A multistep mutation mechanism drives the evolution of the CAG repeat at MJD/SCA3 locus View Full Text


Ontology type: schema:ScholarlyArticle      Open Access: True


Article Info

DATE

2006-08

AUTHORS

Sandra Martins, Francesc Calafell, Virginia C N Wong, Jorge Sequeiros, António Amorim

ABSTRACT

Despite the intense debate around the repeat instability reported on the large group of neurological disorders caused by trinucleotide repeat expansions, little is known about the mutation process underlying alleles in the normal range that, ultimately, expand to pathological size. In this study, we assessed the mutation mechanisms by which wild-type Machado-Joseph disease (MJD) alleles have been generated throughout human evolution. Haplotypes including the CAG repeat, six intragenic SNPs and four flanking microsatellites were analysed in 431 normal chromosomes of European, Asian and African origin. A bimodal CAG repeat length frequency distribution was found in the four most frequent wild-type lineages (H1-GCGGCA; H2-GTGGCA; H3-TTAGAC and H4-TTACAC). Based on flanking microsatellite haplotypes, the variance calculated by analysis of molecular variance between modal (CAG)n alleles was little or null in lineages H1, H2 and H4, as were the pairwise differences. Moreover, genetic distances among all the alleles from each lineage did not reflect the allele sizes differences, as expected if a stepwise mutation model was the main process of evolution. On the contrary, when exposed in maximum parsimonious phylogenetic trees, a large number of mutation steps separated same-size alleles, whereas several microsatellite haplotypes were shared by modal CAGs. In conclusion, our results suggest that the main mutation mechanism occurring in the evolution of the polymorphic CAG region at MJD/SCA3 locus is a multistep one, either by gene conversion or DNA slippage; repeats with 14, 21, 23 and 27 CAGs are the main alleles involved in this process. More... »

PAGES

932

Identifiers

URI

http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1038/sj.ejhg.5201643

DOI

http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/sj.ejhg.5201643

DIMENSIONS

https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1047164293

PUBMED

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16724006


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53 schema:description Despite the intense debate around the repeat instability reported on the large group of neurological disorders caused by trinucleotide repeat expansions, little is known about the mutation process underlying alleles in the normal range that, ultimately, expand to pathological size. In this study, we assessed the mutation mechanisms by which wild-type Machado-Joseph disease (MJD) alleles have been generated throughout human evolution. Haplotypes including the CAG repeat, six intragenic SNPs and four flanking microsatellites were analysed in 431 normal chromosomes of European, Asian and African origin. A bimodal CAG repeat length frequency distribution was found in the four most frequent wild-type lineages (H1-GCGGCA; H2-GTGGCA; H3-TTAGAC and H4-TTACAC). Based on flanking microsatellite haplotypes, the variance calculated by analysis of molecular variance between modal (CAG)n alleles was little or null in lineages H1, H2 and H4, as were the pairwise differences. Moreover, genetic distances among all the alleles from each lineage did not reflect the allele sizes differences, as expected if a stepwise mutation model was the main process of evolution. On the contrary, when exposed in maximum parsimonious phylogenetic trees, a large number of mutation steps separated same-size alleles, whereas several microsatellite haplotypes were shared by modal CAGs. In conclusion, our results suggest that the main mutation mechanism occurring in the evolution of the polymorphic CAG region at MJD/SCA3 locus is a multistep one, either by gene conversion or DNA slippage; repeats with 14, 21, 23 and 27 CAGs are the main alleles involved in this process.
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