Biochemical and reproductive biomarker analysis to study the consequences of heavy metal burden on health profile of male brick kiln ... View Full Text


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Article Info

DATE

2022-05-03

AUTHORS

Mehwish David, Sarwat Jahan, Javaid Hussain, Humaira Rehman, Karen J. Cloete, Tayyaba Afsar, Ali Almajwal, Nawaf W. Alruwaili, Suhail Razak

ABSTRACT

The present study aims to assess the effect of a heavy metal burden on general health, biochemical parameters, an antioxidant enzyme, and reproductive hormone parameters in adult male brick kiln workers from Pakistan. The study participants (n = 546) provided demographic data including general health as well as body mass index. Blood was collected to quantitatively assess hematological, biochemical, and reproductive hormone parameters as well as heavy metal concentrations using both atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) and particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE). The data showed that 10% of the brick kiln workers were underweight and 10% obese (P = 0.059), with workers also reporting multiple health issues. Heavy metal concentrations utilizing AAS revealed significantly (p = 0.000) higher levels of cadmium, chromium, and nickel, while PIXE detected more than permissible levels of Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Zn, Ti (p = 0.052), Mn (p = 0.017), Fe (p = 0.055), Co (p = 0.011), Ni (p = 0.045), and Cu (p = 0.003), in the blood of kiln workers. Moreover, a significant increase in platelet count (P = 0.010), a decrease in sodium dismutase levels (p = 0.006), a major increase in reactive oxygen species (p = 0.001), and a reduction in protein content (p = 0.013) were evident. A significant increase in cortisol levels (p = 0.000) among the workers group was also observed. The concentration of LH and FSH increased significantly (p = 0.000), while that of testosterone decreased (p = 0.000) in the worker group compared with controls. A significant inverse relationship was found between cortisol, LH (r = − 0.380), and FSH (r = − 0.946), while a positive correlation between cortisol and testosterone was also evident (r = 0.164). The study concludes that increased heavy metal burden in the blood of brick kiln workers exposes them to the development of general and reproductive health problems due to compromised antioxidant enzyme levels, increased oxidative stress conditions, and a disturbing reproductive axis. More... »

PAGES

7172

References to SciGraph publications

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    http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1038/s41598-022-11304-7

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    http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-022-11304-7

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    27 schema:description The present study aims to assess the effect of a heavy metal burden on general health, biochemical parameters, an antioxidant enzyme, and reproductive hormone parameters in adult male brick kiln workers from Pakistan. The study participants (n = 546) provided demographic data including general health as well as body mass index. Blood was collected to quantitatively assess hematological, biochemical, and reproductive hormone parameters as well as heavy metal concentrations using both atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) and particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE). The data showed that 10% of the brick kiln workers were underweight and 10% obese (P = 0.059), with workers also reporting multiple health issues. Heavy metal concentrations utilizing AAS revealed significantly (p = 0.000) higher levels of cadmium, chromium, and nickel, while PIXE detected more than permissible levels of Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Zn, Ti (p = 0.052), Mn (p = 0.017), Fe (p = 0.055), Co (p = 0.011), Ni (p = 0.045), and Cu (p = 0.003), in the blood of kiln workers. Moreover, a significant increase in platelet count (P = 0.010), a decrease in sodium dismutase levels (p = 0.006), a major increase in reactive oxygen species (p = 0.001), and a reduction in protein content (p = 0.013) were evident. A significant increase in cortisol levels (p = 0.000) among the workers group was also observed. The concentration of LH and FSH increased significantly (p = 0.000), while that of testosterone decreased (p = 0.000) in the worker group compared with controls. A significant inverse relationship was found between cortisol, LH (r =  − 0.380), and FSH (r =  − 0.946), while a positive correlation between cortisol and testosterone was also evident (r = 0.164). The study concludes that increased heavy metal burden in the blood of brick kiln workers exposes them to the development of general and reproductive health problems due to compromised antioxidant enzyme levels, increased oxidative stress conditions, and a disturbing reproductive axis.
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