Origin of the São Paulo Yellow Fever epidemic of 2017–2018 revealed through molecular epidemiological analysis of fatal cases View Full Text


Ontology type: schema:ScholarlyArticle      Open Access: True


Article Info

DATE

2019-12-31

AUTHORS

Marielton dos Passos Cunha, Amaro Nunes Duarte-Neto, Shahab Zaki Pour, Ayda Susana Ortiz-Baez, Jiří Černý, Bárbara Brito de Souza Pereira, Carla Torres Braconi, Yeh-Li Ho, Beatriz Perondi, Jaques Sztajnbok, Venancio Avancini Ferreira Alves, Marisa Dolhnikoff, Edward C. Holmes, Paulo Hilário Nascimento Saldiva, Paolo Marinho de Andrade Zanotto

ABSTRACT

The largest outbreak of yellow fever of the 21st century in the Americas began in 2016, with intense circulation in the southeastern states of Brazil, particularly in sylvatic environments near densely populated areas including the metropolitan region of São Paulo city (MRSP) during 2017–2018. Herein, we describe the origin and molecular epidemiology of yellow fever virus (YFV) during this outbreak inferred from 36 full genome sequences taken from individuals who died following infection with zoonotic YFV. Our analysis revealed that these deaths were due to three genetic variants of sylvatic YFV that belong the South American I genotype and that were related to viruses previously isolated in 2017 from other locations in Brazil (Minas Gerais, Espírito Santo, Bahia and Rio de Janeiro states). Each variant represented an independent virus introduction into the MRSP. Phylogeographic and geopositioning analyses suggested that the virus moved around the peri-urban area without detectable human-to-human transmission, and towards the Atlantic rain forest causing human spill-over in nearby cities, yet in the absence of sustained viral transmission in the urban environment. More... »

PAGES

20418

Identifiers

URI

http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1038/s41598-019-56650-1

DOI

http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-56650-1

DIMENSIONS

https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1123746874

PUBMED

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31892699


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25 schema:description The largest outbreak of yellow fever of the 21st century in the Americas began in 2016, with intense circulation in the southeastern states of Brazil, particularly in sylvatic environments near densely populated areas including the metropolitan region of São Paulo city (MRSP) during 2017–2018. Herein, we describe the origin and molecular epidemiology of yellow fever virus (YFV) during this outbreak inferred from 36 full genome sequences taken from individuals who died following infection with zoonotic YFV. Our analysis revealed that these deaths were due to three genetic variants of sylvatic YFV that belong the South American I genotype and that were related to viruses previously isolated in 2017 from other locations in Brazil (Minas Gerais, Espírito Santo, Bahia and Rio de Janeiro states). Each variant represented an independent virus introduction into the MRSP. Phylogeographic and geopositioning analyses suggested that the virus moved around the peri-urban area without detectable human-to-human transmission, and towards the Atlantic rain forest causing human spill-over in nearby cities, yet in the absence of sustained viral transmission in the urban environment.
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31 schema:keywords America
32 Atlantic Rain Forest
33 Brazil
34 Herein
35 I genotype
36 MRSP
37 São Paulo city
38 absence
39 analysis
40 area
41 cases
42 century
43 circulation
44 city
45 death
46 environment
47 epidemic
48 epidemiological analysis
49 epidemiology
50 fatal cases
51 fever
52 fever epidemic
53 fever virus
54 forest
55 full genome sequences
56 genetic variants
57 genome sequence
58 genotypes
59 human spill
60 human transmission
61 humans
62 individuals
63 infection
64 intense circulation
65 introduction
66 large outbreak
67 location
68 metropolitan region
69 molecular epidemiological analysis
70 molecular epidemiology
71 nearby cities
72 origin
73 outbreak
74 peri-urban areas
75 populated areas
76 rain forest
77 region
78 sequence
79 southeastern states
80 spill
81 state
82 sylvatic environment
83 sylvatic yellow fever virus
84 transmission
85 urban environment
86 variants
87 viral transmission
88 virus
89 virus introduction
90 yellow fever
91 yellow fever epidemic
92 yellow fever virus
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