The Organization of Human Epidermis: Functional Epidermal Units and Phi Proportionality View Full Text


Ontology type: schema:ScholarlyArticle      Open Access: True


Article Info

DATE

2003-12

AUTHORS

Steven B Hoath, D G Leahy

ABSTRACT

The concept that mammalian epidermis is structurally organized into functional epidermal units has been proposed on the basis of stratum corneum (SC) architecture, proliferation kinetics, melanocyte:keratinocyte ratios (1:36), and, more recently, Langerhans cell: epidermal cell ratios (1:53). This article examines the concept of functional epidermal units in human skin in which the maintenance of phi (1.618034) proportionality provides a central organizing principle. The following empirical measurements were used: 75,346 nucleated epidermal cells per mm2, 1394 Langerhans cells per mm2, 1999 melanocytes per mm2, 16 (SC) layers, 900-microm2 corneocyte surface area, 17,778 corneocytes per mm2, 14-d (SC) turnover time, and 93,124 per mm2 total epidermal cells. Given these empirical data: (1) the number of corneocytes is a mean proportional between the sum of the Langerhans cell + melanocyte populations and the number of epidermal cells, 3393/17,778-17,778/93,124; (2) the ratio of nucleated epidermal cells over corneocytes is phi proportional, 75,346/17,778 approximately phi3; (3) assuming similar 14-d turnover times for the (SC) and Malpighian epidermis, the number of corneocytes results from subtraction of a cellular fraction equal to approximately 2/phi2 x the number of living cells, 75,436 - (2/phi2 x 75,346) approximately 17,778; and (4) if total epidermal turnover time equals (SC) turnover time x the ratio of living/dead cells, then compartmental turnover times are unequal (14 d for (SC) to 45.3 d for nucleated epidermis approximately 1/2phi) and cellular replacement rates are 52.9 corneocytes/69.3 keratinocytes per mm2 per h approximately 2/phi2. These empirically derived equivalences provide logicomathematical support for the presence of functional epidermal units in human skin. Validation of a phi proportional unit architecture in human epidermis will be important for tissue engineering of skin and the design of instruments for skin measurement. More... »

PAGES

1440-1446

Journal

TITLE

Journal of Investigative Dermatology

ISSUE

6

VOLUME

121

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  • Identifiers

    URI

    http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1046/j.1523-1747.2003.12606.x

    DOI

    http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1523-1747.2003.12606.x

    DIMENSIONS

    https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1011184001

    PUBMED

    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14675195


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