Pathway-wide association study identifies five shared pathways associated with schizophrenia in three ancestral distinct populations View Full Text


Ontology type: schema:ScholarlyArticle      Open Access: True


Article Info

DATE

2017-02

AUTHORS

C Liu, C A Bousman, C Pantelis, E Skafidas, D Zhang, W Yue, I P Everall

ABSTRACT

Genome-wide association studies have confirmed the polygenic nature of schizophrenia and suggest that there are hundreds or thousands of alleles associated with increased liability for the disorder. However, the generalizability of any one allelic marker of liability is remarkably low and has bred the notion that schizophrenia may be better conceptualized as a pathway(s) disorder. Here, we empirically tested this notion by conducting a pathway-wide association study (PWAS) encompassing 255 experimentally validated Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways among 5033 individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia and 5332 unrelated healthy controls across three distinct ethnic populations; European-American (EA), African-American (AA) and Han Chinese (CH). We identified 103, 74 and 87 pathways associated with schizophrenia liability in the EA, CH and AA populations, respectively. About half of these pathways were uniquely associated with schizophrenia liability in each of the three populations. Five pathways (serotonergic synapse, ubiquitin mediated proteolysis, hedgehog signaling, adipocytokine signaling and renin secretion) were shared across all three populations and the single-nucleotide polymorphism sets representing these five pathways were enriched for single-nucleotide polymorphisms with regulatory function. Our findings provide empirical support for schizophrenia as a pathway disorder and suggest schizophrenia is not only a polygenic but likely also a poly-pathway disorder characterized by both genetic and pathway heterogeneity. More... »

PAGES

e1037

References to SciGraph publications

  • 2007-09. New models of collaboration in genome-wide association studies: the Genetic Association Information Network in NATURE GENETICS
  • 2001-07. Ubiquitination-dependent mechanisms regulate synaptic growth and function in NATURE
  • 2005-10. In vivo analysis of quiescent adult neural stem cells responding to Sonic hedgehog in NATURE
  • 2017-07. Common variants on 2p16.1, 6p22.1 and 10q24.32 are associated with schizophrenia in Han Chinese population in MOLECULAR PSYCHIATRY
  • 2013-05. Multiple variants aggregate in the neuregulin signaling pathway in a subset of schizophrenia patients in TRANSLATIONAL PSYCHIATRY
  • 2013-09. Dysfunction of the Ubiquitin Proteasome and Ubiquitin-Like Systems in Schizophrenia in NEUROPSYCHOPHARMACOLOGY
  • 2016-08. Elevated peripheral cytokines characterize a subgroup of people with schizophrenia displaying poor verbal fluency and reduced Broca’s area volume in MOLECULAR PSYCHIATRY
  • 2014-07. Biological insights from 108 schizophrenia-associated genetic loci in NATURE
  • 2012-02. Mitochondrial transport in neurons: impact on synaptic homeostasis and neurodegeneration in NATURE REVIEWS NEUROSCIENCE
  • 2008-07. Systematic meta-analyses and field synopsis of genetic association studies in schizophrenia: the SzGene database in NATURE GENETICS
  • 1990-03. Biochemistry and Pharmacology of the Renin-Angiotensin System in DRUGS
  • 2006-11. Polymorphisms in the angiotensin-converting enzyme gene are associated with unipolar depression, ACE activity and hypercortisolism in MOLECULAR PSYCHIATRY
  • 2014-04. Predicting the diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder using gene pathway analysis in MOLECULAR PSYCHIATRY
  • 2012-09-23. Comprehensive molecular portraits of human breast tumours in NATURE
  • 2010-09. Data quality control in genetic case-control association studies in NATURE PROTOCOLS
  • 2012-06. A model-based approach for analysis of spatial structure in genetic data in NATURE GENETICS
  • 2013-06. The Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx) project in NATURE GENETICS
  • 2012-09. An integrated encyclopedia of DNA elements in the human genome in NATURE
  • 2009-07-01. Common polygenic variation contributes to risk of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder in NATURE
  • 2012-02. Puzzling over schizophrenia: Schizophrenia as a pathway disease in NATURE MEDICINE
  • 2015-11. Distinctive transcriptome alterations of prefrontal pyramidal neurons in schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder in MOLECULAR PSYCHIATRY
  • 1994-12. Positional cloning of the mouse obese gene and its human homologue in NATURE
  • 2013-02. Increased inflammatory markers identified in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex of individuals with schizophrenia in MOLECULAR PSYCHIATRY
  • 2012-02. Protein–RNA interactions: new genomic technologies and perspectives in NATURE REVIEWS GENETICS
  • 2011-03. Molecular pathways involved in neuronal cell adhesion and membrane scaffolding contribute to schizophrenia and bipolar disorder susceptibility in MOLECULAR PSYCHIATRY
  • Identifiers

    URI

    http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1038/tp.2017.8

    DOI

    http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/tp.2017.8

    DIMENSIONS

    https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1083853018

    PUBMED

    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28221366


    Indexing Status Check whether this publication has been indexed by Scopus and Web Of Science using the SN Indexing Status Tool
    Incoming Citations Browse incoming citations for this publication using opencitations.net

    JSON-LD is the canonical representation for SciGraph data.

    TIP: You can open this SciGraph record using an external JSON-LD service: JSON-LD Playground Google SDTT

    [
      {
        "@context": "https://springernature.github.io/scigraph/jsonld/sgcontext.json", 
        "about": [
          {
            "id": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/0604", 
            "inDefinedTermSet": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/", 
            "name": "Genetics", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/06", 
            "inDefinedTermSet": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/", 
            "name": "Biological Sciences", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Adipokines", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Adult", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "African Americans", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Alleles", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Asian Continental Ancestry Group", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Case-Control Studies", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "China", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "European Continental Ancestry Group", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Female", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Gene Regulatory Networks", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Genetic Predisposition to Disease", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Genome-Wide Association Study", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Hedgehog Proteins", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Humans", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Male", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Middle Aged", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Multifactorial Inheritance", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Proteolysis", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Renin", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Schizophrenia", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Serotonergic Neurons", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Signal Transduction", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Ubiquitins", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }
        ], 
        "author": [
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "University of Melbourne", 
              "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.1008.9", 
              "name": [
                "Department of Psychiatry, Melbourne Neuropsychiatry Centre, The University of Melbourne and Melbourne Health, Carlton South, VIC, Australia"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Liu", 
            "givenName": "C", 
            "id": "sg:person.0635632254.07", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0635632254.07"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "Swinburne University of Technology", 
              "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.1027.4", 
              "name": [
                "Department of Psychiatry, Melbourne Neuropsychiatry Centre, The University of Melbourne and Melbourne Health, Carlton South, VIC, Australia", 
                "Florey Institute of Neuroscience and Mental Health, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC, Australia", 
                "Department of General Practice, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC, Australia", 
                "Centre for Human Psychopharmacology, Swinburne University of Technology, Hawthorn, VIC, Australia"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Bousman", 
            "givenName": "C A", 
            "id": "sg:person.01342712164.69", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01342712164.69"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "University of Melbourne", 
              "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.1008.9", 
              "name": [
                "Department of Psychiatry, Melbourne Neuropsychiatry Centre, The University of Melbourne and Melbourne Health, Carlton South, VIC, Australia", 
                "Florey Institute of Neuroscience and Mental Health, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC, Australia", 
                "Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Centre for Neural Engineering (CfNE), University of Melbourne, Carlton South, VIC, Australia", 
                "NorthWestern Mental Health, Melbourne, VIC, Australia"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Pantelis", 
            "givenName": "C", 
            "id": "sg:person.01340514137.45", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01340514137.45"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "University of Melbourne", 
              "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.1008.9", 
              "name": [
                "Department of Psychiatry, Melbourne Neuropsychiatry Centre, The University of Melbourne and Melbourne Health, Carlton South, VIC, Australia", 
                "Florey Institute of Neuroscience and Mental Health, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC, Australia", 
                "Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Centre for Neural Engineering (CfNE), University of Melbourne, Carlton South, VIC, Australia"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Skafidas", 
            "givenName": "E", 
            "id": "sg:person.0711773107.55", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0711773107.55"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "Peking University", 
              "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.11135.37", 
              "name": [
                "Institute of Mental Health, The Sixth Hospital, Peking University, Beijing, China", 
                "Key Laboratory of Mental Health, Ministry of Health & National Clinical Research Center for Mental Disorders (Peking University), Beijing, China", 
                "Peking-Tsinghua Joint Center for Life Sciences/PKU-IDG/McGovern Institute for Brain Research, Peking University, Beijing, China"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Zhang", 
            "givenName": "D", 
            "id": "sg:person.01134422454.23", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01134422454.23"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "Peking University Sixth Hospital", 
              "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.459847.3", 
              "name": [
                "Institute of Mental Health, The Sixth Hospital, Peking University, Beijing, China", 
                "Key Laboratory of Mental Health, Ministry of Health & National Clinical Research Center for Mental Disorders (Peking University), Beijing, China"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Yue", 
            "givenName": "W", 
            "id": "sg:person.01202535654.94", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01202535654.94"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "University of Melbourne", 
              "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.1008.9", 
              "name": [
                "Department of Psychiatry, Melbourne Neuropsychiatry Centre, The University of Melbourne and Melbourne Health, Carlton South, VIC, Australia", 
                "Florey Institute of Neuroscience and Mental Health, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC, Australia", 
                "Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Centre for Neural Engineering (CfNE), University of Melbourne, Carlton South, VIC, Australia", 
                "NorthWestern Mental Health, Melbourne, VIC, Australia"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Everall", 
            "givenName": "I P", 
            "id": "sg:person.01164033523.93", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01164033523.93"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }
        ], 
        "citation": [
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1097/ypg.0b013e3283351194", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1001602468"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1097/ypg.0b013e3283351194", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1001602468"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1097/ypg.0b013e3283351194", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1001602468"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/mp.2012.110", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1002344102", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/mp.2012.110"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1161/hh0102.102272", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1002758524"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brainres.2010.04.028", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1006162664"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1164368", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1006710792"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/nrg3141", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1006905298", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/nrg3141"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1056/nejm198008283030920", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1007416471"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/mp.2010.7", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1008085102", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/mp.2010.7"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1177/070674370605100608", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1008713122"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1177/070674370605100608", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1008713122"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1634/stemcells.2008-0297", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1013670956"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0920-9964(03)00222-6", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1014318235"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/mp.2012.126", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1014959554", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/mp.2012.126"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1471-4159.1997.68031304.x", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1015827438"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/ng2127", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1015848569", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/ng2127"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/nm.2670", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1015910126", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/nm.2670"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaac.2013.01.003", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1016124706"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/nprot.2010.116", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1016226591", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/nprot.2010.116"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsych.2005.03.031", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1016776429"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsych.2005.03.031", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1016776429"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mod.2005.10.005", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1017040125"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1093/nar/28.1.27", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1017305614"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1002/ajmg.b.31106", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1018831557"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1002/ajmg.b.31106", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1018831557"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1002/hup.2460", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1019826505"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0011351", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1019942982"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/nature13595", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1021916306", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/nature13595"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/0920-9964(93)90013-9", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1023808161"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/nature11412", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1024942368", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/nature11412"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/nature08185", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1025133227", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/nature08185"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/nature08185", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1025133227", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/nature08185"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.2165/00003495-199000391-00005", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1025979433", 
              "https://doi.org/10.2165/00003495-199000391-00005"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2011.08.019", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1027442546"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/35086595", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1027471556", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/35086595"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/35086595", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1027471556", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/35086595"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1101/gad.13.5.505", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1027635862"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/nature11247", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1029065430", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/nature11247"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/mp.2016.212", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1029523479", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/mp.2016.212"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2008.04.024", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1029822806"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/nrn3156", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1031341957", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/nrn3156"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/ng.2653", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1032444369", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/ng.2653"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0447.2009.01463.x", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1032487246"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0447.2009.01463.x", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1032487246"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpsychires.2012.04.028", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1033679108"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1101/gr.137323.112", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1034124863"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1002/ajmg.b.31006", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1035790249"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.3389/fncel.2013.00095", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1037596373"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/mp.2015.90", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1037939983", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/mp.2015.90"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/ng.2285", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1038080612", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/ng.2285"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.schres.2010.07.001", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1040071792"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/0149-7634(94)90034-5", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1041117244"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/0149-7634(94)90034-5", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1041117244"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/mp.2014.171", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1041847377", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/mp.2014.171"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1155/2013/196848", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1042217974"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neures.2013.07.003", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1042692352"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/npp.2013.84", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1043550727", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/npp.2013.84"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0920-9964(99)00059-6", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1044361234"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1162/evco.2009.17.3.275", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1044453908"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/nature03994", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1044626910", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/nature03994"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/nature03994", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1044626910", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/nature03994"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/nature03994", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1044626910", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/nature03994"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordjournals.schbul.a006887", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1046699104"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1161/01.hyp.8.6.544", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1047654045"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1242/bio.012005", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1048046013"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.neuro.29.051605.112858", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1049104151"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/tp.2013.33", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1049409343", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/tp.2013.33"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/sj.mp.4001884", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1050069675", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.mp.4001884"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/sj.mp.4001884", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1050069675", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.mp.4001884"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajpath.2015.09.023", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1051803212"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/372425a0", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1052657184", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/372425a0"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/ng.171", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1053130114", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/ng.171"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1093/schbul/22.3.455", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1060023908"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1097/fpc.0b013e3282f70492", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1060340575"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1097/fpc.0b013e3282f70492", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1060340575"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1097/fpc.0b013e3282f70492", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1060340575"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1109/tpami.2005.159", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1061742820"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1109/tpami.2005.159", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1061742820"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1176/ajp.148.11.1474", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1063480358"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.4161/cam.4.1.9914", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1072291990"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1074366671", 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1523/jneurosci.22-07-02718.2002", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1075022900"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1081588409", 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }
        ], 
        "datePublished": "2017-02", 
        "datePublishedReg": "2017-02-01", 
        "description": "Genome-wide association studies have confirmed the polygenic nature of schizophrenia and suggest that there are hundreds or thousands of alleles associated with increased liability for the disorder. However, the generalizability of any one allelic marker of liability is remarkably low and has bred the notion that schizophrenia may be better conceptualized as a pathway(s) disorder. Here, we empirically tested this notion by conducting a pathway-wide association study (PWAS) encompassing 255 experimentally validated Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways among 5033 individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia and 5332 unrelated healthy controls across three distinct ethnic populations; European-American (EA), African-American (AA) and Han Chinese (CH). We identified 103, 74 and 87 pathways associated with schizophrenia liability in the EA, CH and AA populations, respectively. About half of these pathways were uniquely associated with schizophrenia liability in each of the three populations. Five pathways (serotonergic synapse, ubiquitin mediated proteolysis, hedgehog signaling, adipocytokine signaling and renin secretion) were shared across all three populations and the single-nucleotide polymorphism sets representing these five pathways were enriched for single-nucleotide polymorphisms with regulatory function. Our findings provide empirical support for schizophrenia as a pathway disorder and suggest schizophrenia is not only a polygenic but likely also a poly-pathway disorder characterized by both genetic and pathway heterogeneity.", 
        "genre": "research_article", 
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/tp.2017.8", 
        "inLanguage": [
          "en"
        ], 
        "isAccessibleForFree": true, 
        "isFundedItemOf": [
          {
            "id": "sg:grant.2551591", 
            "type": "MonetaryGrant"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:grant.2550366", 
            "type": "MonetaryGrant"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:grant.2552219", 
            "type": "MonetaryGrant"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:grant.2549339", 
            "type": "MonetaryGrant"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:grant.2549062", 
            "type": "MonetaryGrant"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:grant.2552941", 
            "type": "MonetaryGrant"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:grant.2552216", 
            "type": "MonetaryGrant"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:grant.6721353", 
            "type": "MonetaryGrant"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:grant.2552945", 
            "type": "MonetaryGrant"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:grant.2549052", 
            "type": "MonetaryGrant"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:grant.2549061", 
            "type": "MonetaryGrant"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:grant.2692322", 
            "type": "MonetaryGrant"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:grant.2552942", 
            "type": "MonetaryGrant"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:grant.2552218", 
            "type": "MonetaryGrant"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:grant.2487249", 
            "type": "MonetaryGrant"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:grant.6728183", 
            "type": "MonetaryGrant"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:grant.2549060", 
            "type": "MonetaryGrant"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:grant.2552220", 
            "type": "MonetaryGrant"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:grant.2552217", 
            "type": "MonetaryGrant"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:grant.2692316", 
            "type": "MonetaryGrant"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:grant.2549051", 
            "type": "MonetaryGrant"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:grant.2345422", 
            "type": "MonetaryGrant"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:grant.2343593", 
            "type": "MonetaryGrant"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:grant.2552943", 
            "type": "MonetaryGrant"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:grant.2549054", 
            "type": "MonetaryGrant"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:grant.2549342", 
            "type": "MonetaryGrant"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:grant.2692477", 
            "type": "MonetaryGrant"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:grant.2483443", 
            "type": "MonetaryGrant"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:grant.2549488", 
            "type": "MonetaryGrant"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:grant.2552939", 
            "type": "MonetaryGrant"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:grant.2552940", 
            "type": "MonetaryGrant"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:grant.2692478", 
            "type": "MonetaryGrant"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:grant.2552944", 
            "type": "MonetaryGrant"
          }
        ], 
        "isPartOf": [
          {
            "id": "sg:journal.1045271", 
            "issn": [
              "2158-3188"
            ], 
            "name": "Translational Psychiatry", 
            "type": "Periodical"
          }, 
          {
            "issueNumber": "2", 
            "type": "PublicationIssue"
          }, 
          {
            "type": "PublicationVolume", 
            "volumeNumber": "7"
          }
        ], 
        "name": "Pathway-wide association study identifies five shared pathways associated with schizophrenia in three ancestral distinct populations", 
        "pagination": "e1037", 
        "productId": [
          {
            "name": "readcube_id", 
            "type": "PropertyValue", 
            "value": [
              "b919c6e29fe0250f5aa6a3d5980b8a6a8a5a34c7bafe477dbff5310f7070b944"
            ]
          }, 
          {
            "name": "pubmed_id", 
            "type": "PropertyValue", 
            "value": [
              "28221366"
            ]
          }, 
          {
            "name": "nlm_unique_id", 
            "type": "PropertyValue", 
            "value": [
              "101562664"
            ]
          }, 
          {
            "name": "doi", 
            "type": "PropertyValue", 
            "value": [
              "10.1038/tp.2017.8"
            ]
          }, 
          {
            "name": "dimensions_id", 
            "type": "PropertyValue", 
            "value": [
              "pub.1083853018"
            ]
          }
        ], 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://doi.org/10.1038/tp.2017.8", 
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1083853018"
        ], 
        "sdDataset": "articles", 
        "sdDatePublished": "2019-04-10T20:35", 
        "sdLicense": "https://scigraph.springernature.com/explorer/license/", 
        "sdPublisher": {
          "name": "Springer Nature - SN SciGraph project", 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "sdSource": "s3://com-uberresearch-data-dimensions-target-20181106-alternative/cleanup/v134/2549eaecd7973599484d7c17b260dba0a4ecb94b/merge/v9/a6c9fde33151104705d4d7ff012ea9563521a3ce/jats-lookup/v90/0000000001_0000000264/records_8684_00000427.jsonl", 
        "type": "ScholarlyArticle", 
        "url": "https://www.nature.com/articles/tp20178"
      }
    ]
     

    Download the RDF metadata as:  json-ld nt turtle xml License info

    HOW TO GET THIS DATA PROGRAMMATICALLY:

    JSON-LD is a popular format for linked data which is fully compatible with JSON.

    curl -H 'Accept: application/ld+json' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1038/tp.2017.8'

    N-Triples is a line-based linked data format ideal for batch operations.

    curl -H 'Accept: application/n-triples' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1038/tp.2017.8'

    Turtle is a human-readable linked data format.

    curl -H 'Accept: text/turtle' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1038/tp.2017.8'

    RDF/XML is a standard XML format for linked data.

    curl -H 'Accept: application/rdf+xml' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1038/tp.2017.8'


     

    This table displays all metadata directly associated to this object as RDF triples.

    520 TRIPLES      21 PREDICATES      122 URIs      45 LITERALS      33 BLANK NODES

    Subject Predicate Object
    1 sg:pub.10.1038/tp.2017.8 schema:about N045e94ac29a34e0bb7eaa9b4691ee0d8
    2 N0564d5bb9d4141b88c75ecd464b07fe7
    3 N0be9ef02ad2e4a84b51217c9d31d8a36
    4 N22a4086d09be495cab11015dfaf065a0
    5 N2480ef4774574276bff19d71b9a9e5dd
    6 N413af04c30d94ac9aa8d12a95ec7e455
    7 N444a6ef8611d4d39b6963c210766836b
    8 N44e1d3f04ac549c99ac8d2b863072a1f
    9 N4c871410757a4d0c896ed2aade35f81a
    10 N5afb6c3172fc4531b70059e9906ffd29
    11 N5bd010502a584f85a359d973bffc94a1
    12 N60066df65fcf4efe898b08a87cdf8a08
    13 N615885512ca64f8785a5b74f29ff1949
    14 N716d3a2401184573957680fbfdd436d3
    15 N76836a1485df4f5080ac7e3e8c715983
    16 N80edc72a235143ecb236a82d6f6cf11d
    17 N8e39ab536865486ea800267f7556e595
    18 N9d8ae91bb4b848be819179f8ceed5aa8
    19 N9ed91c4d176245dbbb521ff1b2b4bb22
    20 Nb145207125ed4ece9620b6d7079b2a12
    21 Nb368d66a518f461ba4160b2d41920cc2
    22 Nd12758707471421393d708c0e19a1000
    23 Ne23635a2d26843418e4cef36acd842b2
    24 Nf00968c376e6409ea919de236a39230c
    25 anzsrc-for:06
    26 anzsrc-for:0604
    27 schema:author N786334ac631841e2ad521d77dbff3bcd
    28 schema:citation sg:pub.10.1038/35086595
    29 sg:pub.10.1038/372425a0
    30 sg:pub.10.1038/mp.2010.7
    31 sg:pub.10.1038/mp.2012.110
    32 sg:pub.10.1038/mp.2012.126
    33 sg:pub.10.1038/mp.2014.171
    34 sg:pub.10.1038/mp.2015.90
    35 sg:pub.10.1038/mp.2016.212
    36 sg:pub.10.1038/nature03994
    37 sg:pub.10.1038/nature08185
    38 sg:pub.10.1038/nature11247
    39 sg:pub.10.1038/nature11412
    40 sg:pub.10.1038/nature13595
    41 sg:pub.10.1038/ng.171
    42 sg:pub.10.1038/ng.2285
    43 sg:pub.10.1038/ng.2653
    44 sg:pub.10.1038/ng2127
    45 sg:pub.10.1038/nm.2670
    46 sg:pub.10.1038/npp.2013.84
    47 sg:pub.10.1038/nprot.2010.116
    48 sg:pub.10.1038/nrg3141
    49 sg:pub.10.1038/nrn3156
    50 sg:pub.10.1038/sj.mp.4001884
    51 sg:pub.10.1038/tp.2013.33
    52 sg:pub.10.2165/00003495-199000391-00005
    53 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1074366671
    54 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1081588409
    55 https://doi.org/10.1002/ajmg.b.31006
    56 https://doi.org/10.1002/ajmg.b.31106
    57 https://doi.org/10.1002/hup.2460
    58 https://doi.org/10.1016/0149-7634(94)90034-5
    59 https://doi.org/10.1016/0920-9964(93)90013-9
    60 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajpath.2015.09.023
    61 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsych.2005.03.031
    62 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brainres.2010.04.028
    63 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaac.2013.01.003
    64 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2011.08.019
    65 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpsychires.2012.04.028
    66 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mod.2005.10.005
    67 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neures.2013.07.003
    68 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2008.04.024
    69 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.schres.2010.07.001
    70 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0920-9964(03)00222-6
    71 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0920-9964(99)00059-6
    72 https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1471-4159.1997.68031304.x
    73 https://doi.org/10.1056/nejm198008283030920
    74 https://doi.org/10.1093/nar/28.1.27
    75 https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordjournals.schbul.a006887
    76 https://doi.org/10.1093/schbul/22.3.455
    77 https://doi.org/10.1097/fpc.0b013e3282f70492
    78 https://doi.org/10.1097/ypg.0b013e3283351194
    79 https://doi.org/10.1101/gad.13.5.505
    80 https://doi.org/10.1101/gr.137323.112
    81 https://doi.org/10.1109/tpami.2005.159
    82 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0447.2009.01463.x
    83 https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1164368
    84 https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.neuro.29.051605.112858
    85 https://doi.org/10.1155/2013/196848
    86 https://doi.org/10.1161/01.hyp.8.6.544
    87 https://doi.org/10.1161/hh0102.102272
    88 https://doi.org/10.1162/evco.2009.17.3.275
    89 https://doi.org/10.1176/ajp.148.11.1474
    90 https://doi.org/10.1177/070674370605100608
    91 https://doi.org/10.1242/bio.012005
    92 https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0011351
    93 https://doi.org/10.1523/jneurosci.22-07-02718.2002
    94 https://doi.org/10.1634/stemcells.2008-0297
    95 https://doi.org/10.3389/fncel.2013.00095
    96 https://doi.org/10.4161/cam.4.1.9914
    97 schema:datePublished 2017-02
    98 schema:datePublishedReg 2017-02-01
    99 schema:description Genome-wide association studies have confirmed the polygenic nature of schizophrenia and suggest that there are hundreds or thousands of alleles associated with increased liability for the disorder. However, the generalizability of any one allelic marker of liability is remarkably low and has bred the notion that schizophrenia may be better conceptualized as a pathway(s) disorder. Here, we empirically tested this notion by conducting a pathway-wide association study (PWAS) encompassing 255 experimentally validated Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways among 5033 individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia and 5332 unrelated healthy controls across three distinct ethnic populations; European-American (EA), African-American (AA) and Han Chinese (CH). We identified 103, 74 and 87 pathways associated with schizophrenia liability in the EA, CH and AA populations, respectively. About half of these pathways were uniquely associated with schizophrenia liability in each of the three populations. Five pathways (serotonergic synapse, ubiquitin mediated proteolysis, hedgehog signaling, adipocytokine signaling and renin secretion) were shared across all three populations and the single-nucleotide polymorphism sets representing these five pathways were enriched for single-nucleotide polymorphisms with regulatory function. Our findings provide empirical support for schizophrenia as a pathway disorder and suggest schizophrenia is not only a polygenic but likely also a poly-pathway disorder characterized by both genetic and pathway heterogeneity.
    100 schema:genre research_article
    101 schema:inLanguage en
    102 schema:isAccessibleForFree true
    103 schema:isPartOf N50269383ef7a4c059bc9afed89baa32a
    104 Na5c203f1bf694ae58fb0330fb7e1ae63
    105 sg:journal.1045271
    106 schema:name Pathway-wide association study identifies five shared pathways associated with schizophrenia in three ancestral distinct populations
    107 schema:pagination e1037
    108 schema:productId N309e26a6f4bd42c8b176f6af29f4f320
    109 N40f049659a2848d7a29a4931d36bf513
    110 N8e9a996f79a34a7c971a8fe40a43569e
    111 Nb5bbd189568f40b89075dff4c61a4741
    112 Ncedaadd11230490590ed8761f6deb55e
    113 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1083853018
    114 https://doi.org/10.1038/tp.2017.8
    115 schema:sdDatePublished 2019-04-10T20:35
    116 schema:sdLicense https://scigraph.springernature.com/explorer/license/
    117 schema:sdPublisher N275ac2b621f0460fb3b67acdfebd8745
    118 schema:url https://www.nature.com/articles/tp20178
    119 sgo:license sg:explorer/license/
    120 sgo:sdDataset articles
    121 rdf:type schema:ScholarlyArticle
    122 N045e94ac29a34e0bb7eaa9b4691ee0d8 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    123 schema:name Serotonergic Neurons
    124 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    125 N0564d5bb9d4141b88c75ecd464b07fe7 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    126 schema:name Proteolysis
    127 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    128 N0be9ef02ad2e4a84b51217c9d31d8a36 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    129 schema:name African Americans
    130 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    131 N22a4086d09be495cab11015dfaf065a0 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    132 schema:name Hedgehog Proteins
    133 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    134 N2480ef4774574276bff19d71b9a9e5dd schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    135 schema:name Ubiquitins
    136 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    137 N275ac2b621f0460fb3b67acdfebd8745 schema:name Springer Nature - SN SciGraph project
    138 rdf:type schema:Organization
    139 N309e26a6f4bd42c8b176f6af29f4f320 schema:name pubmed_id
    140 schema:value 28221366
    141 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
    142 N40f049659a2848d7a29a4931d36bf513 schema:name readcube_id
    143 schema:value b919c6e29fe0250f5aa6a3d5980b8a6a8a5a34c7bafe477dbff5310f7070b944
    144 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
    145 N413af04c30d94ac9aa8d12a95ec7e455 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    146 schema:name Multifactorial Inheritance
    147 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    148 N444a6ef8611d4d39b6963c210766836b schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    149 schema:name Middle Aged
    150 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    151 N44e1d3f04ac549c99ac8d2b863072a1f schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    152 schema:name Renin
    153 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    154 N4c871410757a4d0c896ed2aade35f81a schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    155 schema:name China
    156 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    157 N50269383ef7a4c059bc9afed89baa32a schema:volumeNumber 7
    158 rdf:type schema:PublicationVolume
    159 N5afb6c3172fc4531b70059e9906ffd29 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    160 schema:name Genetic Predisposition to Disease
    161 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    162 N5bd010502a584f85a359d973bffc94a1 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    163 schema:name Schizophrenia
    164 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    165 N60066df65fcf4efe898b08a87cdf8a08 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    166 schema:name Alleles
    167 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    168 N615885512ca64f8785a5b74f29ff1949 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    169 schema:name Male
    170 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    171 N716d3a2401184573957680fbfdd436d3 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    172 schema:name Case-Control Studies
    173 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    174 N76836a1485df4f5080ac7e3e8c715983 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    175 schema:name Adult
    176 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    177 N786334ac631841e2ad521d77dbff3bcd rdf:first sg:person.0635632254.07
    178 rdf:rest Ndc71b8e4ee214336abcfe286289f79de
    179 N80edc72a235143ecb236a82d6f6cf11d schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    180 schema:name Genome-Wide Association Study
    181 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    182 N8e39ab536865486ea800267f7556e595 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    183 schema:name Female
    184 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    185 N8e9a996f79a34a7c971a8fe40a43569e schema:name dimensions_id
    186 schema:value pub.1083853018
    187 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
    188 N9c71de8372764c4698bfeabf09f40441 rdf:first sg:person.01202535654.94
    189 rdf:rest Ne6adb4663d1241dfbe753af1c9f8b5d4
    190 N9d8ae91bb4b848be819179f8ceed5aa8 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    191 schema:name Humans
    192 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    193 N9ed91c4d176245dbbb521ff1b2b4bb22 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    194 schema:name Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide
    195 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    196 Na5c203f1bf694ae58fb0330fb7e1ae63 schema:issueNumber 2
    197 rdf:type schema:PublicationIssue
    198 Nb145207125ed4ece9620b6d7079b2a12 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    199 schema:name Asian Continental Ancestry Group
    200 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    201 Nb368d66a518f461ba4160b2d41920cc2 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    202 schema:name Gene Regulatory Networks
    203 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    204 Nb5bbd189568f40b89075dff4c61a4741 schema:name nlm_unique_id
    205 schema:value 101562664
    206 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
    207 Ncedaadd11230490590ed8761f6deb55e schema:name doi
    208 schema:value 10.1038/tp.2017.8
    209 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
    210 Nd12758707471421393d708c0e19a1000 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    211 schema:name European Continental Ancestry Group
    212 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    213 Nd7633c2220c04a15bfeb667091c99e64 rdf:first sg:person.01134422454.23
    214 rdf:rest N9c71de8372764c4698bfeabf09f40441
    215 Ndc71b8e4ee214336abcfe286289f79de rdf:first sg:person.01342712164.69
    216 rdf:rest Ne3e6f1177f254f44bc7bf9b0a825c030
    217 Ne23635a2d26843418e4cef36acd842b2 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    218 schema:name Adipokines
    219 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    220 Ne3e6f1177f254f44bc7bf9b0a825c030 rdf:first sg:person.01340514137.45
    221 rdf:rest Ne45903ec54894515acffe2c09cf9480f
    222 Ne45903ec54894515acffe2c09cf9480f rdf:first sg:person.0711773107.55
    223 rdf:rest Nd7633c2220c04a15bfeb667091c99e64
    224 Ne6adb4663d1241dfbe753af1c9f8b5d4 rdf:first sg:person.01164033523.93
    225 rdf:rest rdf:nil
    226 Nf00968c376e6409ea919de236a39230c schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    227 schema:name Signal Transduction
    228 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    229 anzsrc-for:06 schema:inDefinedTermSet anzsrc-for:
    230 schema:name Biological Sciences
    231 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    232 anzsrc-for:0604 schema:inDefinedTermSet anzsrc-for:
    233 schema:name Genetics
    234 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    235 sg:grant.2343593 http://pending.schema.org/fundedItem sg:pub.10.1038/tp.2017.8
    236 rdf:type schema:MonetaryGrant
    237 sg:grant.2345422 http://pending.schema.org/fundedItem sg:pub.10.1038/tp.2017.8
    238 rdf:type schema:MonetaryGrant
    239 sg:grant.2483443 http://pending.schema.org/fundedItem sg:pub.10.1038/tp.2017.8
    240 rdf:type schema:MonetaryGrant
    241 sg:grant.2487249 http://pending.schema.org/fundedItem sg:pub.10.1038/tp.2017.8
    242 rdf:type schema:MonetaryGrant
    243 sg:grant.2549051 http://pending.schema.org/fundedItem sg:pub.10.1038/tp.2017.8
    244 rdf:type schema:MonetaryGrant
    245 sg:grant.2549052 http://pending.schema.org/fundedItem sg:pub.10.1038/tp.2017.8
    246 rdf:type schema:MonetaryGrant
    247 sg:grant.2549054 http://pending.schema.org/fundedItem sg:pub.10.1038/tp.2017.8
    248 rdf:type schema:MonetaryGrant
    249 sg:grant.2549060 http://pending.schema.org/fundedItem sg:pub.10.1038/tp.2017.8
    250 rdf:type schema:MonetaryGrant
    251 sg:grant.2549061 http://pending.schema.org/fundedItem sg:pub.10.1038/tp.2017.8
    252 rdf:type schema:MonetaryGrant
    253 sg:grant.2549062 http://pending.schema.org/fundedItem sg:pub.10.1038/tp.2017.8
    254 rdf:type schema:MonetaryGrant
    255 sg:grant.2549339 http://pending.schema.org/fundedItem sg:pub.10.1038/tp.2017.8
    256 rdf:type schema:MonetaryGrant
    257 sg:grant.2549342 http://pending.schema.org/fundedItem sg:pub.10.1038/tp.2017.8
    258 rdf:type schema:MonetaryGrant
    259 sg:grant.2549488 http://pending.schema.org/fundedItem sg:pub.10.1038/tp.2017.8
    260 rdf:type schema:MonetaryGrant
    261 sg:grant.2550366 http://pending.schema.org/fundedItem sg:pub.10.1038/tp.2017.8
    262 rdf:type schema:MonetaryGrant
    263 sg:grant.2551591 http://pending.schema.org/fundedItem sg:pub.10.1038/tp.2017.8
    264 rdf:type schema:MonetaryGrant
    265 sg:grant.2552216 http://pending.schema.org/fundedItem sg:pub.10.1038/tp.2017.8
    266 rdf:type schema:MonetaryGrant
    267 sg:grant.2552217 http://pending.schema.org/fundedItem sg:pub.10.1038/tp.2017.8
    268 rdf:type schema:MonetaryGrant
    269 sg:grant.2552218 http://pending.schema.org/fundedItem sg:pub.10.1038/tp.2017.8
    270 rdf:type schema:MonetaryGrant
    271 sg:grant.2552219 http://pending.schema.org/fundedItem sg:pub.10.1038/tp.2017.8
    272 rdf:type schema:MonetaryGrant
    273 sg:grant.2552220 http://pending.schema.org/fundedItem sg:pub.10.1038/tp.2017.8
    274 rdf:type schema:MonetaryGrant
    275 sg:grant.2552939 http://pending.schema.org/fundedItem sg:pub.10.1038/tp.2017.8
    276 rdf:type schema:MonetaryGrant
    277 sg:grant.2552940 http://pending.schema.org/fundedItem sg:pub.10.1038/tp.2017.8
    278 rdf:type schema:MonetaryGrant
    279 sg:grant.2552941 http://pending.schema.org/fundedItem sg:pub.10.1038/tp.2017.8
    280 rdf:type schema:MonetaryGrant
    281 sg:grant.2552942 http://pending.schema.org/fundedItem sg:pub.10.1038/tp.2017.8
    282 rdf:type schema:MonetaryGrant
    283 sg:grant.2552943 http://pending.schema.org/fundedItem sg:pub.10.1038/tp.2017.8
    284 rdf:type schema:MonetaryGrant
    285 sg:grant.2552944 http://pending.schema.org/fundedItem sg:pub.10.1038/tp.2017.8
    286 rdf:type schema:MonetaryGrant
    287 sg:grant.2552945 http://pending.schema.org/fundedItem sg:pub.10.1038/tp.2017.8
    288 rdf:type schema:MonetaryGrant
    289 sg:grant.2692316 http://pending.schema.org/fundedItem sg:pub.10.1038/tp.2017.8
    290 rdf:type schema:MonetaryGrant
    291 sg:grant.2692322 http://pending.schema.org/fundedItem sg:pub.10.1038/tp.2017.8
    292 rdf:type schema:MonetaryGrant
    293 sg:grant.2692477 http://pending.schema.org/fundedItem sg:pub.10.1038/tp.2017.8
    294 rdf:type schema:MonetaryGrant
    295 sg:grant.2692478 http://pending.schema.org/fundedItem sg:pub.10.1038/tp.2017.8
    296 rdf:type schema:MonetaryGrant
    297 sg:grant.6721353 http://pending.schema.org/fundedItem sg:pub.10.1038/tp.2017.8
    298 rdf:type schema:MonetaryGrant
    299 sg:grant.6728183 http://pending.schema.org/fundedItem sg:pub.10.1038/tp.2017.8
    300 rdf:type schema:MonetaryGrant
    301 sg:journal.1045271 schema:issn 2158-3188
    302 schema:name Translational Psychiatry
    303 rdf:type schema:Periodical
    304 sg:person.01134422454.23 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.11135.37
    305 schema:familyName Zhang
    306 schema:givenName D
    307 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01134422454.23
    308 rdf:type schema:Person
    309 sg:person.01164033523.93 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.1008.9
    310 schema:familyName Everall
    311 schema:givenName I P
    312 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01164033523.93
    313 rdf:type schema:Person
    314 sg:person.01202535654.94 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.459847.3
    315 schema:familyName Yue
    316 schema:givenName W
    317 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01202535654.94
    318 rdf:type schema:Person
    319 sg:person.01340514137.45 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.1008.9
    320 schema:familyName Pantelis
    321 schema:givenName C
    322 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01340514137.45
    323 rdf:type schema:Person
    324 sg:person.01342712164.69 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.1027.4
    325 schema:familyName Bousman
    326 schema:givenName C A
    327 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01342712164.69
    328 rdf:type schema:Person
    329 sg:person.0635632254.07 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.1008.9
    330 schema:familyName Liu
    331 schema:givenName C
    332 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0635632254.07
    333 rdf:type schema:Person
    334 sg:person.0711773107.55 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.1008.9
    335 schema:familyName Skafidas
    336 schema:givenName E
    337 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0711773107.55
    338 rdf:type schema:Person
    339 sg:pub.10.1038/35086595 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1027471556
    340 https://doi.org/10.1038/35086595
    341 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    342 sg:pub.10.1038/372425a0 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1052657184
    343 https://doi.org/10.1038/372425a0
    344 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    345 sg:pub.10.1038/mp.2010.7 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1008085102
    346 https://doi.org/10.1038/mp.2010.7
    347 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    348 sg:pub.10.1038/mp.2012.110 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1002344102
    349 https://doi.org/10.1038/mp.2012.110
    350 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    351 sg:pub.10.1038/mp.2012.126 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1014959554
    352 https://doi.org/10.1038/mp.2012.126
    353 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    354 sg:pub.10.1038/mp.2014.171 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1041847377
    355 https://doi.org/10.1038/mp.2014.171
    356 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    357 sg:pub.10.1038/mp.2015.90 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1037939983
    358 https://doi.org/10.1038/mp.2015.90
    359 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    360 sg:pub.10.1038/mp.2016.212 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1029523479
    361 https://doi.org/10.1038/mp.2016.212
    362 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    363 sg:pub.10.1038/nature03994 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1044626910
    364 https://doi.org/10.1038/nature03994
    365 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    366 sg:pub.10.1038/nature08185 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1025133227
    367 https://doi.org/10.1038/nature08185
    368 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    369 sg:pub.10.1038/nature11247 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1029065430
    370 https://doi.org/10.1038/nature11247
    371 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    372 sg:pub.10.1038/nature11412 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1024942368
    373 https://doi.org/10.1038/nature11412
    374 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    375 sg:pub.10.1038/nature13595 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1021916306
    376 https://doi.org/10.1038/nature13595
    377 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    378 sg:pub.10.1038/ng.171 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1053130114
    379 https://doi.org/10.1038/ng.171
    380 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    381 sg:pub.10.1038/ng.2285 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1038080612
    382 https://doi.org/10.1038/ng.2285
    383 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    384 sg:pub.10.1038/ng.2653 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1032444369
    385 https://doi.org/10.1038/ng.2653
    386 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    387 sg:pub.10.1038/ng2127 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1015848569
    388 https://doi.org/10.1038/ng2127
    389 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    390 sg:pub.10.1038/nm.2670 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1015910126
    391 https://doi.org/10.1038/nm.2670
    392 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    393 sg:pub.10.1038/npp.2013.84 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1043550727
    394 https://doi.org/10.1038/npp.2013.84
    395 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    396 sg:pub.10.1038/nprot.2010.116 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1016226591
    397 https://doi.org/10.1038/nprot.2010.116
    398 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    399 sg:pub.10.1038/nrg3141 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1006905298
    400 https://doi.org/10.1038/nrg3141
    401 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    402 sg:pub.10.1038/nrn3156 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1031341957
    403 https://doi.org/10.1038/nrn3156
    404 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    405 sg:pub.10.1038/sj.mp.4001884 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1050069675
    406 https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.mp.4001884
    407 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    408 sg:pub.10.1038/tp.2013.33 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1049409343
    409 https://doi.org/10.1038/tp.2013.33
    410 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    411 sg:pub.10.2165/00003495-199000391-00005 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1025979433
    412 https://doi.org/10.2165/00003495-199000391-00005
    413 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    414 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1074366671 schema:CreativeWork
    415 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1081588409 schema:CreativeWork
    416 https://doi.org/10.1002/ajmg.b.31006 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1035790249
    417 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    418 https://doi.org/10.1002/ajmg.b.31106 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1018831557
    419 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    420 https://doi.org/10.1002/hup.2460 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1019826505
    421 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    422 https://doi.org/10.1016/0149-7634(94)90034-5 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1041117244
    423 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    424 https://doi.org/10.1016/0920-9964(93)90013-9 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1023808161
    425 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    426 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajpath.2015.09.023 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1051803212
    427 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    428 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsych.2005.03.031 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1016776429
    429 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    430 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brainres.2010.04.028 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1006162664
    431 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    432 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaac.2013.01.003 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1016124706
    433 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    434 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2011.08.019 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1027442546
    435 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    436 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpsychires.2012.04.028 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1033679108
    437 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    438 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mod.2005.10.005 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1017040125
    439 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    440 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neures.2013.07.003 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1042692352
    441 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    442 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2008.04.024 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1029822806
    443 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    444 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.schres.2010.07.001 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1040071792
    445 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    446 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0920-9964(03)00222-6 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1014318235
    447 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    448 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0920-9964(99)00059-6 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1044361234
    449 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    450 https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1471-4159.1997.68031304.x schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1015827438
    451 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    452 https://doi.org/10.1056/nejm198008283030920 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1007416471
    453 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    454 https://doi.org/10.1093/nar/28.1.27 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1017305614
    455 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    456 https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordjournals.schbul.a006887 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1046699104
    457 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    458 https://doi.org/10.1093/schbul/22.3.455 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1060023908
    459 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    460 https://doi.org/10.1097/fpc.0b013e3282f70492 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1060340575
    461 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    462 https://doi.org/10.1097/ypg.0b013e3283351194 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1001602468
    463 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    464 https://doi.org/10.1101/gad.13.5.505 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1027635862
    465 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    466 https://doi.org/10.1101/gr.137323.112 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1034124863
    467 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    468 https://doi.org/10.1109/tpami.2005.159 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1061742820
    469 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    470 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0447.2009.01463.x schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1032487246
    471 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    472 https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1164368 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1006710792
    473 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    474 https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.neuro.29.051605.112858 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1049104151
    475 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    476 https://doi.org/10.1155/2013/196848 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1042217974
    477 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    478 https://doi.org/10.1161/01.hyp.8.6.544 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1047654045
    479 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    480 https://doi.org/10.1161/hh0102.102272 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1002758524
    481 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    482 https://doi.org/10.1162/evco.2009.17.3.275 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1044453908
    483 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    484 https://doi.org/10.1176/ajp.148.11.1474 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1063480358
    485 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    486 https://doi.org/10.1177/070674370605100608 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1008713122
    487 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    488 https://doi.org/10.1242/bio.012005 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1048046013
    489 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    490 https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0011351 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1019942982
    491 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    492 https://doi.org/10.1523/jneurosci.22-07-02718.2002 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1075022900
    493 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    494 https://doi.org/10.1634/stemcells.2008-0297 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1013670956
    495 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    496 https://doi.org/10.3389/fncel.2013.00095 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1037596373
    497 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    498 https://doi.org/10.4161/cam.4.1.9914 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1072291990
    499 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    500 https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.1008.9 schema:alternateName University of Melbourne
    501 schema:name Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Centre for Neural Engineering (CfNE), University of Melbourne, Carlton South, VIC, Australia
    502 Department of Psychiatry, Melbourne Neuropsychiatry Centre, The University of Melbourne and Melbourne Health, Carlton South, VIC, Australia
    503 Florey Institute of Neuroscience and Mental Health, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC, Australia
    504 NorthWestern Mental Health, Melbourne, VIC, Australia
    505 rdf:type schema:Organization
    506 https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.1027.4 schema:alternateName Swinburne University of Technology
    507 schema:name Centre for Human Psychopharmacology, Swinburne University of Technology, Hawthorn, VIC, Australia
    508 Department of General Practice, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC, Australia
    509 Department of Psychiatry, Melbourne Neuropsychiatry Centre, The University of Melbourne and Melbourne Health, Carlton South, VIC, Australia
    510 Florey Institute of Neuroscience and Mental Health, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC, Australia
    511 rdf:type schema:Organization
    512 https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.11135.37 schema:alternateName Peking University
    513 schema:name Institute of Mental Health, The Sixth Hospital, Peking University, Beijing, China
    514 Key Laboratory of Mental Health, Ministry of Health & National Clinical Research Center for Mental Disorders (Peking University), Beijing, China
    515 Peking-Tsinghua Joint Center for Life Sciences/PKU-IDG/McGovern Institute for Brain Research, Peking University, Beijing, China
    516 rdf:type schema:Organization
    517 https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.459847.3 schema:alternateName Peking University Sixth Hospital
    518 schema:name Institute of Mental Health, The Sixth Hospital, Peking University, Beijing, China
    519 Key Laboratory of Mental Health, Ministry of Health & National Clinical Research Center for Mental Disorders (Peking University), Beijing, China
    520 rdf:type schema:Organization
     




    Preview window. Press ESC to close (or click here)


    ...