Seed germination ecology of Bidens pilosa and its implications for weed management View Full Text


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Article Info

DATE

2019-11-05

AUTHORS

Bhagirath Singh Chauhan, Hafiz Haider Ali, Singarayer Florentine

ABSTRACT

It is now widely recognized that Bidens pilosa has become a problematic broadleaf weed in many ecosystems across the world and, particularly in the light of recent climate change conditions, closer management strategies are required to curtail its impact on agricultural cropping. In this investigation, experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of environmental factors on the germination and emergence of B. pilosa, and also on the response of this weed to commonly available post-emergence herbicides in Australia. The environmental factors of particular interest to this current work were the effect of light and temperature, salinity, burial depth and moisture on B. pilosa since these are key management issues in Australian agriculture. In addition, the effects of a number of commonly used herbicides were examined, because of concerns regarding emerging herbicide resistance. In the tested light/dark regimes, germination was found to be higher at fluctuating day/night temperatures of 25/15 °C and 30/20 °C (92-93%) than at 35/25 °C (79%), whilst across the different temperature ranges, germination was higher in the light/dark regime (79-93%) than in complete darkness (22-38%). The standard five-minute temperature pretreatment required for 50% inhibition of maximum germination was found to be 160 °C, and it was further shown that no seeds germinated at temperatures higher than 240 °C. With regard to salinity, some B. pilosa seeds germinated (3%) in 200 mM sodium chloride (NaCl) but all failed to germinate at 250 mM NaCl. Germination declined from 89% to 2% as the external osmotic potential decreased from 0 to -0.6 MPa, and germination ceased at -0.8 MPa. Seeding emergence of B. pilosa was maximum (71%) for seeds placed on the soil surface and it was found that no seedlings emerged from a depth of 8 cm or greater. A depth of 3.75 cm was required to inhibit the seeds to 50% of the maximum emergence. In this study, application of glufosinate, glyphosate and paraquat provided commercially acceptable control levels (generally accepted as >90%) when applied at the four-leaf stage of B. pilosa. However, none of the herbicide treatments involved in this study provided this level of control when applied at the six-leaf stage. In summary, B. pilosa germination has been clearly shown to be stimulated by light and thus its emergence was greatest from the soil surface. This suggests that infestation from this weed will remain as a problem in no-till conservation agriculture systems, the use of which is increasing now throughout the world. It is intended that information generated from this study be used to develop more effective integrated management programs for B. pilosa and similar weeds in commercial agricultural environments which are tending toward conservation approaches. More... »

PAGES

16004

Identifiers

URI

http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1038/s41598-019-52620-9

DOI

http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-52620-9

DIMENSIONS

https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1122306423

PUBMED

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31690889


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