Knowledge of the Firm and the Evolutionary Theory of the Multinational Corporation View Full Text


Ontology type: schema:ScholarlyArticle      Open Access: True


Article Info

DATE

1993-12

AUTHORS

Bruce Kogut, Udo Zander

ABSTRACT

Firms are social communities that specialize in the creation and internal transfer of knowledge. The multinational corporation arises not out of the failure of markets for the buying and selling of knowledge, but out of its superior efficiency as an organizational vehicle by which to transfer this knowledge across borders. We test the claim that firms specialize in the internal transfer of tacit knowledge by empirically examining the decision to transfer the capability to manufacture new products to wholly owned subsidiaries or to other parties. The empirical results show that the less codifiable and the harder to teach is the technology, the more likely the transfer will be to wholly owned operations. This result implies that the choice of transfer mode is determined by the efficiency of the multinational corporation in transferring knowledge relative to other firms, not relative to an abstract market transaction. The notion of the firm as specializing in the transfer and recombination of knowledge is the foundation to an evolutionary theory of the multinational corporation. More... »

PAGES

625-645

References to SciGraph publications

Identifiers

URI

http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1057/palgrave.jibs.8490248

DOI

http://dx.doi.org/10.1057/palgrave.jibs.8490248

DIMENSIONS

https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1002887547


Indexing Status Check whether this publication has been indexed by Scopus and Web Of Science using the SN Indexing Status Tool
Incoming Citations Browse incoming citations for this publication using opencitations.net

JSON-LD is the canonical representation for SciGraph data.

TIP: You can open this SciGraph record using an external JSON-LD service: JSON-LD Playground Google SDTT

[
  {
    "@context": "https://springernature.github.io/scigraph/jsonld/sgcontext.json", 
    "about": [
      {
        "id": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/1402", 
        "inDefinedTermSet": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/", 
        "name": "Applied Economics", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/14", 
        "inDefinedTermSet": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/", 
        "name": "Economics", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }
    ], 
    "author": [
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "University of Pennsylvania", 
          "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.25879.31", 
          "name": [
            "University of Pennsylvania"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Kogut", 
        "givenName": "Bruce", 
        "id": "sg:person.013363021153.94", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.013363021153.94"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "Stockholm School of Economics", 
          "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.419684.6", 
          "name": [
            "Stockholm School of Economics"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Zander", 
        "givenName": "Udo", 
        "id": "sg:person.014755762153.00", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.014755762153.00"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }
    ], 
    "citation": [
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/978-1-349-11026-1_1", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1004134679", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-349-11026-1_1"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }
    ], 
    "datePublished": "1993-12", 
    "datePublishedReg": "1993-12-01", 
    "description": "Firms are social communities that specialize in the creation and internal transfer of knowledge. The multinational corporation arises not out of the failure of markets for the buying and selling of knowledge, but out of its superior efficiency as an organizational vehicle by which to transfer this knowledge across borders. We test the claim that firms specialize in the internal transfer of tacit knowledge by empirically examining the decision to transfer the capability to manufacture new products to wholly owned subsidiaries or to other parties. The empirical results show that the less codifiable and the harder to teach is the technology, the more likely the transfer will be to wholly owned operations. This result implies that the choice of transfer mode is determined by the efficiency of the multinational corporation in transferring knowledge relative to other firms, not relative to an abstract market transaction. The notion of the firm as specializing in the transfer and recombination of knowledge is the foundation to an evolutionary theory of the multinational corporation.", 
    "genre": "research_article", 
    "id": "sg:pub.10.1057/palgrave.jibs.8490248", 
    "inLanguage": [
      "en"
    ], 
    "isAccessibleForFree": true, 
    "isPartOf": [
      {
        "id": "sg:journal.1050620", 
        "issn": [
          "0047-2506", 
          "1478-6990"
        ], 
        "name": "Journal of International Business Studies", 
        "type": "Periodical"
      }, 
      {
        "issueNumber": "4", 
        "type": "PublicationIssue"
      }, 
      {
        "type": "PublicationVolume", 
        "volumeNumber": "24"
      }
    ], 
    "name": "Knowledge of the Firm and the Evolutionary Theory of the Multinational Corporation", 
    "pagination": "625-645", 
    "productId": [
      {
        "name": "readcube_id", 
        "type": "PropertyValue", 
        "value": [
          "0dc054df7b949bdd4d8fab51266e1e42397969d266a25508b9735efd3f3b040d"
        ]
      }, 
      {
        "name": "doi", 
        "type": "PropertyValue", 
        "value": [
          "10.1057/palgrave.jibs.8490248"
        ]
      }, 
      {
        "name": "dimensions_id", 
        "type": "PropertyValue", 
        "value": [
          "pub.1002887547"
        ]
      }
    ], 
    "sameAs": [
      "https://doi.org/10.1057/palgrave.jibs.8490248", 
      "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1002887547"
    ], 
    "sdDataset": "articles", 
    "sdDatePublished": "2019-04-11T01:53", 
    "sdLicense": "https://scigraph.springernature.com/explorer/license/", 
    "sdPublisher": {
      "name": "Springer Nature - SN SciGraph project", 
      "type": "Organization"
    }, 
    "sdSource": "s3://com-uberresearch-data-dimensions-target-20181106-alternative/cleanup/v134/2549eaecd7973599484d7c17b260dba0a4ecb94b/merge/v9/a6c9fde33151104705d4d7ff012ea9563521a3ce/jats-lookup/v90/0000000001_0000000264/records_8700_00000485.jsonl", 
    "type": "ScholarlyArticle", 
    "url": "http://link.springer.com/10.1057/palgrave.jibs.8490248"
  }
]
 

Download the RDF metadata as:  json-ld nt turtle xml License info

HOW TO GET THIS DATA PROGRAMMATICALLY:

JSON-LD is a popular format for linked data which is fully compatible with JSON.

curl -H 'Accept: application/ld+json' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1057/palgrave.jibs.8490248'

N-Triples is a line-based linked data format ideal for batch operations.

curl -H 'Accept: application/n-triples' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1057/palgrave.jibs.8490248'

Turtle is a human-readable linked data format.

curl -H 'Accept: text/turtle' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1057/palgrave.jibs.8490248'

RDF/XML is a standard XML format for linked data.

curl -H 'Accept: application/rdf+xml' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1057/palgrave.jibs.8490248'


 

This table displays all metadata directly associated to this object as RDF triples.

75 TRIPLES      21 PREDICATES      28 URIs      19 LITERALS      7 BLANK NODES

Subject Predicate Object
1 sg:pub.10.1057/palgrave.jibs.8490248 schema:about anzsrc-for:14
2 anzsrc-for:1402
3 schema:author Nc9d88c7fba504ad7bc018dba9e11432c
4 schema:citation sg:pub.10.1007/978-1-349-11026-1_1
5 schema:datePublished 1993-12
6 schema:datePublishedReg 1993-12-01
7 schema:description Firms are social communities that specialize in the creation and internal transfer of knowledge. The multinational corporation arises not out of the failure of markets for the buying and selling of knowledge, but out of its superior efficiency as an organizational vehicle by which to transfer this knowledge across borders. We test the claim that firms specialize in the internal transfer of tacit knowledge by empirically examining the decision to transfer the capability to manufacture new products to wholly owned subsidiaries or to other parties. The empirical results show that the less codifiable and the harder to teach is the technology, the more likely the transfer will be to wholly owned operations. This result implies that the choice of transfer mode is determined by the efficiency of the multinational corporation in transferring knowledge relative to other firms, not relative to an abstract market transaction. The notion of the firm as specializing in the transfer and recombination of knowledge is the foundation to an evolutionary theory of the multinational corporation.
8 schema:genre research_article
9 schema:inLanguage en
10 schema:isAccessibleForFree true
11 schema:isPartOf N1db65feb629b48e8a3387cc643b2abfe
12 Ndb9a419be96b49e085d011f6d9bca539
13 sg:journal.1050620
14 schema:name Knowledge of the Firm and the Evolutionary Theory of the Multinational Corporation
15 schema:pagination 625-645
16 schema:productId N2ff799befece4351853c3637fec8ed65
17 N737d0cfa9d7642c889e2a5e2207e867d
18 N82dc45b1b3634b5bb8f3b9a6c0d3982d
19 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1002887547
20 https://doi.org/10.1057/palgrave.jibs.8490248
21 schema:sdDatePublished 2019-04-11T01:53
22 schema:sdLicense https://scigraph.springernature.com/explorer/license/
23 schema:sdPublisher Nb335048473f1401c92a5a255c652bb9c
24 schema:url http://link.springer.com/10.1057/palgrave.jibs.8490248
25 sgo:license sg:explorer/license/
26 sgo:sdDataset articles
27 rdf:type schema:ScholarlyArticle
28 N1db65feb629b48e8a3387cc643b2abfe schema:issueNumber 4
29 rdf:type schema:PublicationIssue
30 N2ff799befece4351853c3637fec8ed65 schema:name dimensions_id
31 schema:value pub.1002887547
32 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
33 N737d0cfa9d7642c889e2a5e2207e867d schema:name readcube_id
34 schema:value 0dc054df7b949bdd4d8fab51266e1e42397969d266a25508b9735efd3f3b040d
35 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
36 N82dc45b1b3634b5bb8f3b9a6c0d3982d schema:name doi
37 schema:value 10.1057/palgrave.jibs.8490248
38 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
39 N8ec7cf90e2c14591afffa14132369dc0 rdf:first sg:person.014755762153.00
40 rdf:rest rdf:nil
41 Nb335048473f1401c92a5a255c652bb9c schema:name Springer Nature - SN SciGraph project
42 rdf:type schema:Organization
43 Nc9d88c7fba504ad7bc018dba9e11432c rdf:first sg:person.013363021153.94
44 rdf:rest N8ec7cf90e2c14591afffa14132369dc0
45 Ndb9a419be96b49e085d011f6d9bca539 schema:volumeNumber 24
46 rdf:type schema:PublicationVolume
47 anzsrc-for:14 schema:inDefinedTermSet anzsrc-for:
48 schema:name Economics
49 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
50 anzsrc-for:1402 schema:inDefinedTermSet anzsrc-for:
51 schema:name Applied Economics
52 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
53 sg:journal.1050620 schema:issn 0047-2506
54 1478-6990
55 schema:name Journal of International Business Studies
56 rdf:type schema:Periodical
57 sg:person.013363021153.94 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.25879.31
58 schema:familyName Kogut
59 schema:givenName Bruce
60 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.013363021153.94
61 rdf:type schema:Person
62 sg:person.014755762153.00 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.419684.6
63 schema:familyName Zander
64 schema:givenName Udo
65 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.014755762153.00
66 rdf:type schema:Person
67 sg:pub.10.1007/978-1-349-11026-1_1 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1004134679
68 https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-349-11026-1_1
69 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
70 https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.25879.31 schema:alternateName University of Pennsylvania
71 schema:name University of Pennsylvania
72 rdf:type schema:Organization
73 https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.419684.6 schema:alternateName Stockholm School of Economics
74 schema:name Stockholm School of Economics
75 rdf:type schema:Organization
 




Preview window. Press ESC to close (or click here)


...