Macrophage depletion increases the safety, efficacy and persistence of adenovirus-mediated gene transfer in vivo View Full Text


Ontology type: schema:ScholarlyArticle      Open Access: True


Article Info

DATE

1997-04-01

AUTHORS

AI Kuzmin, MJ Finegold, RC Eisensmith

ABSTRACT

The consequences of macrophage depletion achieved by intravenous infusion of liposome-encapsulated clodronate (dichlormethylene diphosphonate (Cl2MDP)) on adenovirus-mediated transfer of a recombinant human α1-antitrypsin (hAAT) gene were examined in 12–14-week-old male Balb/c mice. The levels of hAAT expression following tail vein infusions of 109 p.f.u. of Ad.RSV-hAAT were approximately four-fold higher in macrophage-depleted animals than in control animals pretreated with liposome-encapsulated phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). Clodronate pretreatment also significantly increased the survival of animals injected with high doses of viral vector. Long-term studies performed in animals receiving tail vein infusions of the adenoviral vector also indicated that clodronate pretreatment significantly attenuated the rapid loss of transgene expression usually observed in immunocompetent animals. These findings indicate that the depletion of macrophages before adenovirus-mediated gene transfer may increase the transduction efficiency and reduce the rate of immunologic elimination of the adenovirally transduced cells, thereby increasing the persistence of transgene expression in immunocompetent animals. More... »

PAGES

309-316

References to SciGraph publications

  • 1995. Gene Therapy Using Adenovirus Vectors in THE MOLECULAR REPERTOIRE OF ADENOVIRUSES III
  • 1991-04-22. Manipulation of Adenovirus Vectors in GENE TRANSFER AND EXPRESSION PROTOCOLS
  • Identifiers

    URI

    http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1038/sj.gt.3300377

    DOI

    http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/sj.gt.3300377

    DIMENSIONS

    https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1014594582

    PUBMED

    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9176516


    Indexing Status Check whether this publication has been indexed by Scopus and Web Of Science using the SN Indexing Status Tool
    Incoming Citations Browse incoming citations for this publication using opencitations.net

    JSON-LD is the canonical representation for SciGraph data.

    TIP: You can open this SciGraph record using an external JSON-LD service: JSON-LD Playground Google SDTT

    [
      {
        "@context": "https://springernature.github.io/scigraph/jsonld/sgcontext.json", 
        "about": [
          {
            "id": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/11", 
            "inDefinedTermSet": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/", 
            "name": "Medical and Health Sciences", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/1103", 
            "inDefinedTermSet": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/", 
            "name": "Clinical Sciences", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Adenoviridae", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Animals", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Gene Transfer Techniques", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Genetic Therapy", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Humans", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Immunosuppression Therapy", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Liver", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Lung", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Macrophages", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Male", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Mice", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Mice, Inbred BALB C", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "alpha 1-Antitrypsin", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }
        ], 
        "author": [
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "Department of Cell Biology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA", 
              "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.39382.33", 
              "name": [
                "Department of Cell Biology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Kuzmin", 
            "givenName": "AI", 
            "id": "sg:person.0576246420.89", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0576246420.89"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "Department of Pathology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA", 
              "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.39382.33", 
              "name": [
                "Department of Pathology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Finegold", 
            "givenName": "MJ", 
            "id": "sg:person.014103516477.24", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.014103516477.24"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "Department of Cell Biology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA", 
              "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.39382.33", 
              "name": [
                "Department of Cell Biology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Eisensmith", 
            "givenName": "RC", 
            "id": "sg:person.01036761752.44", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01036761752.44"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }
        ], 
        "citation": [
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1385/0-89603-178-0:109", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1015901721", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1385/0-89603-178-0:109"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/978-3-642-79586-2_14", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1048504058", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-79586-2_14"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }
        ], 
        "datePublished": "1997-04-01", 
        "datePublishedReg": "1997-04-01", 
        "description": "The consequences of macrophage depletion achieved by intravenous infusion of liposome-encapsulated clodronate (dichlormethylene diphosphonate (Cl2MDP)) on adenovirus-mediated transfer of a recombinant human \u03b11-antitrypsin (hAAT) gene were examined in 12\u201314-week-old male Balb/c mice. The levels of hAAT expression following tail vein infusions of 109 p.f.u. of Ad.RSV-hAAT were approximately four-fold higher in macrophage-depleted animals than in control animals pretreated with liposome-encapsulated phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). Clodronate pretreatment also significantly increased the survival of animals injected with high doses of viral vector. Long-term studies performed in animals receiving tail vein infusions of the adenoviral vector also indicated that clodronate pretreatment significantly attenuated the rapid loss of transgene expression usually observed in immunocompetent animals. These findings indicate that the depletion of macrophages before adenovirus-mediated gene transfer may increase the transduction efficiency and reduce the rate of immunologic elimination of the adenovirally transduced cells, thereby increasing the persistence of transgene expression in immunocompetent animals.", 
        "genre": "article", 
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/sj.gt.3300377", 
        "isAccessibleForFree": true, 
        "isFundedItemOf": [
          {
            "id": "sg:grant.2436116", 
            "type": "MonetaryGrant"
          }
        ], 
        "isPartOf": [
          {
            "id": "sg:journal.1105638", 
            "issn": [
              "0969-7128", 
              "1476-5462"
            ], 
            "name": "Gene Therapy", 
            "publisher": "Springer Nature", 
            "type": "Periodical"
          }, 
          {
            "issueNumber": "4", 
            "type": "PublicationIssue"
          }, 
          {
            "type": "PublicationVolume", 
            "volumeNumber": "4"
          }
        ], 
        "keywords": [
          "transgene expression", 
          "clodronate pretreatment", 
          "human \u03b11-antitrypsin gene", 
          "gene transfer", 
          "hAAT expression", 
          "transduction efficiency", 
          "\u03b11-antitrypsin gene", 
          "viral vectors", 
          "phosphate-buffered saline", 
          "immunologic elimination", 
          "adenoviral vector", 
          "adenovirus-mediated gene transfer", 
          "macrophage-depleted animals", 
          "immunocompetent animals", 
          "tail vein infusion", 
          "liposomes", 
          "AD", 
          "adenovirus", 
          "vector", 
          "transfer", 
          "survival of animals", 
          "efficiency", 
          "vein infusion", 
          "vivo", 
          "BALB/c mice", 
          "cells", 
          "pretreatment", 
          "loss", 
          "c mice", 
          "genes", 
          "rate", 
          "expression", 
          "rapid loss", 
          "safety", 
          "depletion", 
          "elimination", 
          "macrophage depletion", 
          "efficacy", 
          "depletion of macrophages", 
          "levels", 
          "animals", 
          "study", 
          "mice", 
          "high doses", 
          "saline", 
          "macrophages", 
          "male BALB/c mice", 
          "consequences", 
          "doses", 
          "persistence", 
          "findings", 
          "long-term studies", 
          "clodronate", 
          "intravenous infusion", 
          "control animals", 
          "infusion", 
          "survival"
        ], 
        "name": "Macrophage depletion increases the safety, efficacy and persistence of adenovirus-mediated gene transfer in vivo", 
        "pagination": "309-316", 
        "productId": [
          {
            "name": "dimensions_id", 
            "type": "PropertyValue", 
            "value": [
              "pub.1014594582"
            ]
          }, 
          {
            "name": "doi", 
            "type": "PropertyValue", 
            "value": [
              "10.1038/sj.gt.3300377"
            ]
          }, 
          {
            "name": "pubmed_id", 
            "type": "PropertyValue", 
            "value": [
              "9176516"
            ]
          }
        ], 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.gt.3300377", 
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1014594582"
        ], 
        "sdDataset": "articles", 
        "sdDatePublished": "2022-12-01T06:21", 
        "sdLicense": "https://scigraph.springernature.com/explorer/license/", 
        "sdPublisher": {
          "name": "Springer Nature - SN SciGraph project", 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "sdSource": "s3://com-springernature-scigraph/baseset/20221201/entities/gbq_results/article/article_290.jsonl", 
        "type": "ScholarlyArticle", 
        "url": "https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.gt.3300377"
      }
    ]
     

    Download the RDF metadata as:  json-ld nt turtle xml License info

    HOW TO GET THIS DATA PROGRAMMATICALLY:

    JSON-LD is a popular format for linked data which is fully compatible with JSON.

    curl -H 'Accept: application/ld+json' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1038/sj.gt.3300377'

    N-Triples is a line-based linked data format ideal for batch operations.

    curl -H 'Accept: application/n-triples' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1038/sj.gt.3300377'

    Turtle is a human-readable linked data format.

    curl -H 'Accept: text/turtle' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1038/sj.gt.3300377'

    RDF/XML is a standard XML format for linked data.

    curl -H 'Accept: application/rdf+xml' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1038/sj.gt.3300377'


     

    This table displays all metadata directly associated to this object as RDF triples.

    196 TRIPLES      21 PREDICATES      97 URIs      87 LITERALS      20 BLANK NODES

    Subject Predicate Object
    1 sg:pub.10.1038/sj.gt.3300377 schema:about N3a8674d9229840a182de50b7c446bbea
    2 N4753d3e31e6446a7a9be693f1df2d99a
    3 N4a2093347ca54318840525243fa2f9eb
    4 N604355bc194342598507a49808e660dc
    5 N840883c167674162b8b4d4b257a96f68
    6 N899fbb4c39a14ffcbb2e8750800b58f6
    7 Nb1db4f170e444c7d8bbdc191ddedc7b9
    8 Nb863602082f541fcba97d4961559502e
    9 Nd33d3f9926b24bceadbe9a261df4f2c4
    10 Ndf8bc84f1ad54d60b8b4af19449fdf2b
    11 Ne6385d81ca2a4a39be81911fa57319c5
    12 Nf3201365661f48f7ad8ea6c2b99efc6a
    13 Nff4452e7e53a465ba83946e4bedb3dba
    14 anzsrc-for:11
    15 anzsrc-for:1103
    16 schema:author Ne8e97cceac41484b8a7416177a1f3c71
    17 schema:citation sg:pub.10.1007/978-3-642-79586-2_14
    18 sg:pub.10.1385/0-89603-178-0:109
    19 schema:datePublished 1997-04-01
    20 schema:datePublishedReg 1997-04-01
    21 schema:description The consequences of macrophage depletion achieved by intravenous infusion of liposome-encapsulated clodronate (dichlormethylene diphosphonate (Cl2MDP)) on adenovirus-mediated transfer of a recombinant human α1-antitrypsin (hAAT) gene were examined in 12–14-week-old male Balb/c mice. The levels of hAAT expression following tail vein infusions of 109 p.f.u. of Ad.RSV-hAAT were approximately four-fold higher in macrophage-depleted animals than in control animals pretreated with liposome-encapsulated phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). Clodronate pretreatment also significantly increased the survival of animals injected with high doses of viral vector. Long-term studies performed in animals receiving tail vein infusions of the adenoviral vector also indicated that clodronate pretreatment significantly attenuated the rapid loss of transgene expression usually observed in immunocompetent animals. These findings indicate that the depletion of macrophages before adenovirus-mediated gene transfer may increase the transduction efficiency and reduce the rate of immunologic elimination of the adenovirally transduced cells, thereby increasing the persistence of transgene expression in immunocompetent animals.
    22 schema:genre article
    23 schema:isAccessibleForFree true
    24 schema:isPartOf N0397b44a00904a56b0e3c1ea187e6323
    25 N8f9331fa28c746c1bb961198c46b9937
    26 sg:journal.1105638
    27 schema:keywords AD
    28 BALB/c mice
    29 adenoviral vector
    30 adenovirus
    31 adenovirus-mediated gene transfer
    32 animals
    33 c mice
    34 cells
    35 clodronate
    36 clodronate pretreatment
    37 consequences
    38 control animals
    39 depletion
    40 depletion of macrophages
    41 doses
    42 efficacy
    43 efficiency
    44 elimination
    45 expression
    46 findings
    47 gene transfer
    48 genes
    49 hAAT expression
    50 high doses
    51 human α1-antitrypsin gene
    52 immunocompetent animals
    53 immunologic elimination
    54 infusion
    55 intravenous infusion
    56 levels
    57 liposomes
    58 long-term studies
    59 loss
    60 macrophage depletion
    61 macrophage-depleted animals
    62 macrophages
    63 male BALB/c mice
    64 mice
    65 persistence
    66 phosphate-buffered saline
    67 pretreatment
    68 rapid loss
    69 rate
    70 safety
    71 saline
    72 study
    73 survival
    74 survival of animals
    75 tail vein infusion
    76 transduction efficiency
    77 transfer
    78 transgene expression
    79 vector
    80 vein infusion
    81 viral vectors
    82 vivo
    83 α1-antitrypsin gene
    84 schema:name Macrophage depletion increases the safety, efficacy and persistence of adenovirus-mediated gene transfer in vivo
    85 schema:pagination 309-316
    86 schema:productId N53c50211ce5346318a76b3499d473aa5
    87 N5b5433c19b7e4b07a042a4123a09f4fa
    88 N90336485618e4d2d8d3b2c6181326062
    89 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1014594582
    90 https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.gt.3300377
    91 schema:sdDatePublished 2022-12-01T06:21
    92 schema:sdLicense https://scigraph.springernature.com/explorer/license/
    93 schema:sdPublisher N893ec592af7444a8b04e504fa02d3e5f
    94 schema:url https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.gt.3300377
    95 sgo:license sg:explorer/license/
    96 sgo:sdDataset articles
    97 rdf:type schema:ScholarlyArticle
    98 N0397b44a00904a56b0e3c1ea187e6323 schema:volumeNumber 4
    99 rdf:type schema:PublicationVolume
    100 N3a8674d9229840a182de50b7c446bbea schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    101 schema:name Male
    102 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    103 N4753d3e31e6446a7a9be693f1df2d99a schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    104 schema:name Mice
    105 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    106 N4a2093347ca54318840525243fa2f9eb schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    107 schema:name Adenoviridae
    108 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    109 N53c50211ce5346318a76b3499d473aa5 schema:name pubmed_id
    110 schema:value 9176516
    111 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
    112 N56bf29616cb24a3d9e608639f0556e77 rdf:first sg:person.014103516477.24
    113 rdf:rest Ncdd88b3649a4494f828ab36e802d249d
    114 N5b5433c19b7e4b07a042a4123a09f4fa schema:name doi
    115 schema:value 10.1038/sj.gt.3300377
    116 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
    117 N604355bc194342598507a49808e660dc schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    118 schema:name Immunosuppression Therapy
    119 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    120 N840883c167674162b8b4d4b257a96f68 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    121 schema:name Mice, Inbred BALB C
    122 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    123 N893ec592af7444a8b04e504fa02d3e5f schema:name Springer Nature - SN SciGraph project
    124 rdf:type schema:Organization
    125 N899fbb4c39a14ffcbb2e8750800b58f6 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    126 schema:name Macrophages
    127 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    128 N8f9331fa28c746c1bb961198c46b9937 schema:issueNumber 4
    129 rdf:type schema:PublicationIssue
    130 N90336485618e4d2d8d3b2c6181326062 schema:name dimensions_id
    131 schema:value pub.1014594582
    132 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
    133 Nb1db4f170e444c7d8bbdc191ddedc7b9 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    134 schema:name alpha 1-Antitrypsin
    135 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    136 Nb863602082f541fcba97d4961559502e schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    137 schema:name Humans
    138 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    139 Ncdd88b3649a4494f828ab36e802d249d rdf:first sg:person.01036761752.44
    140 rdf:rest rdf:nil
    141 Nd33d3f9926b24bceadbe9a261df4f2c4 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    142 schema:name Genetic Therapy
    143 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    144 Ndf8bc84f1ad54d60b8b4af19449fdf2b schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    145 schema:name Lung
    146 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    147 Ne6385d81ca2a4a39be81911fa57319c5 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    148 schema:name Liver
    149 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    150 Ne8e97cceac41484b8a7416177a1f3c71 rdf:first sg:person.0576246420.89
    151 rdf:rest N56bf29616cb24a3d9e608639f0556e77
    152 Nf3201365661f48f7ad8ea6c2b99efc6a schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    153 schema:name Gene Transfer Techniques
    154 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    155 Nff4452e7e53a465ba83946e4bedb3dba schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    156 schema:name Animals
    157 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    158 anzsrc-for:11 schema:inDefinedTermSet anzsrc-for:
    159 schema:name Medical and Health Sciences
    160 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    161 anzsrc-for:1103 schema:inDefinedTermSet anzsrc-for:
    162 schema:name Clinical Sciences
    163 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    164 sg:grant.2436116 http://pending.schema.org/fundedItem sg:pub.10.1038/sj.gt.3300377
    165 rdf:type schema:MonetaryGrant
    166 sg:journal.1105638 schema:issn 0969-7128
    167 1476-5462
    168 schema:name Gene Therapy
    169 schema:publisher Springer Nature
    170 rdf:type schema:Periodical
    171 sg:person.01036761752.44 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.39382.33
    172 schema:familyName Eisensmith
    173 schema:givenName RC
    174 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01036761752.44
    175 rdf:type schema:Person
    176 sg:person.014103516477.24 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.39382.33
    177 schema:familyName Finegold
    178 schema:givenName MJ
    179 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.014103516477.24
    180 rdf:type schema:Person
    181 sg:person.0576246420.89 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.39382.33
    182 schema:familyName Kuzmin
    183 schema:givenName AI
    184 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0576246420.89
    185 rdf:type schema:Person
    186 sg:pub.10.1007/978-3-642-79586-2_14 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1048504058
    187 https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-79586-2_14
    188 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    189 sg:pub.10.1385/0-89603-178-0:109 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1015901721
    190 https://doi.org/10.1385/0-89603-178-0:109
    191 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    192 grid-institutes:grid.39382.33 schema:alternateName Department of Cell Biology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA
    193 Department of Pathology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA
    194 schema:name Department of Cell Biology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA
    195 Department of Pathology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA
    196 rdf:type schema:Organization
     




    Preview window. Press ESC to close (or click here)


    ...