.10.1038/143116a0
    28 sg:pub.10.1038/180334b0
    29 sg:pub.10.1038/1971040a0
    30 sg:pub.10.1038/2121334a0
    31 sg:pub.10.1038/215919a0
    32 sg:pub.10.1038/2161092a0
    33 sg:pub.10.1038/257454a0
    34 sg:pub.10.1038/273208a0
    35 sg:pub.10.1038/321027a0
    36 sg:pub.10.1038/348705a0
    37 sg:pub.10.1038/35010035
    38 sg:pub.10.1038/371385a0
    39 sg:pub.10.1038/371757a0
    40 sg:pub.10.1038/377600a0
    41 sg:pub.10.1038/scientificamerican0588-106
    42 sg:pub.10.1038/scientificamerican0956-136
    43 sg:pub.10.1140/epjh/e2013-40037-6
    44 sg:pub.10.1140/epjh/e2013-40038-x
    45 sg:pub.10.1140/epjh/e2014-50011-x
    46 sg:pub.10.1140/epjh/e2015-50061-y
    47 sg:pub.10.1140/epjh/e2017-80002-5
    48 sg:pub.10.12942/lrr-2001-1
    49 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1003495205
    50 https://doi.org/10.1002/andp.19163540702
    51 https://doi.org/10.1002/asna.18951370902
    52 https://doi.org/10.1002/j.2326-1951.1985.tb02779.x
    53 https://doi.org/10.1002/sapm192541188
    54 https://doi.org/10.1016/0039-3681(90)90034-6
    55 https://doi.org/10.1016/0370-2693(82)90541-x
    56 https://doi.org/10.1016/0370-2693(82)91219-9
    57 https://doi.org/10.1016/0370-2693(84)91370-4
    58 https://doi.org/10.1016/0370-2693(91)91167-t
    59 https://doi.org/10.1016/0550-3213(75)90194-7
    60 https://doi.org/10.1016/0550-3213(87)90129-5
    61 https://doi.org/10.1016/0550-3213(88)90097-1
    62 https://doi.org/10.1016/b978-0-08-057149-2.50010-2
    63 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.physletb.2016.12.048
    64 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0920-5632(03)02075-9
    65 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0920-5632(98)00505-2
    66 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0960-0779(02)00219-9
    67 https://doi.org/10.1016/s1355-2198(02)00033-3
    68 https://doi.org/10.1016/s1355-2198(98)00034-3
    69 https://doi.org/10.1017/cbo9780511564208
    70 https://doi.org/10.1017/cbo9781139878319
    71 https://doi.org/10.1017/cco9781139024525.009
    72 https://doi.org/10.1063/1.3021960
    73 https://doi.org/10.1063/pt.3.1750
    74 https://doi.org/10.1070/pu1968v011n03abeh003927
    75 https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.15.3.168
    76 https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.16.6.409
    77 https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.16.7.474
    78 https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.18.3.213
    79 https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.20.1.12
    80 https://doi.org/10.1080/00033790701317692
    81 https://doi.org/10.1086/107297
    82 https://doi.org/10.1086/126770
    83 https://doi.org/10.1086/126942
    84 https://doi.org/10.1086/143323
    85 https://doi.org/10.1086/143681
    86 https://doi.org/10.1086/146483
    87 https://doi.org/10.1086/147041
    88 https://doi.org/10.1086/147385
    89 https://doi.org/10.1086/147815
    90 https://doi.org/10.1086/148217
    91 https://doi.org/10.1086/148245
    92 https://doi.org/10.1086/149122
    93 https://doi.org/10.1086/153273
    94 https://doi.org/10.1086/153325
    95 https://doi.org/10.1086/162425
    96 https://doi.org/10.1086/171590
    97 https://doi.org/10.1086/172970
    98 https://doi.org/10.1086/180079
    99 https://doi.org/10.1086/180110
    100 https://doi.org/10.1086/182101
    101 https://doi.org/10.1086/185100
    102 https://doi.org/10.1086/186504
    103 https://doi.org/10.1086/186506
    104 https://doi.org/10.1086/186582
    105 https://doi.org/10.1086/186645
    106 https://doi.org/10.1086/186761
    107 https://doi.org/10.1086/300499
    108 https://doi.org/10.1086/305846
    109 https://doi.org/10.1086/306308
    110 https://doi.org/10.1086/307221
    111 https://doi.org/10.1086/317322
    112 https://doi.org/10.1086/317323
    113 https://doi.org/10.1086/377226
    114 https://doi.org/10.1086/506470
    115 https://doi.org/10.1088/0034-4885/47/8/002
    116 https://doi.org/10.1088/0143-0807/20/6/307
    117 https://doi.org/10.1088/0143-0807/30/4/020
    118 https://doi.org/10.1088/0264-9381/21/1/015
    119 https://doi.org/10.1088/1361-6633/aa7bb1
    120 https://doi.org/10.1088/1361-6633/aa8e64
    121 https://doi.org/10.1088/2058-7058/23/01/33
    122 https://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/108.3.252
    123 https://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/108.5.372
    124 https://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/141.4.445
    125 https://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/148.3.249
    126 https://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/78.1.3
    127 https://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/90.7.668
    128 https://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/91.5.483
    129 https://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/91.5.490
    130 https://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/92.1.3
    131 https://doi.org/10.1098/rspa.1931.0170
    132 https://doi.org/10.1098/rspa.1951.0089
    133 https://doi.org/10.1098/rsta.1983.0092
    134 https://doi.org/10.1098/rsta.2003.1290
    135 https://doi.org/10.1103/physrev.38.1758
    136 https://doi.org/10.1103/physrev.39.835
    137 https://doi.org/10.1103/physrev.55.654
    138 https://doi.org/10.1103/physrev.70.572.2
    139 https://doi.org/10.1103/physrev.73.803
    140 https://doi.org/10.1103/physrev.74.1737
    141 https://doi.org/10.1103/physrev.84.60
    142 https://doi.org/10.1103/physrevd.23.347
    143 https://doi.org/10.1103/physrevd.27.2848
    144 https://doi.org/10.1103/physrevd.28.679
    145 https://doi.org/10.1103/physrevd.37.3406
    146 https://doi.org/10.1103/physrevd.56.r4439
    147 https://doi.org/10.1103/physrevd.62.044011
    148 https://doi.org/10.1103/physrevd.72.021301
    149 https://doi.org/10.1103/physrevlett.119.161101
    150 https://doi.org/10.1103/physrevlett.119.251301
    151 https://doi.org/10.1103/physrevlett.119.251304
    152 https://doi.org/10.1103/physrevlett.34.777
    153 https://doi.org/10.1103/physrevlett.38.255
    154 https://doi.org/10.1103/physrevlett.48.1220
    155 https://doi.org/10.1103/physrevlett.49.1110
    156 https://doi.org/10.1103/physrevlett.52.2090
    157 https://doi.org/10.1103/physrevlett.59.2607
    158 https://doi.org/10.1103/physrevlett.74.846
    159 https://doi.org/10.1103/physrevlett.80.1582
    160 https://doi.org/10.1103/physrevlett.86.3475
    161 https://doi.org/10.1103/revmodphys.21.367
    162 https://doi.org/10.1103/revmodphys.22.153
    163 https://doi.org/10.1103/revmodphys.5.62
    164 https://doi.org/10.1103/revmodphys.61.1
    165 https://doi.org/10.1103/revmodphys.75.559
    166 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-6632.1975.tb31416.x
    167 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-6632.1975.tb31461.x
    168 https://doi.org/10.1112/plms/s2-42.1.90
    169 https://doi.org/10.1119/1.19534
    170 https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1070462
    171 https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1111446
    172 https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1126231
    173 https://doi.org/10.1126/science.271.5251.957
    174 https://doi.org/10.1126/science.75.1945.367
    175 https://doi.org/10.1126/science.76.1967.221
    176 https://doi.org/10.1142/s0217732386000129
    177 https://doi.org/10.1142/s0218271811020718
    178 https://doi.org/10.1142/s0218271813300188
    179 https://doi.org/10.1143/jpsj.76.111015
    180 https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.aa.30.090192.002435
    181 https://doi.org/10.3847/2041-8213/aa8f41
    182 https://doi.org/10.3847/2041-8213/aa920c
    183 https://doi.org/10.4159/harvard.9780674331471
    184 https://doi.org/10.5860/choice.37-5644
    185 schema:datePublished 2018-04
    186 schema:datePublishedReg 2018-04-01
    187 schema:description We present a centennial review of the history of the term known as the cosmological constant. First introduced to the general theory of relativity by Einstein in 1917 in order to describe a universe that was assumed to be static, the term fell from favour in the wake of the discovery of the expanding universe, only to make a dramatic return in recent times. We consider historical and philosophical aspects of the cosmological constant over four main epochs; (i) the use of the term in static cosmologies (both Newtonian and relativistic): (ii) the marginalization of the term following the discovery of cosmic expansion: (iii) the use of the term to address specific cosmic puzzles such as the timespan of expansion, the formation of galaxies and the redshifts of the quasars: (iv) the re-emergence of the term in today’s Λ-CDM cosmology. We find that the cosmological constant was never truly banished from theoretical models of the universe, but was marginalized by astronomers for reasons of convenience. We also find that the return of the term to the forefront of modern cosmology did not occur as an abrupt paradigm shift due to one particular set of observations, but as the result of a number of empirical advances such as the measurement of present cosmic expansion using the Hubble Space Telescope, the measurement of past expansion using type SN Ia supernovae as standard candles, and the measurement of perturbations in the cosmic microwave background by balloon and satellite. We give a brief overview of contemporary interpretations of the physics underlying the cosmic constant and conclude with a synopsis of the famous cosmological constant problem.
    188 schema:genre research_article
    189 schema:inLanguage en
    190 schema:isAccessibleForFree true
    191 schema:isPartOf Na090284be77b4b11990763cd678cc9ad
    192 Na6c6eab009ff4a4fa835fde926f03bd8
    193 sg:journal.1136311
    194 schema:name One hundred years of the cosmological constant: from “superfluous stunt” to dark energy
    195 schema:pagination 73-117
    196 schema:productId N4ee667fa5f1141d0810b822b968e3d42
    197 N6a52f2cb10bf498bb36b0032b9a68cdc
    198 N72f950d9653940fd9e29d78ae5d30115
    199 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1101630758
    200 https://doi.org/10.1140/epjh/e2017-80061-7
    201 schema:sdDatePublished 2019-04-11T11:51
    202 schema:sdLicense https://scigraph.springernature.com/explorer/license/
    203 schema:sdPublisher N147e11a8b724440db91e77ba692c598f
    204 schema:url https://link.springer.com/10.1140%2Fepjh%2Fe2017-80061-7
    205 sgo:license sg:explorer/license/
    206 sgo:sdDataset articles
    207 rdf:type schema:ScholarlyArticle
    208 N147e11a8b724440db91e77ba692c598f schema:name Springer Nature - SN SciGraph project
    209 rdf:type schema:Organization
    210 N4ee667fa5f1141d0810b822b968e3d42 schema:name readcube_id
    211 schema:value 2ebad9a46256447bd057cfb2f3aaa8330ec99ee6f7494ed7e5931c07079f03d5
    212 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
    213 N50919ab3394a49d898a451a906cea258 rdf:first sg:person.012717125415.13
    214 rdf:rest N62a0fe37c3e44ff1b054066267d48148
    215 N62a0fe37c3e44ff1b054066267d48148 rdf:first sg:person.0642771471.93
    216 rdf:rest rdf:nil
    217 N633c80994f584918aeec19567102c71b rdf:first sg:person.011230062575.59
    218 rdf:rest Na57f5876c2474cc58f85a5cb5580884b
    219 N6a52f2cb10bf498bb36b0032b9a68cdc schema:name doi
    220 schema:value 10.1140/epjh/e2017-80061-7
    221 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
    222 N72f950d9653940fd9e29d78ae5d30115 schema:name dimensions_id
    223 schema:value pub.1101630758
    224 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
    225 Na090284be77b4b11990763cd678cc9ad schema:issueNumber 1
    226 rdf:type schema:PublicationIssue
    227 Na57f5876c2474cc58f85a5cb5580884b rdf:first sg:person.012163247165.39
    228 rdf:rest N50919ab3394a49d898a451a906cea258
    229 Na6c6eab009ff4a4fa835fde926f03bd8 schema:volumeNumber 43
    230 rdf:type schema:PublicationVolume
    231 anzsrc-for:02 schema:inDefinedTermSet anzsrc-for:
    232 schema:name Physical Sciences
    233 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    234 anzsrc-for:0201 schema:inDefinedTermSet anzsrc-for:
    235 schema:name Astronomical and Space Sciences
    236 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    237 sg:journal.1136311 schema:issn 2102-6459
    238 2102-6467
    239 schema:name The European Physical Journal H
    240 rdf:type schema:Periodical
    241 sg:person.011230062575.59 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.24349.38
    242 schema:familyName O’Raifeartaigh
    243 schema:givenName Cormac
    244 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.011230062575.59
    245 rdf:type schema:Person
    246 sg:person.012163247165.39 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.24349.38
    247 schema:familyName O’Keeffe
    248 schema:givenName Michael
    249 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.012163247165.39
    250 rdf:type schema:Person
    251 sg:person.012717125415.13 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.55940.3d
    252 schema:familyName Nahm
    253 schema:givenName Werner
    254 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.012717125415.13
    255 rdf:type schema:Person
    256 sg:person.0642771471.93 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.5335.0
    257 schema:familyName Mitton
    258 schema:givenName Simon
    259 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0642771471.93
    260 rdf:type schema:Person
    261 sg:pub.10.1007/0-8176-4454-7_13 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1003235181
    262 https://doi.org/10.1007/0-8176-4454-7_13
    263 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    264 sg:pub.10.1007/978-1-4612-0639-2_8 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1089530049
    265 https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4612-0639-2_8
    266 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    267 sg:pub.10.1007/978-1-4757-1135-6 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1020347852
    268 https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4757-1135-6
    269 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    270 sg:pub.10.1007/978-3-642-49903-6 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1051646703
    271 https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-49903-6
    272 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    273 sg:pub.10.1007/978-3-642-52619-0_2 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1033263997
    274 https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-52619-0_2
    275 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    276 sg:pub.10.1007/978-94-007-5410-2 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1030227199
    277 https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-007-5410-2
    278 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    279 sg:pub.10.1007/978-94-010-2220-0_25 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1040980252
    280 https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-010-2220-0_25
    281 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    282 sg:pub.10.1007/978-94-010-2220-0_3 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1021518775
    283 https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-010-2220-0_3
    284 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    285 sg:pub.10.1007/978-94-010-2274-3_8 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1008504277
    286 https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-010-2274-3_8
    287 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    288 sg:pub.10.1007/bf01327395 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1010114502
    289 https://doi.org/10.1007/bf01327395
    290 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    291 sg:pub.10.1007/bf01328424 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1023143771
    292 https://doi.org/10.1007/bf01328424
    293 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    294 sg:pub.10.1007/bf01332580 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1044436352
    295 https://doi.org/10.1007/bf01332580
    296 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    297 sg:pub.10.1007/bf02055793 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1039025769
    298 https://doi.org/10.1007/bf02055793
    299 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    300 sg:pub.10.1007/bf02108229 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1015729622
    301 https://doi.org/10.1007/bf02108229
    302 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    303 sg:pub.10.1007/jhep08(2017)115 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1091393156
    304 https://doi.org/10.1007/jhep08(2017)115
    305 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    306 sg:pub.10.1007/s00407-010-0068-8 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1031892678
    307 https://doi.org/10.1007/s00407-010-0068-8
    308 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    309 sg:pub.10.1007/s00407-011-0092-3 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1034495116
    310 https://doi.org/10.1007/s00407-011-0092-3
    311 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    312 sg:pub.10.1007/s004070000025 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1016644700
    313 https://doi.org/10.1007/s004070000025
    314 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    315 sg:pub.10.1007/s10714-008-0664-y schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1034473758
    316 https://doi.org/10.1007/s10714-008-0664-y
    317 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    318 sg:pub.10.1007/s10714-011-1257-8 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1004984178
    319 https://doi.org/10.1007/s10714-011-1257-8
    320 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    321 sg:pub.10.1007/s10714-013-1547-4 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1036216391
    322 https://doi.org/10.1007/s10714-013-1547-4
    323 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    324 sg:pub.10.1038/127706b0 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1029407344
    325 https://doi.org/10.1038/127706b0
    326 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    327 sg:pub.10.1038/139323a0 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1010165153
    328 https://doi.org/10.1038/139323a0
    329 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    330 sg:pub.10.1038/143116a0 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1045842311
    331 https://doi.org/10.1038/143116a0
    332 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    333 sg:pub.10.1038/180334b0 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1030146781
    334 https://doi.org/10.1038/180334b0
    335 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    336 sg:pub.10.1038/1971040a0 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1050410716
    337 https://doi.org/10.1038/1971040a0
    338 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    339 sg:pub.10.1038/2121334a0 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1040478357
    340 https://doi.org/10.1038/2121334a0
    341 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    342 sg:pub.10.1038/215919a0 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1033507584
    343 https://doi.org/10.1038/215919a0
    344 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    345 sg:pub.10.1038/2161092a0 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1030321905
    346 https://doi.org/10.1038/2161092a0
    347 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    348 sg:pub.10.1038/257454a0 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1031961379
    349 https://doi.org/10.1038/257454a0
    350 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    351 sg:pub.10.1038/273208a0 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1020131476
    352 https://doi.org/10.1038/273208a0
    353 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    354 sg:pub.10.1038/321027a0 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1052246583
    355 https://doi.org/10.1038/321027a0
    356 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    357 sg:pub.10.1038/348705a0 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1029639768
    358 https://doi.org/10.1038/348705a0
    359 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    360 sg:pub.10.1038/35010035 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1035144401
    361 https://doi.org/10.1038/35010035
    362 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    363 sg:pub.10.1038/371385a0 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1004777709
    364 https://doi.org/10.1038/371385a0
    365 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    366 sg:pub.10.1038/371757a0 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1009869782
    367 https://doi.org/10.1038/371757a0
    368 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    369 sg:pub.10.1038/377600a0 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1040084232
    370 https://doi.org/10.1038/377600a0
    371 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    372 sg:pub.10.1038/scientificamerican0588-106 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1056542224
    373 https://doi.org/10.1038/scientificamerican0588-106
    374 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    375 sg:pub.10.1038/scientificamerican0956-136 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1056600279
    376 https://doi.org/10.1038/scientificamerican0956-136
    377 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    378 sg:pub.10.1140/epjh/e2013-40037-6 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1031699672
    379 https://doi.org/10.1140/epjh/e2013-40037-6
    380 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    381 sg:pub.10.1140/epjh/e2013-40038-x schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1023250266
    382 https://doi.org/10.1140/epjh/e2013-40038-x
    383 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    384 sg:pub.10.1140/epjh/e2014-50011-x schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1021391553
    385 https://doi.org/10.1140/epjh/e2014-50011-x
    386 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    387 sg:pub.10.1140/epjh/e2015-50061-y schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1005186898
    388 https://doi.org/10.1140/epjh/e2015-50061-y
    389 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    390 sg:pub.10.1140/epjh/e2017-80002-5 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1090743278
    391 https://doi.org/10.1140/epjh/e2017-80002-5
    392 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    393 sg:pub.10.12942/lrr-2001-1 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1064758136
    394 https://doi.org/10.12942/lrr-2001-1
    395 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    396 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1003495205 schema:CreativeWork
    397 https://doi.org/10.1002/andp.19163540702 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1046463341
    398 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    399 https://doi.org/10.1002/asna.18951370902 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1003622539
    400 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    401 https://doi.org/10.1002/j.2326-1951.1985.tb02779.x schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1052917095
    402 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    403 https://doi.org/10.1002/sapm192541188 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1052875455
    404 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    405 https://doi.org/10.1016/0039-3681(90)90034-6 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1007052360
    406 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    407 https://doi.org/10.1016/0370-2693(82)90541-x schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1052999697
    408 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    409 https://doi.org/10.1016/0370-2693(82)91219-9 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1039994479
    410 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    411 https://doi.org/10.1016/0370-2693(84)91370-4 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1052011618
    412 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    413 https://doi.org/10.1016/0370-2693(91)91167-t schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1007748962
    414 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    415 https://doi.org/10.1016/0550-3213(75)90194-7 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1006641645
    416 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    417 https://doi.org/10.1016/0550-3213(87)90129-5 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1031516064
    418 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    419 https://doi.org/10.1016/0550-3213(88)90097-1 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1002928360
    420 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    421 https://doi.org/10.1016/b978-0-08-057149-2.50010-2 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1051396496
    422 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    423 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.physletb.2016.12.048 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1026074268
    424 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    425 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0920-5632(03)02075-9 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1031681513
    426 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    427 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0920-5632(98)00505-2 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1018438107
    428 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    429 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0960-0779(02)00219-9 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1052822058
    430 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    431 https://doi.org/10.1016/s1355-2198(02)00033-3 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1018518440
    432 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    433 https://doi.org/10.1016/s1355-2198(98)00034-3 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1004889690
    434 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    435 https://doi.org/10.1017/cbo9780511564208 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1098709426
    436 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    437 https://doi.org/10.1017/cbo9781139878319 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1098736791
    438 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    439 https://doi.org/10.1017/cco9781139024525.009 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1089458841
    440 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    441 https://doi.org/10.1063/1.3021960 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1057893401
    442 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    443 https://doi.org/10.1063/pt.3.1750 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1058141511
    444 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    445 https://doi.org/10.1070/pu1968v011n03abeh003927 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1058169530
    446 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    447 https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.15.3.168 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1015163949
    448 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    449 https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.16.6.409 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1022129466
    450 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    451 https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.16.7.474 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1050536041
    452 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    453 https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.18.3.213 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1043363436
    454 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    455 https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.20.1.12 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1024164342
    456 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    457 https://doi.org/10.1080/00033790701317692 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1029577322
    458 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    459 https://doi.org/10.1086/107297 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1058446061
    460 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    461 https://doi.org/10.1086/126770 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1058464039
    462 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    463 https://doi.org/10.1086/126942 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1058464211
    464 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    465 https://doi.org/10.1086/143323 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1058474614
    466 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    467 https://doi.org/10.1086/143681 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1058474972
    468 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    469 https://doi.org/10.1086/146483 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1058477774
    470 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    471 https://doi.org/10.1086/147041 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1058478332
    472 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    473 https://doi.org/10.1086/147385 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1058478676
    474 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    475 https://doi.org/10.1086/147815 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1058479106
    476 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    477 https://doi.org/10.1086/148217 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1058479508
    478 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    479 https://doi.org/10.1086/148245 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1058479536
    480 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    481 https://doi.org/10.1086/149122 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1058480413
    482 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    483 https://doi.org/10.1086/153273 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1058484563
    484 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    485 https://doi.org/10.1086/153325 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1058484615
    486 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    487 https://doi.org/10.1086/162425 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1058493715
    488 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    489 https://doi.org/10.1086/171590 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1058502880
    490 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    491 https://doi.org/10.1086/172970 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1058504260
    492 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    493 https://doi.org/10.1086/180079 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1058509590
    494 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    495 https://doi.org/10.1086/180110 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1058509621
    496 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    497 https://doi.org/10.1086/182101 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1058511612
    498 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    499 https://doi.org/10.1086/185100 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1058514609
    500 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    501 https://doi.org/10.1086/186504 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1058516013
    502 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    503 https://doi.org/10.1086/186506 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1058516015
    504 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    505 https://doi.org/10.1086/186582 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1058516091
    506 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    507 https://doi.org/10.1086/186645 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1058516154
    508 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    509 https://doi.org/10.1086/186761 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1058516270
    510 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    511 https://doi.org/10.1086/300499 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1058608115
    512 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    513 https://doi.org/10.1086/305846 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1058613368
    514 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    515 https://doi.org/10.1086/306308 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1058613830
    516 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    517 https://doi.org/10.1086/307221 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1058614743
    518 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    519 https://doi.org/10.1086/317322 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1029344448
    520 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    521 https://doi.org/10.1086/317323 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1051756615
    522 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    523 https://doi.org/10.1086/377226 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1058670318
    524 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    525 https://doi.org/10.1086/506470 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1035712465
    526 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    527 https://doi.org/10.1088/0034-4885/47/8/002 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1013122734
    528 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    529 https://doi.org/10.1088/0143-0807/20/6/307 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1003949465
    530 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    531 https://doi.org/10.1088/0143-0807/30/4/020 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1059036249
    532 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    533 https://doi.org/10.1088/0264-9381/21/1/015 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1027543993
    534 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    535 https://doi.org/10.1088/1361-6633/aa7bb1 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1091381184
    536 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    537 https://doi.org/10.1088/1361-6633/aa8e64 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1091932130
    538 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    539 https://doi.org/10.1088/2058-7058/23/01/33 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1059190921
    540 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    541 https://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/108.3.252 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1040228259
    542 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    543 https://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/108.5.372 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1007876247
    544 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    545 https://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/141.4.445 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1021958206
    546 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    547 https://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/148.3.249 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1011792895
    548 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    549 https://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/78.1.3 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1006189499
    550 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    551 https://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/90.7.668 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1009409394
    552 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    553 https://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/91.5.483 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1048004204
    554 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    555 https://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/91.5.490 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1052402698
    556 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    557 https://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/92.1.3 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1042272405
    558 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    559 https://doi.org/10.1098/rspa.1931.0170 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1051462818
    560 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    561 https://doi.org/10.1098/rspa.1951.0089 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1048699591
    562 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    563 https://doi.org/10.1098/rsta.1983.0092 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1017367507
    564 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    565 https://doi.org/10.1098/rsta.2003.1290 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1041230603
    566 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    567 https://doi.org/10.1103/physrev.38.1758 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1060446384
    568 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    569 https://doi.org/10.1103/physrev.39.835 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1060446734
    570 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    571 https://doi.org/10.1103/physrev.55.654 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1060450501
    572 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    573 https://doi.org/10.1103/physrev.70.572.2 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1060452954
    574 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    575 https://doi.org/10.1103/physrev.73.803 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1020852981
    576 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    577 https://doi.org/10.1103/physrev.74.1737 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1060454281
    578 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    579 https://doi.org/10.1103/physrev.84.60 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1060458599
    580 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    581 https://doi.org/10.1103/physrevd.23.347 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1051325941
    582 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    583 https://doi.org/10.1103/physrevd.27.2848 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1060690478
    584 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    585 https://doi.org/10.1103/physrevd.28.679 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1060690992
    586 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    587 https://doi.org/10.1103/physrevd.37.3406 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1060695725
    588 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    589 https://doi.org/10.1103/physrevd.56.r4439 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1006494567
    590 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    591 https://doi.org/10.1103/physrevd.62.044011 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1044229861
    592 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    593 https://doi.org/10.1103/physrevd.72.021301 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1002851727
    594 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    595 https://doi.org/10.1103/physrevlett.119.161101 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1092254426
    596 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    597 https://doi.org/10.1103/physrevlett.119.251301 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1099865543
    598 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    599 https://doi.org/10.1103/physrevlett.119.251304 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1099865569
    600 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    601 https://doi.org/10.1103/physrevlett.34.777 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1060779295
    602 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    603 https://doi.org/10.1103/physrevlett.38.255 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1060781319
    604 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    605 https://doi.org/10.1103/physrevlett.48.1220 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1060787014
    606 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    607 https://doi.org/10.1103/physrevlett.49.1110 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1060787561
    608 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    609 https://doi.org/10.1103/physrevlett.52.2090 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1060789988
    610 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    611 https://doi.org/10.1103/physrevlett.59.2607 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1060795998
    612 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    613 https://doi.org/10.1103/physrevlett.74.846 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1052655620
    614 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    615 https://doi.org/10.1103/physrevlett.80.1582 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1010059472
    616 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    617 https://doi.org/10.1103/physrevlett.86.3475 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1025272894
    618 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    619 https://doi.org/10.1103/revmodphys.21.367 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1024820709
    620 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    621 https://doi.org/10.1103/revmodphys.22.153 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1060837370
    622 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    623 https://doi.org/10.1103/revmodphys.5.62 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1060838882
    624 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    625 https://doi.org/10.1103/revmodphys.61.1 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1060839166
    626 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    627 https://doi.org/10.1103/revmodphys.75.559 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1051656783
    628 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    629 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-6632.1975.tb31416.x schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1043840097
    630 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    631 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-6632.1975.tb31461.x schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1044264637
    632 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    633 https://doi.org/10.1112/plms/s2-42.1.90 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1036439088
    634 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    635 https://doi.org/10.1119/1.19534 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1062242471
    636 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    637 https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1070462 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1062446410
    638 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    639 https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1111446 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1062452141
    640 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    641 https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1126231 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1062453677
    642 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    643 https://doi.org/10.1126/science.271.5251.957 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1062552251
    644 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    645 https://doi.org/10.1126/science.75.1945.367 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1062647160
    646 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    647 https://doi.org/10.1126/science.76.1967.221 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1062647754
    648 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    649 https://doi.org/10.1142/s0217732386000129 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1062917014
    650 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    651 https://doi.org/10.1142/s0218271811020718 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1062969364
    652 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    653 https://doi.org/10.1142/s0218271813300188 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1062969531
    654 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    655 https://doi.org/10.1143/jpsj.76.111015 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1063123272
    656 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    657 https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.aa.30.090192.002435 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1030118184
    658 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    659 https://doi.org/10.3847/2041-8213/aa8f41 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1092268505
    660 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    661 https://doi.org/10.3847/2041-8213/aa920c schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1092268525
    662 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    663 https://doi.org/10.4159/harvard.9780674331471 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1099330779
    664 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    665 https://doi.org/10.5860/choice.37-5644 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1073365222
    666 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    667 https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.24349.38 schema:alternateName Waterford Institute of Technology
    668 schema:name School of Science and Computing, Waterford Institute of Technology, Cork Road, Waterford, Ireland
    669 rdf:type schema:Organization
    670 https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.5335.0 schema:alternateName University of Cambridge
    671 schema:name St Edmund’s College, University of Cambridge, CB3 0BN, Cambridge, UK
    672 rdf:type schema:Organization
    673 https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.55940.3d schema:alternateName Dublin Institute For Advanced Studies
    674 schema:name School of Theoretical Physics, Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, 10 Burlington Road, Dublin 2, Ireland
    675 rdf:type schema:Organization
     




    Preview window. Press ESC to close (or click here)


    ...