A decade of sustained selection pressure on two surface sites of the VP1 protein of Enterovirus A71 suggests that immune ... View Full Text


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Article Info

DATE

2019-12

AUTHORS

Ryan Roberts, Pinn Tsin Isabel Yee, Shama Mujawar, Chandrajit Lahiri, Chit Laa Poh, Derek Gatherer

ABSTRACT

Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) is an emerging pathogen in the Enterovirus A species group. EV-A71 causes hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD), with virulent variants exhibiting polio-like acute flaccid paralysis and other central nervous system manifestations. We analysed all enterovirus A71 complete genomes with collection dates from 2008 to mid-2018. All sub-genotypes exhibit a strong molecular clock with omega (dN/dS) suggesting strong purifying selection. In sub-genotypes B5 and C4, positive selection can be detected at two surface sites on the VP1 protein, also detected in positive selection studies performed prior to 2008. Toggling of a limited repertoire of amino acids at these positively selected residues over the last decade suggests that EV-A71 may be undergoing a sustained frequency-dependent selection process for immune evasion, raising issues for vaccine development. These same sites have also been previously implicated in virus-host binding and strain-associated severity of HFMD, suggesting that immune evasion may be an indirect driver for virulence (154 words). More... »

PAGES

5427

Identifiers

URI

http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1038/s41598-019-41662-8

DOI

http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-41662-8

DIMENSIONS

https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1113158011

PUBMED

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30931960


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50 schema:description Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) is an emerging pathogen in the Enterovirus A species group. EV-A71 causes hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD), with virulent variants exhibiting polio-like acute flaccid paralysis and other central nervous system manifestations. We analysed all enterovirus A71 complete genomes with collection dates from 2008 to mid-2018. All sub-genotypes exhibit a strong molecular clock with omega (dN/dS) suggesting strong purifying selection. In sub-genotypes B5 and C4, positive selection can be detected at two surface sites on the VP1 protein, also detected in positive selection studies performed prior to 2008. Toggling of a limited repertoire of amino acids at these positively selected residues over the last decade suggests that EV-A71 may be undergoing a sustained frequency-dependent selection process for immune evasion, raising issues for vaccine development. These same sites have also been previously implicated in virus-host binding and strain-associated severity of HFMD, suggesting that immune evasion may be an indirect driver for virulence (154 words).
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