Fear learning circuitry is biased toward generalization of fear associations in posttraumatic stress disorder View Full Text


Ontology type: schema:ScholarlyArticle      Open Access: True


Article Info

DATE

2015-12

AUTHORS

R A Morey, J E Dunsmoor, C C Haswell, V M Brown, A Vora, J Weiner, D Stjepanovic, H R Wagner, VA Mid-Atlantic MIRECC Workgroup, Mira Brancu, Christine E Marx, Jennifer C Naylor, Elizabeth Van Voorhees, Katherine H Taber, Jean C Beckham, Patrick S Calhoun, John A Fairbank, Steven T Szabo, K S LaBar

ABSTRACT

Fear conditioning is an established model for investigating posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, symptom triggers may vaguely resemble the initial traumatic event, differing on a variety of sensory and affective dimensions. We extended the fear-conditioning model to assess generalization of conditioned fear on fear processing neurocircuitry in PTSD. Military veterans (n=67) consisting of PTSD (n=32) and trauma-exposed comparison (n=35) groups underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging during fear conditioning to a low fear-expressing face while a neutral face was explicitly unreinforced. Stimuli that varied along a neutral-to-fearful continuum were presented before conditioning to assess baseline responses, and after conditioning to assess experience-dependent changes in neural activity. Compared with trauma-exposed controls, PTSD patients exhibited greater post-study memory distortion of the fear-conditioned stimulus toward the stimulus expressing the highest fear intensity. PTSD patients exhibited biased neural activation toward high-intensity stimuli in fusiform gyrus (P<0.02), insula (P<0.001), primary visual cortex (P<0.05), locus coeruleus (P<0.04), thalamus (P<0.01), and at the trend level in inferior frontal gyrus (P=0.07). All regions except fusiform were moderated by childhood trauma. Amygdala-calcarine (P=0.01) and amygdala-thalamus (P=0.06) functional connectivity selectively increased in PTSD patients for high-intensity stimuli after conditioning. In contrast, amygdala-ventromedial prefrontal cortex (P=0.04) connectivity selectively increased in trauma-exposed controls compared with PTSD patients for low-intensity stimuli after conditioning, representing safety learning. In summary, fear generalization in PTSD is biased toward stimuli with higher emotional intensity than the original conditioned-fear stimulus. Functional brain differences provide a putative neurobiological model for fear generalization whereby PTSD symptoms are triggered by threat cues that merely resemble the index trauma. More... »

PAGES

tp2015196

References to SciGraph publications

Identifiers

URI

http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1038/tp.2015.196

DOI

http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/tp.2015.196

DIMENSIONS

https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1039355038

PUBMED

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26670285


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