Role of glucocorticoids and resident liver macrophages in induction of tyrosine aminotransferase View Full Text


Ontology type: schema:ScholarlyArticle     


Article Info

DATE

2008-03

AUTHORS

L. E. Panin, I. F. Usynin

ABSTRACT

Administration of cortisol to an animal induces tyrosine aminotransferase (TAT) in the liver. A similar effect was observed after stimulation of resident liver macrophages (Kupffer cells) by dextran sulfate. Actinomycin D completely blocks enzyme induction both by cortisol and dextran sulfate, whereas their combined effect gives an additive result. In primary culture of hepatocytes, dextran sulfate inhibits TAT activity, but conditioned macrophage medium reliably increases enzyme activity in hepatocytes. However, incubation of isolated macrophages in the presence of dextran sulfate and such medium transfer into hepatocyte culture results in even more pronounced increase in TAT activity. In a combined culture of hepatocytes and non-parenchymal liver cells, reproducing intercellular interactions in vitro, cortisol and non-parenchymal cells exhibit an additive effect on TAT activity. These results show that liver macrophages release a factor of unknown nature launching the mechanism of TAT induction independently of cortisol, a classic TAT inducer. More... »

PAGES

305-309

Identifiers

URI

http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1134/s0006297908030103

DOI

http://dx.doi.org/10.1134/s0006297908030103

DIMENSIONS

https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1008944956

PUBMED

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18393766


Indexing Status Check whether this publication has been indexed by Scopus and Web Of Science using the SN Indexing Status Tool
Incoming Citations Browse incoming citations for this publication using opencitations.net

JSON-LD is the canonical representation for SciGraph data.

TIP: You can open this SciGraph record using an external JSON-LD service: JSON-LD Playground Google SDTT

[
  {
    "@context": "https://springernature.github.io/scigraph/jsonld/sgcontext.json", 
    "about": [
      {
        "id": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/0601", 
        "inDefinedTermSet": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/", 
        "name": "Biochemistry and Cell Biology", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/06", 
        "inDefinedTermSet": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/", 
        "name": "Biological Sciences", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Animals", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Cells, Cultured", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Dextran Sulfate", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Hydrocortisone", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Kupffer Cells", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Male", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Rats", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Rats, Wistar", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Tyrosine Transaminase", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }
    ], 
    "author": [
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences", 
          "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.415877.8", 
          "name": [
            "Institute of Biochemistry, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, ul. Akademika Timakova 2, 630117, Novosibirsk, Russia"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Panin", 
        "givenName": "L. E.", 
        "id": "sg:person.01053401215.14", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01053401215.14"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences", 
          "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.415877.8", 
          "name": [
            "Institute of Biochemistry, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, ul. Akademika Timakova 2, 630117, Novosibirsk, Russia"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Usynin", 
        "givenName": "I. F.", 
        "id": "sg:person.0577231100.27", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0577231100.27"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }
    ], 
    "citation": [
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/0092-8674(87)90752-5", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1005690437"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/0003-2697(66)90220-x", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1007000296"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/sj.onc.1204327", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1017956653", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.onc.1204327"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/sj.onc.1204327", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1017956653", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.onc.1204327"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/0014-4827(76)90605-4", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1027314087"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1002/jcp.20019", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1031651844"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1002/hep.20362", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1037557560"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/0014-5793(87)80293-4", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1039089894"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.80.21.6518", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1044554536"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/295622a0", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1045511879", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1038/295622a0"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/0014-5793(84)80987-4", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1048445602"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/0922-338x(96)87734-8", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1048469315"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1128/mcb.14.6.4116", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1050453304"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1089/dna.1995.14.385", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1059251454"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1078178922", 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1078870420", 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }
    ], 
    "datePublished": "2008-03", 
    "datePublishedReg": "2008-03-01", 
    "description": "Administration of cortisol to an animal induces tyrosine aminotransferase (TAT) in the liver. A similar effect was observed after stimulation of resident liver macrophages (Kupffer cells) by dextran sulfate. Actinomycin D completely blocks enzyme induction both by cortisol and dextran sulfate, whereas their combined effect gives an additive result. In primary culture of hepatocytes, dextran sulfate inhibits TAT activity, but conditioned macrophage medium reliably increases enzyme activity in hepatocytes. However, incubation of isolated macrophages in the presence of dextran sulfate and such medium transfer into hepatocyte culture results in even more pronounced increase in TAT activity. In a combined culture of hepatocytes and non-parenchymal liver cells, reproducing intercellular interactions in vitro, cortisol and non-parenchymal cells exhibit an additive effect on TAT activity. These results show that liver macrophages release a factor of unknown nature launching the mechanism of TAT induction independently of cortisol, a classic TAT inducer.", 
    "genre": "research_article", 
    "id": "sg:pub.10.1134/s0006297908030103", 
    "inLanguage": [
      "en"
    ], 
    "isAccessibleForFree": false, 
    "isPartOf": [
      {
        "id": "sg:journal.1297322", 
        "issn": [
          "0006-2979", 
          "1608-3040"
        ], 
        "name": "Biochemistry (Moscow)", 
        "type": "Periodical"
      }, 
      {
        "issueNumber": "3", 
        "type": "PublicationIssue"
      }, 
      {
        "type": "PublicationVolume", 
        "volumeNumber": "73"
      }
    ], 
    "name": "Role of glucocorticoids and resident liver macrophages in induction of tyrosine aminotransferase", 
    "pagination": "305-309", 
    "productId": [
      {
        "name": "readcube_id", 
        "type": "PropertyValue", 
        "value": [
          "2a9d23588ad560346389da2898a75d4261d4cc0df459d072dc97bde7812bf5c6"
        ]
      }, 
      {
        "name": "pubmed_id", 
        "type": "PropertyValue", 
        "value": [
          "18393766"
        ]
      }, 
      {
        "name": "nlm_unique_id", 
        "type": "PropertyValue", 
        "value": [
          "0376536"
        ]
      }, 
      {
        "name": "doi", 
        "type": "PropertyValue", 
        "value": [
          "10.1134/s0006297908030103"
        ]
      }, 
      {
        "name": "dimensions_id", 
        "type": "PropertyValue", 
        "value": [
          "pub.1008944956"
        ]
      }
    ], 
    "sameAs": [
      "https://doi.org/10.1134/s0006297908030103", 
      "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1008944956"
    ], 
    "sdDataset": "articles", 
    "sdDatePublished": "2019-04-10T20:01", 
    "sdLicense": "https://scigraph.springernature.com/explorer/license/", 
    "sdPublisher": {
      "name": "Springer Nature - SN SciGraph project", 
      "type": "Organization"
    }, 
    "sdSource": "s3://com-uberresearch-data-dimensions-target-20181106-alternative/cleanup/v134/2549eaecd7973599484d7c17b260dba0a4ecb94b/merge/v9/a6c9fde33151104705d4d7ff012ea9563521a3ce/jats-lookup/v90/0000000001_0000000264/records_8681_00000536.jsonl", 
    "type": "ScholarlyArticle", 
    "url": "http://link.springer.com/10.1134%2FS0006297908030103"
  }
]
 

Download the RDF metadata as:  json-ld nt turtle xml License info

HOW TO GET THIS DATA PROGRAMMATICALLY:

JSON-LD is a popular format for linked data which is fully compatible with JSON.

curl -H 'Accept: application/ld+json' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1134/s0006297908030103'

N-Triples is a line-based linked data format ideal for batch operations.

curl -H 'Accept: application/n-triples' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1134/s0006297908030103'

Turtle is a human-readable linked data format.

curl -H 'Accept: text/turtle' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1134/s0006297908030103'

RDF/XML is a standard XML format for linked data.

curl -H 'Accept: application/rdf+xml' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1134/s0006297908030103'


 

This table displays all metadata directly associated to this object as RDF triples.

157 TRIPLES      21 PREDICATES      53 URIs      30 LITERALS      18 BLANK NODES

Subject Predicate Object
1 sg:pub.10.1134/s0006297908030103 schema:about N25c3436ce5044a40b89b25b9016bf584
2 N2b663efaeea14dc68f32347805a67e32
3 N493aa4f5325d44b19619647e7852982c
4 N4f879916815e4e6d9ac079a7d56cf73d
5 N807186ffd5124b109dd54eb9ea36b4e0
6 N91419a5b99484c2abdfac34063117a01
7 Nc11d86fac0ff4e2ea760e94bf6f2476d
8 Nf08df9b498034f6ca7687c33349d7fb5
9 Nfe9334800bc14925a64e8277e05b7d32
10 anzsrc-for:06
11 anzsrc-for:0601
12 schema:author N3c0c2ac591014d5a93e72a667f290b76
13 schema:citation sg:pub.10.1038/295622a0
14 sg:pub.10.1038/sj.onc.1204327
15 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1078178922
16 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1078870420
17 https://doi.org/10.1002/hep.20362
18 https://doi.org/10.1002/jcp.20019
19 https://doi.org/10.1016/0003-2697(66)90220-x
20 https://doi.org/10.1016/0014-4827(76)90605-4
21 https://doi.org/10.1016/0014-5793(84)80987-4
22 https://doi.org/10.1016/0014-5793(87)80293-4
23 https://doi.org/10.1016/0092-8674(87)90752-5
24 https://doi.org/10.1016/0922-338x(96)87734-8
25 https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.80.21.6518
26 https://doi.org/10.1089/dna.1995.14.385
27 https://doi.org/10.1128/mcb.14.6.4116
28 schema:datePublished 2008-03
29 schema:datePublishedReg 2008-03-01
30 schema:description Administration of cortisol to an animal induces tyrosine aminotransferase (TAT) in the liver. A similar effect was observed after stimulation of resident liver macrophages (Kupffer cells) by dextran sulfate. Actinomycin D completely blocks enzyme induction both by cortisol and dextran sulfate, whereas their combined effect gives an additive result. In primary culture of hepatocytes, dextran sulfate inhibits TAT activity, but conditioned macrophage medium reliably increases enzyme activity in hepatocytes. However, incubation of isolated macrophages in the presence of dextran sulfate and such medium transfer into hepatocyte culture results in even more pronounced increase in TAT activity. In a combined culture of hepatocytes and non-parenchymal liver cells, reproducing intercellular interactions in vitro, cortisol and non-parenchymal cells exhibit an additive effect on TAT activity. These results show that liver macrophages release a factor of unknown nature launching the mechanism of TAT induction independently of cortisol, a classic TAT inducer.
31 schema:genre research_article
32 schema:inLanguage en
33 schema:isAccessibleForFree false
34 schema:isPartOf N3ed0139a9ffc4092a733d0776e33d179
35 N516df4f1625543468a09bccfe7a89549
36 sg:journal.1297322
37 schema:name Role of glucocorticoids and resident liver macrophages in induction of tyrosine aminotransferase
38 schema:pagination 305-309
39 schema:productId N2d5c690218964197a1f85cb782c47958
40 N3b9ea274dc5a4740876600eb0494da81
41 N98032df3854a4e4999fb4d27489c4c38
42 Nb121d9e3fa274c8c8c99349394a46323
43 Nda9de323d00643618186c3a115848dff
44 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1008944956
45 https://doi.org/10.1134/s0006297908030103
46 schema:sdDatePublished 2019-04-10T20:01
47 schema:sdLicense https://scigraph.springernature.com/explorer/license/
48 schema:sdPublisher N8d100e480878494eb60b0187621899c0
49 schema:url http://link.springer.com/10.1134%2FS0006297908030103
50 sgo:license sg:explorer/license/
51 sgo:sdDataset articles
52 rdf:type schema:ScholarlyArticle
53 N25c3436ce5044a40b89b25b9016bf584 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
54 schema:name Kupffer Cells
55 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
56 N2b663efaeea14dc68f32347805a67e32 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
57 schema:name Hydrocortisone
58 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
59 N2d5c690218964197a1f85cb782c47958 schema:name nlm_unique_id
60 schema:value 0376536
61 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
62 N3b9ea274dc5a4740876600eb0494da81 schema:name pubmed_id
63 schema:value 18393766
64 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
65 N3c0c2ac591014d5a93e72a667f290b76 rdf:first sg:person.01053401215.14
66 rdf:rest N739b1690fc524e879737b3da203d376b
67 N3ed0139a9ffc4092a733d0776e33d179 schema:issueNumber 3
68 rdf:type schema:PublicationIssue
69 N493aa4f5325d44b19619647e7852982c schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
70 schema:name Rats
71 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
72 N4f879916815e4e6d9ac079a7d56cf73d schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
73 schema:name Animals
74 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
75 N516df4f1625543468a09bccfe7a89549 schema:volumeNumber 73
76 rdf:type schema:PublicationVolume
77 N739b1690fc524e879737b3da203d376b rdf:first sg:person.0577231100.27
78 rdf:rest rdf:nil
79 N807186ffd5124b109dd54eb9ea36b4e0 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
80 schema:name Dextran Sulfate
81 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
82 N8d100e480878494eb60b0187621899c0 schema:name Springer Nature - SN SciGraph project
83 rdf:type schema:Organization
84 N91419a5b99484c2abdfac34063117a01 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
85 schema:name Male
86 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
87 N98032df3854a4e4999fb4d27489c4c38 schema:name dimensions_id
88 schema:value pub.1008944956
89 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
90 Nb121d9e3fa274c8c8c99349394a46323 schema:name doi
91 schema:value 10.1134/s0006297908030103
92 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
93 Nc11d86fac0ff4e2ea760e94bf6f2476d schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
94 schema:name Tyrosine Transaminase
95 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
96 Nda9de323d00643618186c3a115848dff schema:name readcube_id
97 schema:value 2a9d23588ad560346389da2898a75d4261d4cc0df459d072dc97bde7812bf5c6
98 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
99 Nf08df9b498034f6ca7687c33349d7fb5 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
100 schema:name Rats, Wistar
101 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
102 Nfe9334800bc14925a64e8277e05b7d32 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
103 schema:name Cells, Cultured
104 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
105 anzsrc-for:06 schema:inDefinedTermSet anzsrc-for:
106 schema:name Biological Sciences
107 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
108 anzsrc-for:0601 schema:inDefinedTermSet anzsrc-for:
109 schema:name Biochemistry and Cell Biology
110 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
111 sg:journal.1297322 schema:issn 0006-2979
112 1608-3040
113 schema:name Biochemistry (Moscow)
114 rdf:type schema:Periodical
115 sg:person.01053401215.14 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.415877.8
116 schema:familyName Panin
117 schema:givenName L. E.
118 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01053401215.14
119 rdf:type schema:Person
120 sg:person.0577231100.27 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.415877.8
121 schema:familyName Usynin
122 schema:givenName I. F.
123 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0577231100.27
124 rdf:type schema:Person
125 sg:pub.10.1038/295622a0 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1045511879
126 https://doi.org/10.1038/295622a0
127 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
128 sg:pub.10.1038/sj.onc.1204327 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1017956653
129 https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.onc.1204327
130 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
131 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1078178922 schema:CreativeWork
132 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1078870420 schema:CreativeWork
133 https://doi.org/10.1002/hep.20362 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1037557560
134 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
135 https://doi.org/10.1002/jcp.20019 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1031651844
136 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
137 https://doi.org/10.1016/0003-2697(66)90220-x schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1007000296
138 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
139 https://doi.org/10.1016/0014-4827(76)90605-4 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1027314087
140 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
141 https://doi.org/10.1016/0014-5793(84)80987-4 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1048445602
142 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
143 https://doi.org/10.1016/0014-5793(87)80293-4 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1039089894
144 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
145 https://doi.org/10.1016/0092-8674(87)90752-5 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1005690437
146 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
147 https://doi.org/10.1016/0922-338x(96)87734-8 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1048469315
148 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
149 https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.80.21.6518 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1044554536
150 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
151 https://doi.org/10.1089/dna.1995.14.385 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1059251454
152 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
153 https://doi.org/10.1128/mcb.14.6.4116 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1050453304
154 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
155 https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.415877.8 schema:alternateName Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences
156 schema:name Institute of Biochemistry, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, ul. Akademika Timakova 2, 630117, Novosibirsk, Russia
157 rdf:type schema:Organization
 




Preview window. Press ESC to close (or click here)


...