Effect of herbicides on glutathione S-transferases in the earthworm, Eisenia fetida View Full Text


Ontology type: schema:ScholarlyArticle      Open Access: True


Article Info

DATE

2007-02-11

AUTHORS

Moustafa Abdel Salam Aly, Peter Schröder

ABSTRACT

Aim and BackgroundEarthworms have been studied as a readily available, easily maintainable and cheap test species for assessing chemical pollution, and may be an alternative to in vivo rodent bioassays. The current investigation aims to characterize detoxification enzymes in Eisenia fetida and stress response against two herbicides with different modes of action, namely, fenoxaprop and metolachlor.MethodsHerbicides were applied to soil containing earthworms. Animals were then collected, sacrificed and shock-frozen. Extracted protein was analyzed for glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity using CDNB (1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene), DCNB (1,2-dichloro-4-nitrobenzene), pNBC (p-nitrobenzylchloride), PNOBC (p-nitrobenz-o-ylchloride) and selected herbicides. GST isoenzymes were partially purified by affinity chromatography and molecular weights were estimated by SDS-PAGE.ResultsIn E. fetida protein extracts, GST activity towards model compounds ranked as CDNB>DCNB>PNBOC>PNBC. Fluorodifen was not conjugated at all, but fenoxaprop and metolachlor were conjugated at low rates. Furthermore, the GST isoenzyme pattern changed during the incubation with herbicides, either due to stress or as a defense reaction. After incubation with monochlorobimane, a strong fluorescence of the intestinal tract and the intersegments was observed, indicating organ-specific GST induction.DiscussionAccording to the author’s knowledge, here, for the first time, evidence is presented that E. fetida GST are also capable of conjugating a wider range of xenobiotic substrates. Different forms of GST were observed and changes in GST isoforms due to the herbicide treatment were also noticed. GST conjugation rates varied between different herbicides used in this experiment. It might be assumed that herbicides may well be detoxified by earthworms, to a certain extent, but that they are also potent stress factors influencing the detoxification system of the animal. High doses or long exposure might lead to deleterious effects on earthworms and limit their survival rate. The use of the animals as bioindicators for herbicides and herbicide residues seems very promising, but is surely influenced by the lack of detoxification for some compounds.ConclusionsConjugation of several xenobiotics with model substances and herbicides is proven in the earthworm E. fetida. However, E. fetida has only limited capabilities of detoxifying herbicidal compounds. Different isoforms of GST were involved and altered in their activity after treatment.Recommendations and PerspectivesThe accumulation of GS-conjugates and their determination via fluorescence microscopy is a quick and secure, additional marker for exposure that should be further developed to complement existing biotests. The described methods and endpoints might help to understand the complex reaction of earthworms towards herbicides and lead to an adapted test methodology. More... »

PAGES

143

References to SciGraph publications

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  • 2001-11. Use of Biomarkers in Earthworms to Detect Use and Abuse of Field Applications of a Model Organophosphate Pesticide in BULLETIN OF ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINATION AND TOXICOLOGY
  • 1998-11. Glutathione, Glutathione-Related Enzymes, and Catalase Activities in the Earthworm Eisenia fetida andrei in ARCHIVES OF ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINATION AND TOXICOLOGY
  • 2005-06-11. Experiences with Novel Approaches in Earthworm Testing Alternatives (7 pp) in JOURNAL OF SOILS AND SEDIMENTS
  • 2004-10-05. Sublethal Toxicity of the Herbicide Butachlor on the Earthworm Perionyx sansibaricus and its Histological Changes (5 pp) in JOURNAL OF SOILS AND SEDIMENTS
  • 2003-06. Behavioural endpoints in earthworm ecotoxicology in JOURNAL OF SOILS AND SEDIMENTS
  • 2005-01. Terrestrische ökotoxikologische Testmethoden für die Tropen in ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES EUROPE
  • 2003-07. Reaction of detoxification mechanisms in suspension cultured spruce cells (Picea abies L. Karst.) to heavy metals in pure mixture and in soil eluates in ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE AND POLLUTION RESEARCH
  • 2003-03. Impact of Herbicide Application Rates and Crop Residue Type on Earthworm Weights in BULLETIN OF ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINATION AND TOXICOLOGY
  • 1997-09. Exposure to chlorinated acetic acids: Responses of peroxidase and glutathione S-transferase activity in pine needles in ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE AND POLLUTION RESEARCH
  • 2003-03. Avoidance test withEisenia fetida as indicator for the habitat function of soils: Results of a laboratory comparison test in JOURNAL OF SOILS AND SEDIMENTS
  • Identifiers

    URI

    http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1065/espr2007.02.385

    DOI

    http://dx.doi.org/10.1065/espr2007.02.385

    DIMENSIONS

    https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1001025808

    PUBMED

    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18380233


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    134 rate
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    137 residues
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    146 substances
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