Tree rings reveal signs of Europe’s sustainable forest management long before the first historical evidence View Full Text


Ontology type: schema:ScholarlyArticle      Open Access: True


Article Info

DATE

2020-12-11

AUTHORS

Bernhard Muigg, Georgios Skiadaresis, Willy Tegel, Franz Herzig, Paul J. Krusic, Uwe E. Schmidt, Ulf Büntgen

ABSTRACT

To satisfy the increasing demand for wood in central Europe during medieval times, a new system of forest management was developed, one far superior to simple coppicing. The adoption of a sophisticated, Coppice-with-Standards (CWS) management practice created a two-storey forest structure that could provide fuelwood as well as construction timber. Here we present a dendrochronological study of actively managed CWS forests in northern Bavaria to detect the radial growth response to cyclical understorey harvesting in overstorey oaks (Quercus sp.), so-called standards. All modern standards exhibit rapid growth releases every circa 30 years, most likely caused by regular understorey management. We further analyse tree-ring width patterns in 2120 oak timbers from historical buildings and archaeological excavations in southern Germany and north-eastern France, dating between 300 and 2015 CE, and succeeded in identifying CWS growth patterns throughout the medieval period. Several potential CWS standards even date to the first millennium CE, suggesting CWS management has been in practice long before its first mention in historical documents. Our dendrochronological approach should be expanded routinely to indentify the signature of past forest management practices in archaeological and historical oak wood. More... »

PAGES

21832

References to SciGraph publications

  • 1993. Methods of oak silviculture in Austria in ANNALES DES SCIENCES FORESTIÈRES
  • 2013-02-26. Is there memory in precipitation? in NATURE CLIMATE CHANGE
  • Identifiers

    URI

    http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1038/s41598-020-78933-8

    DOI

    http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-78933-8

    DIMENSIONS

    https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1133405086

    PUBMED

    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/33311544


    Indexing Status Check whether this publication has been indexed by Scopus and Web Of Science using the SN Indexing Status Tool
    Incoming Citations Browse incoming citations for this publication using opencitations.net

    JSON-LD is the canonical representation for SciGraph data.

    TIP: You can open this SciGraph record using an external JSON-LD service: JSON-LD Playground Google SDTT

    [
      {
        "@context": "https://springernature.github.io/scigraph/jsonld/sgcontext.json", 
        "about": [
          {
            "id": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/07", 
            "inDefinedTermSet": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/", 
            "name": "Agricultural and Veterinary Sciences", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/21", 
            "inDefinedTermSet": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/", 
            "name": "History and Archaeology", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/0705", 
            "inDefinedTermSet": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/", 
            "name": "Forestry Sciences", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/2103", 
            "inDefinedTermSet": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/", 
            "name": "Historical Studies", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }
        ], 
        "author": [
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "Institute of Forest Sciences, Chair of Forest History, Albert-Ludwigs-University Freiburg, Tennenbacher Strasse 4, 79106, Freiburg, Germany", 
              "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.5963.9", 
              "name": [
                "Institute of Forest Sciences, Chair of Forest History, Albert-Ludwigs-University Freiburg, Tennenbacher Strasse 4, 79106, Freiburg, Germany"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Muigg", 
            "givenName": "Bernhard", 
            "id": "sg:person.015544055206.58", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.015544055206.58"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "Institute of Forest Sciences, Chair of Sylviculture, Albert-Ludwigs-University Freiburg, 79106, Freiburg, Germany", 
              "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.5963.9", 
              "name": [
                "Institute of Forest Sciences, Chair of Sylviculture, Albert-Ludwigs-University Freiburg, 79106, Freiburg, Germany"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Skiadaresis", 
            "givenName": "Georgios", 
            "id": "sg:person.010404054511.47", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.010404054511.47"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "Institute of Forest Sciences, Chair of Forest Growth, Albert-Ludwigs-University Freiburg, 79106, Freiburg, Germany", 
              "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.5963.9", 
              "name": [
                "Institute of Forest Sciences, Chair of Forest Growth, Albert-Ludwigs-University Freiburg, 79106, Freiburg, Germany"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Tegel", 
            "givenName": "Willy", 
            "id": "sg:person.012016420265.64", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.012016420265.64"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "Bavarian State Department for Cultural Heritage, 86672, Thierhaupten, Germany", 
              "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/None", 
              "name": [
                "Bavarian State Department for Cultural Heritage, 86672, Thierhaupten, Germany"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Herzig", 
            "givenName": "Franz", 
            "id": "sg:person.01065234541.37", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01065234541.37"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "Department of Geography, University of Cambridge, Downing Place, CB2 3EN, Cambridge, UK", 
              "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.5335.0", 
              "name": [
                "Department of Geography, University of Cambridge, Downing Place, CB2 3EN, Cambridge, UK"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Krusic", 
            "givenName": "Paul J.", 
            "id": "sg:person.013273501662.59", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.013273501662.59"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "Institute of Forest Sciences, Chair of Forest History, Albert-Ludwigs-University Freiburg, Tennenbacher Strasse 4, 79106, Freiburg, Germany", 
              "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.5963.9", 
              "name": [
                "Institute of Forest Sciences, Chair of Forest History, Albert-Ludwigs-University Freiburg, Tennenbacher Strasse 4, 79106, Freiburg, Germany"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Schmidt", 
            "givenName": "Uwe E.", 
            "id": "sg:person.01035407465.14", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01035407465.14"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "Department of Geography, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Kotl\u00e1\u0159sk\u00e1 2, 613 00, Brno, Czech Republic", 
              "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.10267.32", 
              "name": [
                "Department of Geography, University of Cambridge, Downing Place, CB2 3EN, Cambridge, UK", 
                "Swiss Federal Research Institute WSL, Z\u00fcrcherstr 111, 8903, Birmensdorf, Switzerland", 
                "Global Change Research Centre (CzechGlobe), B\u011blidla 986/4a, 603 00, Brno, Czech Republic", 
                "Department of Geography, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Kotl\u00e1\u0159sk\u00e1 2, 613 00, Brno, Czech Republic"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "B\u00fcntgen", 
            "givenName": "Ulf", 
            "id": "sg:person.01147325413.36", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01147325413.36"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }
        ], 
        "citation": [
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/nclimate1830", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1012379193", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/nclimate1830"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1051/forest:19930607", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1056968941", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1051/forest:19930607"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }
        ], 
        "datePublished": "2020-12-11", 
        "datePublishedReg": "2020-12-11", 
        "description": "To satisfy the increasing demand for wood in central Europe during medieval times, a new system of forest management was developed, one far superior to simple coppicing. The adoption of a sophisticated, Coppice-with-Standards (CWS) management practice created a two-storey forest structure that could provide fuelwood as well as construction timber. Here we present a dendrochronological study of actively managed CWS forests in northern Bavaria to detect the radial growth response to cyclical understorey harvesting in overstorey oaks (Quercus sp.), so-called standards. All modern standards exhibit rapid growth releases every circa 30\u00a0years, most likely caused by regular understorey management. We further analyse tree-ring width patterns in 2120 oak timbers from historical buildings and archaeological excavations in southern Germany and north-eastern France, dating between 300 and 2015 CE, and succeeded in identifying CWS growth patterns throughout the medieval period. Several potential CWS standards even date to the first millennium CE, suggesting CWS management has been in practice long before its first mention in historical documents. Our dendrochronological approach should be expanded routinely to indentify the signature of past forest management practices in archaeological and historical oak wood.", 
        "genre": "article", 
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/s41598-020-78933-8", 
        "isAccessibleForFree": true, 
        "isPartOf": [
          {
            "id": "sg:journal.1045337", 
            "issn": [
              "2045-2322"
            ], 
            "name": "Scientific Reports", 
            "publisher": "Springer Nature", 
            "type": "Periodical"
          }, 
          {
            "issueNumber": "1", 
            "type": "PublicationIssue"
          }, 
          {
            "type": "PublicationVolume", 
            "volumeNumber": "10"
          }
        ], 
        "keywords": [
          "sustainable forest management", 
          "forest management", 
          "management practices", 
          "past forest management practices", 
          "first historical evidence", 
          "first millennium CE", 
          "forest management practices", 
          "standard management practices", 
          "tree-ring width patterns", 
          "radial growth response", 
          "archaeological excavations", 
          "medieval period", 
          "millennium CE", 
          "medieval times", 
          "understorey management", 
          "north-eastern France", 
          "historical documents", 
          "historical evidence", 
          "forest structure", 
          "oak timber", 
          "construction timber", 
          "historical buildings", 
          "growth releases", 
          "first mention", 
          "growth response", 
          "dendrochronological studies", 
          "dendrochronological approach", 
          "CW standard", 
          "Central Europe", 
          "circa 30", 
          "modern standards", 
          "Northern Bavaria", 
          "tree rings", 
          "timber", 
          "southern Germany", 
          "oak wood", 
          "wood", 
          "management", 
          "Ce", 
          "growth pattern", 
          "coppicing", 
          "excavation", 
          "coppice", 
          "fuelwood", 
          "width patterns", 
          "forest", 
          "oak", 
          "France", 
          "Europe", 
          "harvesting", 
          "Germany", 
          "practice", 
          "Bavaria", 
          "documents", 
          "mention", 
          "adoption", 
          "buildings", 
          "period", 
          "demand", 
          "date", 
          "new system", 
          "patterns", 
          "years", 
          "response", 
          "time", 
          "evidence", 
          "standards", 
          "study", 
          "system", 
          "release", 
          "signs", 
          "approach", 
          "signatures", 
          "structure", 
          "ring"
        ], 
        "name": "Tree rings reveal signs of Europe\u2019s sustainable forest management long before the first historical evidence", 
        "pagination": "21832", 
        "productId": [
          {
            "name": "dimensions_id", 
            "type": "PropertyValue", 
            "value": [
              "pub.1133405086"
            ]
          }, 
          {
            "name": "doi", 
            "type": "PropertyValue", 
            "value": [
              "10.1038/s41598-020-78933-8"
            ]
          }, 
          {
            "name": "pubmed_id", 
            "type": "PropertyValue", 
            "value": [
              "33311544"
            ]
          }
        ], 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-78933-8", 
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1133405086"
        ], 
        "sdDataset": "articles", 
        "sdDatePublished": "2022-12-01T06:40", 
        "sdLicense": "https://scigraph.springernature.com/explorer/license/", 
        "sdPublisher": {
          "name": "Springer Nature - SN SciGraph project", 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "sdSource": "s3://com-springernature-scigraph/baseset/20221201/entities/gbq_results/article/article_843.jsonl", 
        "type": "ScholarlyArticle", 
        "url": "https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-78933-8"
      }
    ]
     

    Download the RDF metadata as:  json-ld nt turtle xml License info

    HOW TO GET THIS DATA PROGRAMMATICALLY:

    JSON-LD is a popular format for linked data which is fully compatible with JSON.

    curl -H 'Accept: application/ld+json' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1038/s41598-020-78933-8'

    N-Triples is a line-based linked data format ideal for batch operations.

    curl -H 'Accept: application/n-triples' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1038/s41598-020-78933-8'

    Turtle is a human-readable linked data format.

    curl -H 'Accept: text/turtle' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1038/s41598-020-78933-8'

    RDF/XML is a standard XML format for linked data.

    curl -H 'Accept: application/rdf+xml' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1038/s41598-020-78933-8'


     

    This table displays all metadata directly associated to this object as RDF triples.

    209 TRIPLES      21 PREDICATES      104 URIs      92 LITERALS      7 BLANK NODES

    Subject Predicate Object
    1 sg:pub.10.1038/s41598-020-78933-8 schema:about anzsrc-for:07
    2 anzsrc-for:0705
    3 anzsrc-for:21
    4 anzsrc-for:2103
    5 schema:author N87bf19830bda46f59923a44d2d8136e1
    6 schema:citation sg:pub.10.1038/nclimate1830
    7 sg:pub.10.1051/forest:19930607
    8 schema:datePublished 2020-12-11
    9 schema:datePublishedReg 2020-12-11
    10 schema:description To satisfy the increasing demand for wood in central Europe during medieval times, a new system of forest management was developed, one far superior to simple coppicing. The adoption of a sophisticated, Coppice-with-Standards (CWS) management practice created a two-storey forest structure that could provide fuelwood as well as construction timber. Here we present a dendrochronological study of actively managed CWS forests in northern Bavaria to detect the radial growth response to cyclical understorey harvesting in overstorey oaks (Quercus sp.), so-called standards. All modern standards exhibit rapid growth releases every circa 30 years, most likely caused by regular understorey management. We further analyse tree-ring width patterns in 2120 oak timbers from historical buildings and archaeological excavations in southern Germany and north-eastern France, dating between 300 and 2015 CE, and succeeded in identifying CWS growth patterns throughout the medieval period. Several potential CWS standards even date to the first millennium CE, suggesting CWS management has been in practice long before its first mention in historical documents. Our dendrochronological approach should be expanded routinely to indentify the signature of past forest management practices in archaeological and historical oak wood.
    11 schema:genre article
    12 schema:isAccessibleForFree true
    13 schema:isPartOf N77fdc0c7df0f410eba7d179dd295ffe1
    14 N98bafdc799f14de2b9b95172e928e681
    15 sg:journal.1045337
    16 schema:keywords Bavaria
    17 CW standard
    18 Ce
    19 Central Europe
    20 Europe
    21 France
    22 Germany
    23 Northern Bavaria
    24 adoption
    25 approach
    26 archaeological excavations
    27 buildings
    28 circa 30
    29 construction timber
    30 coppice
    31 coppicing
    32 date
    33 demand
    34 dendrochronological approach
    35 dendrochronological studies
    36 documents
    37 evidence
    38 excavation
    39 first historical evidence
    40 first mention
    41 first millennium CE
    42 forest
    43 forest management
    44 forest management practices
    45 forest structure
    46 fuelwood
    47 growth pattern
    48 growth releases
    49 growth response
    50 harvesting
    51 historical buildings
    52 historical documents
    53 historical evidence
    54 management
    55 management practices
    56 medieval period
    57 medieval times
    58 mention
    59 millennium CE
    60 modern standards
    61 new system
    62 north-eastern France
    63 oak
    64 oak timber
    65 oak wood
    66 past forest management practices
    67 patterns
    68 period
    69 practice
    70 radial growth response
    71 release
    72 response
    73 ring
    74 signatures
    75 signs
    76 southern Germany
    77 standard management practices
    78 standards
    79 structure
    80 study
    81 sustainable forest management
    82 system
    83 timber
    84 time
    85 tree rings
    86 tree-ring width patterns
    87 understorey management
    88 width patterns
    89 wood
    90 years
    91 schema:name Tree rings reveal signs of Europe’s sustainable forest management long before the first historical evidence
    92 schema:pagination 21832
    93 schema:productId N572710ad927e4cac8d56becd5770ab4e
    94 N921f5bd0cbc240c78abce8edbc28e829
    95 Na07d5ce4da5a4af9a3b0378bde0d799c
    96 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1133405086
    97 https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-78933-8
    98 schema:sdDatePublished 2022-12-01T06:40
    99 schema:sdLicense https://scigraph.springernature.com/explorer/license/
    100 schema:sdPublisher Nddf373987b624d43abb5df636f7395b3
    101 schema:url https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-78933-8
    102 sgo:license sg:explorer/license/
    103 sgo:sdDataset articles
    104 rdf:type schema:ScholarlyArticle
    105 N02f1640619564bdc88c6b37df4a682bd rdf:first sg:person.012016420265.64
    106 rdf:rest Ne3a7e28d09494193adb6712c3b02abbe
    107 N08653fe2ca9141aeba95d3ec78cb59c5 rdf:first sg:person.010404054511.47
    108 rdf:rest N02f1640619564bdc88c6b37df4a682bd
    109 N572710ad927e4cac8d56becd5770ab4e schema:name pubmed_id
    110 schema:value 33311544
    111 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
    112 N77fdc0c7df0f410eba7d179dd295ffe1 schema:volumeNumber 10
    113 rdf:type schema:PublicationVolume
    114 N87bf19830bda46f59923a44d2d8136e1 rdf:first sg:person.015544055206.58
    115 rdf:rest N08653fe2ca9141aeba95d3ec78cb59c5
    116 N921f5bd0cbc240c78abce8edbc28e829 schema:name doi
    117 schema:value 10.1038/s41598-020-78933-8
    118 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
    119 N98bafdc799f14de2b9b95172e928e681 schema:issueNumber 1
    120 rdf:type schema:PublicationIssue
    121 Na07d5ce4da5a4af9a3b0378bde0d799c schema:name dimensions_id
    122 schema:value pub.1133405086
    123 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
    124 Nddf373987b624d43abb5df636f7395b3 schema:name Springer Nature - SN SciGraph project
    125 rdf:type schema:Organization
    126 Ne3a7e28d09494193adb6712c3b02abbe rdf:first sg:person.01065234541.37
    127 rdf:rest Nf25ac22c18b248a1ac9ca74a14bc1b7d
    128 Ne45fa6a19af04d75b7cc9bd71dfc6d82 rdf:first sg:person.01035407465.14
    129 rdf:rest Neb25989539c2462880d4069cc3c9d22a
    130 Neb25989539c2462880d4069cc3c9d22a rdf:first sg:person.01147325413.36
    131 rdf:rest rdf:nil
    132 Nf25ac22c18b248a1ac9ca74a14bc1b7d rdf:first sg:person.013273501662.59
    133 rdf:rest Ne45fa6a19af04d75b7cc9bd71dfc6d82
    134 anzsrc-for:07 schema:inDefinedTermSet anzsrc-for:
    135 schema:name Agricultural and Veterinary Sciences
    136 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    137 anzsrc-for:0705 schema:inDefinedTermSet anzsrc-for:
    138 schema:name Forestry Sciences
    139 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    140 anzsrc-for:21 schema:inDefinedTermSet anzsrc-for:
    141 schema:name History and Archaeology
    142 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    143 anzsrc-for:2103 schema:inDefinedTermSet anzsrc-for:
    144 schema:name Historical Studies
    145 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    146 sg:journal.1045337 schema:issn 2045-2322
    147 schema:name Scientific Reports
    148 schema:publisher Springer Nature
    149 rdf:type schema:Periodical
    150 sg:person.01035407465.14 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.5963.9
    151 schema:familyName Schmidt
    152 schema:givenName Uwe E.
    153 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01035407465.14
    154 rdf:type schema:Person
    155 sg:person.010404054511.47 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.5963.9
    156 schema:familyName Skiadaresis
    157 schema:givenName Georgios
    158 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.010404054511.47
    159 rdf:type schema:Person
    160 sg:person.01065234541.37 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:None
    161 schema:familyName Herzig
    162 schema:givenName Franz
    163 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01065234541.37
    164 rdf:type schema:Person
    165 sg:person.01147325413.36 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.10267.32
    166 schema:familyName Büntgen
    167 schema:givenName Ulf
    168 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01147325413.36
    169 rdf:type schema:Person
    170 sg:person.012016420265.64 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.5963.9
    171 schema:familyName Tegel
    172 schema:givenName Willy
    173 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.012016420265.64
    174 rdf:type schema:Person
    175 sg:person.013273501662.59 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.5335.0
    176 schema:familyName Krusic
    177 schema:givenName Paul J.
    178 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.013273501662.59
    179 rdf:type schema:Person
    180 sg:person.015544055206.58 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.5963.9
    181 schema:familyName Muigg
    182 schema:givenName Bernhard
    183 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.015544055206.58
    184 rdf:type schema:Person
    185 sg:pub.10.1038/nclimate1830 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1012379193
    186 https://doi.org/10.1038/nclimate1830
    187 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    188 sg:pub.10.1051/forest:19930607 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1056968941
    189 https://doi.org/10.1051/forest:19930607
    190 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    191 grid-institutes:None schema:alternateName Bavarian State Department for Cultural Heritage, 86672, Thierhaupten, Germany
    192 schema:name Bavarian State Department for Cultural Heritage, 86672, Thierhaupten, Germany
    193 rdf:type schema:Organization
    194 grid-institutes:grid.10267.32 schema:alternateName Department of Geography, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Kotlářská 2, 613 00, Brno, Czech Republic
    195 schema:name Department of Geography, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Kotlářská 2, 613 00, Brno, Czech Republic
    196 Department of Geography, University of Cambridge, Downing Place, CB2 3EN, Cambridge, UK
    197 Global Change Research Centre (CzechGlobe), Bělidla 986/4a, 603 00, Brno, Czech Republic
    198 Swiss Federal Research Institute WSL, Zürcherstr 111, 8903, Birmensdorf, Switzerland
    199 rdf:type schema:Organization
    200 grid-institutes:grid.5335.0 schema:alternateName Department of Geography, University of Cambridge, Downing Place, CB2 3EN, Cambridge, UK
    201 schema:name Department of Geography, University of Cambridge, Downing Place, CB2 3EN, Cambridge, UK
    202 rdf:type schema:Organization
    203 grid-institutes:grid.5963.9 schema:alternateName Institute of Forest Sciences, Chair of Forest Growth, Albert-Ludwigs-University Freiburg, 79106, Freiburg, Germany
    204 Institute of Forest Sciences, Chair of Forest History, Albert-Ludwigs-University Freiburg, Tennenbacher Strasse 4, 79106, Freiburg, Germany
    205 Institute of Forest Sciences, Chair of Sylviculture, Albert-Ludwigs-University Freiburg, 79106, Freiburg, Germany
    206 schema:name Institute of Forest Sciences, Chair of Forest Growth, Albert-Ludwigs-University Freiburg, 79106, Freiburg, Germany
    207 Institute of Forest Sciences, Chair of Forest History, Albert-Ludwigs-University Freiburg, Tennenbacher Strasse 4, 79106, Freiburg, Germany
    208 Institute of Forest Sciences, Chair of Sylviculture, Albert-Ludwigs-University Freiburg, 79106, Freiburg, Germany
    209 rdf:type schema:Organization
     




    Preview window. Press ESC to close (or click here)


    ...