How Plants Cope with Foreign Compounds. Translocation of xenobiotic glutathione conjugates in roots of barley (Hordeum vulgare) (9 pp) View Full Text


Ontology type: schema:ScholarlyArticle     


Article Info

DATE

2006-10-18

AUTHORS

Peter Schröder, Christian E. Scheer, Frauke Diekmann, Andreas Stampfl

ABSTRACT

Background, Aim and Scope Numerous herbicides and xenobiotic organic pollutants are detoxified in plants to glutathione conjugates. Following this enzyme catalyzed reaction, xenobiotic GS-conjugates are thought to be compartmentalized in the vacuole of plant cells. In the present study, evidence is presented for long range transport of these conjugates in plants, rather than storage in the vacuole. To our knowledge this is the first report about the unidirectional long range transport of xenobiotic conjugates in plants and the exudation of a glutathione conjugate from the root tips. This could mean that plants possess an excretion system for unwanted compounds which give them similar advantages as animals. Materials and Methods: Barley plants (Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Cherie) were grown in Petri dishes soaked with tap water in the greenhouse. -Fluorescence Microscopy. Monobromo- and Monochlorobimane, two model xenobiotics that are conjugated rapidly in plant cells with glutathione, hereby forming fluorescent metabolites, were used as markers for our experiments. Their transport in the root could be followed sensitively with very good temporal and spatial resolution. Roots of barley seedlings were cut under water and the end at which xenobiotics were applied was fixed in an aperture with a thin latex foil and transferred into a drop of water on a cover slide. The cover slide was fixed in a measuring chamber on the stage of an inverse fluorescence microscope (Zeiss Axiovert 100).-Spectrometric enzyme assay. Glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity was determined in the protein extracts following established methods. Aliquots of the enzyme extract were incubated with 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB), or monochlorobimane. Controls lacking enzyme or GSH were measured. -Pitman chamber experiments. Ten days old barley plants or detached roots were inserted into special incubation chambers, either complete with tips or decapitated, as well as 10 days old barley plants without root tips. Compartment A was filled with a transport medium and GSH conjugate or L-cysteine conjugate. Compartments B and C contained sugar free media. Samples were taken from the root tip containing compartment C and the amount of conjugate transported was determined spectro-photometrically. Results: The transport in roots is unidirectional towards the root tips and leads to exsudation of the conjugates at rates between 20 and 200 nmol min-1. The microscopic studies have been complemented by transport studies in small root chambers and spectroscopic quantification of dinitrobenzene-conjugates. The latter experiments confirm the microscopic studies. Furthermore it was shown that glutathione conjugates are transported at higher rates than cysteine conjugates, despite of their higher molecular weights. This observation points to the existence of glutathione specific carriers and a specific role of glutathione in the root. Discussion: It can be assumed that long distance transport of glutathione conjugates within the plant proceeds like GSH or amino acid transport in both, phloem and xylem. The high velocity of this translocation of the GS-X is indicative of an active transport. For free glutathione, a rapid transport-system is essential because an accumulation of GSH in the root tip inhibits further uptake of sulfur. Taking into account that all described MRP transporters and also the GSH plasmalemma ATPases have side activities for glutathione derivatives and conjugates, co-transport of these xenobiotic metabolites seems credible.-On the other hand, when GS-B was applied to the root tips from the outside, no significant uptake was observed. Thus it can be concluded that only those conjugates can be transported in the xylem which are formed inside the root apex. Having left the root once, there seems to be no return into the root vessels, probably because of a lack of inward directed transporters. Conclusions: Plants seem to possess the capability to store glutathione conjugates in the vacuole, but under certain conditions, these metabolites might also undergo long range transport, predominantly into the plant root. The transport seems dependent on specific carriers and is unidirectional, this means that xenobiotic conjugates from the rhizosphere are not taken up again. The exudation of xenobiotic metabolites offers an opportunity to avoid the accumulation of such compounds in the plant. Recommendations and Perspectives: The role of glutathione and glutathione related metabolites in the rhizosphere has not been studied in any detail, and only scattered data are available on interactions between the plant root and rhizosphere bacteria that encounter such conjugates. The final fate of these compounds in the root zone has also not been addressed so far. It will be interesting to study effects of the exuded metabolites on the biology of rhizosphere bacteria and fungi. More... »

PAGES

114-122

Identifiers

URI

http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1065/espr2006.10.352

DOI

http://dx.doi.org/10.1065/espr2006.10.352

DIMENSIONS

https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1046672175

PUBMED

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17455821


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65 conditions
66 conjugates
67 control
68 cover slide
69 cysteine conjugates
70 data
71 derivatives
72 detail
73 dinitrobenzene
74 dishes
75 distance transport
76 drop
77 drop of water
78 effect
79 end
80 enzyme
81 enzyme assays
82 enzyme catalyzed reactions
83 enzyme extract
84 evidence
85 excretion system
86 existence
87 experiments
88 exsudation
89 extract
90 exudation
91 fate
92 final fate
93 first report
94 fluorescence microscope
95 fluorescence microscopy
96 fluorescent metabolites
97 foil
98 foreign compounds
99 free glutathione
100 free medium
101 fungi
102 glutathione
103 glutathione S-transferase activity
104 glutathione conjugates
105 glutathione derivatives
106 greenhouse
107 hand
108 herbicides
109 high molecular weight
110 high rate
111 high velocity
112 incubation chamber
113 inhibits
114 interaction
115 inverse fluorescence microscope
116 knowledge
117 lack
118 latter experiments
119 long-distance transport
120 long-range transport
121 markers
122 materials
123 medium
124 metabolites
125 method
126 microscope
127 microscopic study
128 microscopy
129 min-1
130 model xenobiotics
131 molecular weight
132 monobromo
133 monochlorobimane
134 numerous herbicides
135 observations
136 opportunities
137 organic pollutants
138 outside
139 perspective
140 phloem
141 plant cells
142 plant roots
143 plants
144 plasmalemma ATPases
145 pollutants
146 present study
147 protein extracts
148 quantification
149 range transport
150 rate
151 reaction
152 recommendations
153 related metabolites
154 report
155 resolution
156 return
157 rhizosphere
158 rhizosphere bacteria
159 role
160 role of glutathione
161 root apex
162 root chambers
163 root tips
164 root vessels
165 root zone
166 roots
167 roots of barley
168 samples
169 seedlings
170 side activities
171 significant uptake
172 similar advantages
173 slides
174 spatial resolution
175 special incubation chamber
176 specific carrier
177 specific role
178 spectro
179 spectroscopic quantification
180 stage
181 storage
182 study
183 such compounds
184 such conjugates
185 sugar-free medium
186 sulfur
187 system
188 tap water
189 tip
190 translocation
191 transport
192 transport medium
193 transport studies
194 transporters
195 unwanted compounds
196 uptake
197 uptake of sulfur
198 vacuoles
199 velocity
200 vessels
201 water
202 weight
203 xenobiotic conjugates
204 xenobiotic metabolites
205 xenobiotic organic pollutants
206 xenobiotics
207 xylem
208 zone
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