Long-term adaptation of the influenza A virus by escaping cytotoxic T-cell recognition View Full Text


Ontology type: schema:ScholarlyArticle      Open Access: True


Article Info

DATE

2016-09-15

AUTHORS

Rutger G. Woolthuis, Christiaan H. van Dorp, Can Keşmir, Rob J. de Boer, Michiel van Boven

ABSTRACT

The evolutionary adaptation of the influenza A virus (IAV) to human antibodies is well characterised. Much less is known about the long-term evolution of cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) epitopes, which are important antigens for clearance of infection. We construct an antigenic map of IAVs of all human subtypes using a compendium of 142 confirmed CTL epitopes, and show that IAV evolved gradually in the period 1932–2015, with infrequent antigenic jumps in the H3N2 subtype. Intriguingly, the number of CTL epitopes per virus decreases with more than one epitope per three years in the H3N2 subtype (from 84 epitopes per virus in 1968 to 64 in 2015), mostly attributed to the loss of HLA-B epitopes. We confirm these observations with epitope predictions. Our findings indicate that selection pressures imposed by CTL immunity shape the long-term evolution of IAV. More... »

PAGES

33334

Identifiers

URI

http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1038/srep33334

DOI

http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/srep33334

DIMENSIONS

https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1017360170

PUBMED

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27629812


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