A phase I trial of preoperative radiotherapy and capecitabine for locally advanced, potentially resectable rectal cancer View Full Text


Ontology type: schema:ScholarlyArticle      Open Access: True


Article Info

DATE

2004-09

AUTHORS

S Y K Ngan, M Michael, J Mackay, J McKendrick, T Leong, D Lim Joon, J R Zalcberg

ABSTRACT

The purpose of the study was to determine the maximum-tolerated dose (MTD) of oral capecitabine, combined with concurrent, standard preoperative pelvic radiotherapy, when given twice daily, from Monday to Friday throughout the course of radiotherapy, for locally advanced potentially resectable rectal cancer. Maximum-tolerated dose was defined as the total (given in two equally divided doses) oral dose of capecitabine that caused treatment-related grade 3 or 4 toxicity in one-third or more of the patients treated. Radiotherapy involved 50.4 Gy given in 28 fractions in 5 weeks and 3 days. Eligible patients had a newly diagnosed clinical stage T3-4 N0-2 M0 rectal adenocarcinoma located within 12 cm of the anal verge suitable for curative resection. Surgery was performed 4-6 weeks from completion of preoperative chemoradiotherapy. In all, 28 patients were enrolled in the study at predefined dose levels: 850 mg m(-2) day(-1) (n=3), 1000 mg m(-2) day(-1) (n=6), 1250 mg m(-2) day(-1) (n=3), 1650 mg m(-2) day(-1) (n=3), 1800 mg m(-2) day(-1) (n=8) and 2000 mg m(-2) day(-1) (n=5). The mean age was 62.3 years (range: 33-80 years). Five patients were female and 23 male. The median distance of tumour from the anal verge was 6 cm (range: 1-11 cm). Endorectal ultrasound was performed in 93% of patients. A total of 26 patients (93%) had T3 disease and two patients had resectable T4 disease. Dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) developed in one patient at dose level 1000 mg m(-2) day(-1) (RTOG grade 3 cystitis). Two of the five patients at dose level 2000 mg m(-2) day(-1) had a total of three DLT (grade 3 perineal skin reaction, grade 3 diarrhoea and grade 3 dehydration). Dose escalation of capecitabine was ceased at 2000 mg m(-2) day(-1) after reaching MTD. None of the eight patients at dose level 1800 mg m(-2) day(-1) developed DLT. All except one patient underwent surgery. A total of 15 patients had the clinical T stage reduced by at least one stage in pathologic specimens. Five patients (19%) achieved a pathologic complete response. We conclude that the MTD of capecitabine was reached at a dose level of 2000 mg m(-2) day(-1), given as 1000 mg m(-2) twice daily, from Monday to Friday throughout the course of preoperative pelvic irradiation of 50.4 Gy. For patients with resectable rectal cancer receiving concurrent, full dose radiotherapy, the recommended dose of capecitabine for further study is 1800 mg m(-2) day(-1) when given in this schedule. More... »

PAGES

1019

References to SciGraph publications

Identifiers

URI

http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1038/sj.bjc.6602106

DOI

http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/sj.bjc.6602106

DIMENSIONS

https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1039650357

PUBMED

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15305186


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45 schema:description The purpose of the study was to determine the maximum-tolerated dose (MTD) of oral capecitabine, combined with concurrent, standard preoperative pelvic radiotherapy, when given twice daily, from Monday to Friday throughout the course of radiotherapy, for locally advanced potentially resectable rectal cancer. Maximum-tolerated dose was defined as the total (given in two equally divided doses) oral dose of capecitabine that caused treatment-related grade 3 or 4 toxicity in one-third or more of the patients treated. Radiotherapy involved 50.4 Gy given in 28 fractions in 5 weeks and 3 days. Eligible patients had a newly diagnosed clinical stage T3-4 N0-2 M0 rectal adenocarcinoma located within 12 cm of the anal verge suitable for curative resection. Surgery was performed 4-6 weeks from completion of preoperative chemoradiotherapy. In all, 28 patients were enrolled in the study at predefined dose levels: 850 mg m(-2) day(-1) (n=3), 1000 mg m(-2) day(-1) (n=6), 1250 mg m(-2) day(-1) (n=3), 1650 mg m(-2) day(-1) (n=3), 1800 mg m(-2) day(-1) (n=8) and 2000 mg m(-2) day(-1) (n=5). The mean age was 62.3 years (range: 33-80 years). Five patients were female and 23 male. The median distance of tumour from the anal verge was 6 cm (range: 1-11 cm). Endorectal ultrasound was performed in 93% of patients. A total of 26 patients (93%) had T3 disease and two patients had resectable T4 disease. Dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) developed in one patient at dose level 1000 mg m(-2) day(-1) (RTOG grade 3 cystitis). Two of the five patients at dose level 2000 mg m(-2) day(-1) had a total of three DLT (grade 3 perineal skin reaction, grade 3 diarrhoea and grade 3 dehydration). Dose escalation of capecitabine was ceased at 2000 mg m(-2) day(-1) after reaching MTD. None of the eight patients at dose level 1800 mg m(-2) day(-1) developed DLT. All except one patient underwent surgery. A total of 15 patients had the clinical T stage reduced by at least one stage in pathologic specimens. Five patients (19%) achieved a pathologic complete response. We conclude that the MTD of capecitabine was reached at a dose level of 2000 mg m(-2) day(-1), given as 1000 mg m(-2) twice daily, from Monday to Friday throughout the course of preoperative pelvic irradiation of 50.4 Gy. For patients with resectable rectal cancer receiving concurrent, full dose radiotherapy, the recommended dose of capecitabine for further study is 1800 mg m(-2) day(-1) when given in this schedule.
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