Custom fabrication and mode-locked operation of a femtosecond fiber laser for multiphoton microscopy View Full Text


Ontology type: schema:ScholarlyArticle      Open Access: True


Article Info

DATE

2019-12

AUTHORS

Nima Davoudzadeh, Guillaume Ducourthial, Bryan Q. Spring

ABSTRACT

Solid-state femtosecond lasers have stimulated the broad adoption of multiphoton microscopy in the modern laboratory. However, these devices remain costly. Fiber lasers offer promise as a means to inexpensively produce ultrashort pulses of light suitable for nonlinear microscopy in compact, robust and portable devices. Although encouraging, the initial methods reported in the biomedical engineering community to construct home-built femtosecond fiber laser systems overlooked fundamental aspects that compromised performance and misrepresented the significant financial and intellectual investments required to build these devices. Here, we present a practical protocol to fabricate an all-normal-dispersion ytterbium (Yb)-doped femtosecond fiber laser oscillator using commercially-available parts (plus standard optical components and extra-cavity accessories) as well as basic fiber splicing and laser pulse characterization equipment. We also provide a synthesis of established protocols in the laser physics community, but often overlooked in other fields, to verify true versus seemingly (partial or noise-like) mode-locked performance. The approaches described here make custom fabrication of femtosecond fiber lasers more accessible to a wide range of investigators and better represent the investments required for the proper laser design, fabrication and operation. More... »

PAGES

4233

References to SciGraph publications

  • 2016-12. Fast volumetric calcium imaging across multiple cortical layers using sculpted light in NATURE METHODS
  • 2016-07. Coherence loss of partially mode-locked fibre laser in SCIENTIFIC REPORTS
  • 2008-02. High-speed, low-photodamage nonlinear imaging using passive pulse splitters in NATURE METHODS
  • 2013-03. In vivo three-photon microscopy of subcortical structures within an intact mouse brain in NATURE PHOTONICS
  • 2006. Multi-Photon Molecular Excitation in Laser-Scanning Microscopy in HANDBOOK OF BIOLOGICAL CONFOCAL MICROSCOPY
  • 2003-11. Nonlinear magic: multiphoton microscopy in the biosciences in NATURE BIOTECHNOLOGY
  • 2010-02. Optical parametric oscillators in NATURE PHOTONICS
  • 2005-12. Deep tissue two-photon microscopy in NATURE METHODS
  • 1998-07. Characterization and optimization of a laser-scanning microscope in the femtosecond regime in APPLIED PHYSICS B
  • 2013-11. Ultrafast fibre lasers in NATURE PHOTONICS
  • 2017-01-10. Discovery and technology for human health in NATURE BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING
  • 2017-01. All polarization-maintaining fiber laser architecture for robust femtosecond pulse generation in APPLIED PHYSICS B
  • 2013-11. Recent advances in fibre lasers for nonlinear microscopy in NATURE PHOTONICS
  • 2015-12. Stochasticity, periodicity and localized light structures in partially mode-locked fibre lasers in NATURE COMMUNICATIONS
  • 2015-05. Controllable spatiotemporal nonlinear effects in multimode fibres in NATURE PHOTONICS
  • 2014-02. Stimulated Raman scattering microscopy with a robust fibre laser source in NATURE PHOTONICS
  • Identifiers

    URI

    http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1038/s41598-019-40871-5

    DOI

    http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-40871-5

    DIMENSIONS

    https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1112706538

    PUBMED

    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30862800


    Indexing Status Check whether this publication has been indexed by Scopus and Web Of Science using the SN Indexing Status Tool
    Incoming Citations Browse incoming citations for this publication using opencitations.net

    JSON-LD is the canonical representation for SciGraph data.

    TIP: You can open this SciGraph record using an external JSON-LD service: JSON-LD Playground Google SDTT

    [
      {
        "@context": "https://springernature.github.io/scigraph/jsonld/sgcontext.json", 
        "about": [
          {
            "id": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/0299", 
            "inDefinedTermSet": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/", 
            "name": "Other Physical Sciences", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/02", 
            "inDefinedTermSet": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/", 
            "name": "Physical Sciences", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }
        ], 
        "author": [
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "Northeastern University", 
              "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.261112.7", 
              "name": [
                "Translational Biophotonics Cluster, Northeastern University, Boston, 02115, Massachusetts, USA", 
                "Department of Physics, Northeastern University, Boston, 02115, Massachusetts, USA"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Davoudzadeh", 
            "givenName": "Nima", 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "Northeastern University", 
              "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.261112.7", 
              "name": [
                "Translational Biophotonics Cluster, Northeastern University, Boston, 02115, Massachusetts, USA", 
                "Department of Physics, Northeastern University, Boston, 02115, Massachusetts, USA"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Ducourthial", 
            "givenName": "Guillaume", 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "Northeastern University", 
              "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.261112.7", 
              "name": [
                "Translational Biophotonics Cluster, Northeastern University, Boston, 02115, Massachusetts, USA", 
                "Department of Physics, Northeastern University, Boston, 02115, Massachusetts, USA", 
                "Department of Bioengineering, Northeastern University, Boston, 02115, Massachusetts, USA"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Spring", 
            "givenName": "Bryan Q.", 
            "type": "Person"
          }
        ], 
        "citation": [
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1063/1.4962867", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1001297170"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/nmeth.4040", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1009180349", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/nmeth.4040"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/s00340-016-6598-2", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1014881128", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/s00340-016-6598-2"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/s00340-016-6598-2", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1014881128", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/s00340-016-6598-2"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.optcom.2015.11.043", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1018746252"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/ncomms8004", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1021561071", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/ncomms8004"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/nphoton.2015.61", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1022299498", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/nphoton.2015.61"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/srep24995", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1028127626", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/srep24995"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/nmeth818", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1028724631", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/nmeth818"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/nmeth818", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1028724631", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/nmeth818"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1364/boe.7.000324", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1029014287"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/nphoton.2013.284", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1029605517", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/nphoton.2013.284"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/s41551-016-0001", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1031388106", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/s41551-016-0001"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/nphoton.2012.336", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1031617546", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/nphoton.2012.336"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/nbt899", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1034655204", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/nbt899"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/nbt899", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1034655204", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/nbt899"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/nphoton.2009.283", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1038500962", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/nphoton.2009.283"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1364/boe.3.001972", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1039148910"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/s003400050479", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1040083814", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/s003400050479"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1117/1.3153842", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1042607803"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1364/oe.17.013354", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1043877908"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1364/oe.17.013354", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1043877908"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/nmeth.1175", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1045304966", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/nmeth.1175"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/nphoton.2013.360", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1047927415", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/nphoton.2013.360"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1364/oe.14.010095", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1049816902"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1002/lapl.200810098", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1050404439"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/nphoton.2013.280", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1053136888", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/nphoton.2013.280"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/978-0-387-45524-2_28", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1053534786", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-0-387-45524-2_28"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/978-0-387-45524-2_28", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1053534786", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-0-387-45524-2_28"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1103/physreva.77.023814", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1060504206"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1103/physreva.77.023814", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1060504206"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1109/jstqe.2011.2179919", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1061336467"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1109/jstqe.2013.2276860", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1061336769"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1364/boe.7.003531", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1065138804"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1364/josab.13.000481", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1065168088"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1364/josab.27.001978", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1065173293"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1364/oe.16.011453", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1065188154"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1364/oe.17.023137", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1065192128"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1364/ol.34.000593", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1065226901"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1364/ol.38.004327", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1065234600"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1364/ol.40.003500", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1065237892"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1364/optica.4.000649", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1086010196"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1364/boe.8.004921", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1092145743"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1109/jstqe.2017.2779749", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1093159672"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1364/ol.43.002672", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1104320178"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }
        ], 
        "datePublished": "2019-12", 
        "datePublishedReg": "2019-12-01", 
        "description": "Solid-state femtosecond lasers have stimulated the broad adoption of multiphoton microscopy in the modern laboratory. However, these devices remain costly. Fiber lasers offer promise as a means to inexpensively produce ultrashort pulses of light suitable for nonlinear microscopy in compact, robust and portable devices. Although encouraging, the initial methods reported in the biomedical engineering community to construct home-built femtosecond fiber laser systems overlooked fundamental aspects that compromised performance and misrepresented the significant financial and intellectual investments required to build these devices. Here, we present a practical protocol to fabricate an all-normal-dispersion ytterbium (Yb)-doped femtosecond fiber laser oscillator using commercially-available parts (plus standard optical components and extra-cavity accessories) as well as basic fiber splicing and laser pulse characterization equipment. We also provide a synthesis of established protocols in the laser physics community, but often overlooked in other fields, to verify true versus seemingly (partial or noise-like) mode-locked performance. The approaches described here make custom fabrication of femtosecond fiber lasers more accessible to a wide range of investigators and\u00a0better represent the investments required for the proper laser design, fabrication and operation.", 
        "genre": "research_article", 
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/s41598-019-40871-5", 
        "inLanguage": [
          "en"
        ], 
        "isAccessibleForFree": true, 
        "isFundedItemOf": [
          {
            "id": "sg:grant.4454834", 
            "type": "MonetaryGrant"
          }
        ], 
        "isPartOf": [
          {
            "id": "sg:journal.1045337", 
            "issn": [
              "2045-2322"
            ], 
            "name": "Scientific Reports", 
            "type": "Periodical"
          }, 
          {
            "issueNumber": "1", 
            "type": "PublicationIssue"
          }, 
          {
            "type": "PublicationVolume", 
            "volumeNumber": "9"
          }
        ], 
        "name": "Custom fabrication and mode-locked operation of a femtosecond fiber laser for multiphoton microscopy", 
        "pagination": "4233", 
        "productId": [
          {
            "name": "readcube_id", 
            "type": "PropertyValue", 
            "value": [
              "72e8aaa24162dbbea5623e36a01dab63fbb52ea8c2fa4b57eab1235a8fee2097"
            ]
          }, 
          {
            "name": "pubmed_id", 
            "type": "PropertyValue", 
            "value": [
              "30862800"
            ]
          }, 
          {
            "name": "nlm_unique_id", 
            "type": "PropertyValue", 
            "value": [
              "101563288"
            ]
          }, 
          {
            "name": "doi", 
            "type": "PropertyValue", 
            "value": [
              "10.1038/s41598-019-40871-5"
            ]
          }, 
          {
            "name": "dimensions_id", 
            "type": "PropertyValue", 
            "value": [
              "pub.1112706538"
            ]
          }
        ], 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-40871-5", 
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1112706538"
        ], 
        "sdDataset": "articles", 
        "sdDatePublished": "2019-04-11T13:21", 
        "sdLicense": "https://scigraph.springernature.com/explorer/license/", 
        "sdPublisher": {
          "name": "Springer Nature - SN SciGraph project", 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "sdSource": "s3://com-uberresearch-data-dimensions-target-20181106-alternative/cleanup/v134/2549eaecd7973599484d7c17b260dba0a4ecb94b/merge/v9/a6c9fde33151104705d4d7ff012ea9563521a3ce/jats-lookup/v90/0000000368_0000000368/records_78974_00000001.jsonl", 
        "type": "ScholarlyArticle", 
        "url": "https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-019-40871-5"
      }
    ]
     

    Download the RDF metadata as:  json-ld nt turtle xml License info

    HOW TO GET THIS DATA PROGRAMMATICALLY:

    JSON-LD is a popular format for linked data which is fully compatible with JSON.

    curl -H 'Accept: application/ld+json' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1038/s41598-019-40871-5'

    N-Triples is a line-based linked data format ideal for batch operations.

    curl -H 'Accept: application/n-triples' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1038/s41598-019-40871-5'

    Turtle is a human-readable linked data format.

    curl -H 'Accept: text/turtle' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1038/s41598-019-40871-5'

    RDF/XML is a standard XML format for linked data.

    curl -H 'Accept: application/rdf+xml' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1038/s41598-019-40871-5'


     

    This table displays all metadata directly associated to this object as RDF triples.

    216 TRIPLES      21 PREDICATES      68 URIs      21 LITERALS      9 BLANK NODES

    Subject Predicate Object
    1 sg:pub.10.1038/s41598-019-40871-5 schema:about anzsrc-for:02
    2 anzsrc-for:0299
    3 schema:author N0970c8b2e8d84e4fb36d47b1f7e9e818
    4 schema:citation sg:pub.10.1007/978-0-387-45524-2_28
    5 sg:pub.10.1007/s00340-016-6598-2
    6 sg:pub.10.1007/s003400050479
    7 sg:pub.10.1038/nbt899
    8 sg:pub.10.1038/ncomms8004
    9 sg:pub.10.1038/nmeth.1175
    10 sg:pub.10.1038/nmeth.4040
    11 sg:pub.10.1038/nmeth818
    12 sg:pub.10.1038/nphoton.2009.283
    13 sg:pub.10.1038/nphoton.2012.336
    14 sg:pub.10.1038/nphoton.2013.280
    15 sg:pub.10.1038/nphoton.2013.284
    16 sg:pub.10.1038/nphoton.2013.360
    17 sg:pub.10.1038/nphoton.2015.61
    18 sg:pub.10.1038/s41551-016-0001
    19 sg:pub.10.1038/srep24995
    20 https://doi.org/10.1002/lapl.200810098
    21 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.optcom.2015.11.043
    22 https://doi.org/10.1063/1.4962867
    23 https://doi.org/10.1103/physreva.77.023814
    24 https://doi.org/10.1109/jstqe.2011.2179919
    25 https://doi.org/10.1109/jstqe.2013.2276860
    26 https://doi.org/10.1109/jstqe.2017.2779749
    27 https://doi.org/10.1117/1.3153842
    28 https://doi.org/10.1364/boe.3.001972
    29 https://doi.org/10.1364/boe.7.000324
    30 https://doi.org/10.1364/boe.7.003531
    31 https://doi.org/10.1364/boe.8.004921
    32 https://doi.org/10.1364/josab.13.000481
    33 https://doi.org/10.1364/josab.27.001978
    34 https://doi.org/10.1364/oe.14.010095
    35 https://doi.org/10.1364/oe.16.011453
    36 https://doi.org/10.1364/oe.17.013354
    37 https://doi.org/10.1364/oe.17.023137
    38 https://doi.org/10.1364/ol.34.000593
    39 https://doi.org/10.1364/ol.38.004327
    40 https://doi.org/10.1364/ol.40.003500
    41 https://doi.org/10.1364/ol.43.002672
    42 https://doi.org/10.1364/optica.4.000649
    43 schema:datePublished 2019-12
    44 schema:datePublishedReg 2019-12-01
    45 schema:description Solid-state femtosecond lasers have stimulated the broad adoption of multiphoton microscopy in the modern laboratory. However, these devices remain costly. Fiber lasers offer promise as a means to inexpensively produce ultrashort pulses of light suitable for nonlinear microscopy in compact, robust and portable devices. Although encouraging, the initial methods reported in the biomedical engineering community to construct home-built femtosecond fiber laser systems overlooked fundamental aspects that compromised performance and misrepresented the significant financial and intellectual investments required to build these devices. Here, we present a practical protocol to fabricate an all-normal-dispersion ytterbium (Yb)-doped femtosecond fiber laser oscillator using commercially-available parts (plus standard optical components and extra-cavity accessories) as well as basic fiber splicing and laser pulse characterization equipment. We also provide a synthesis of established protocols in the laser physics community, but often overlooked in other fields, to verify true versus seemingly (partial or noise-like) mode-locked performance. The approaches described here make custom fabrication of femtosecond fiber lasers more accessible to a wide range of investigators and better represent the investments required for the proper laser design, fabrication and operation.
    46 schema:genre research_article
    47 schema:inLanguage en
    48 schema:isAccessibleForFree true
    49 schema:isPartOf N5397356c15a44f6396523a6c496983c4
    50 N64464f34313d4d3faa977f482fa2fb8a
    51 sg:journal.1045337
    52 schema:name Custom fabrication and mode-locked operation of a femtosecond fiber laser for multiphoton microscopy
    53 schema:pagination 4233
    54 schema:productId N44db27ad450145c89f91f2d02e300e94
    55 Na62bd923bdb54fc79fce8d7c853bfeaa
    56 Nae4954b4ce9f41b28e15e0f13f13e5e7
    57 Nd2ec3497eb8e45f085d5a295b78aa487
    58 Ned2cc43497634dec848372e2ac9f4edb
    59 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1112706538
    60 https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-40871-5
    61 schema:sdDatePublished 2019-04-11T13:21
    62 schema:sdLicense https://scigraph.springernature.com/explorer/license/
    63 schema:sdPublisher Nd9b206d1423e4964a9d6e5ac83424480
    64 schema:url https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-019-40871-5
    65 sgo:license sg:explorer/license/
    66 sgo:sdDataset articles
    67 rdf:type schema:ScholarlyArticle
    68 N0970c8b2e8d84e4fb36d47b1f7e9e818 rdf:first N97d90bc684534067b2f567aacf4ecc0e
    69 rdf:rest Nad30257707524f38a3ec55412cc430da
    70 N44db27ad450145c89f91f2d02e300e94 schema:name dimensions_id
    71 schema:value pub.1112706538
    72 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
    73 N5397356c15a44f6396523a6c496983c4 schema:issueNumber 1
    74 rdf:type schema:PublicationIssue
    75 N64464f34313d4d3faa977f482fa2fb8a schema:volumeNumber 9
    76 rdf:type schema:PublicationVolume
    77 N97d90bc684534067b2f567aacf4ecc0e schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.261112.7
    78 schema:familyName Davoudzadeh
    79 schema:givenName Nima
    80 rdf:type schema:Person
    81 Na62bd923bdb54fc79fce8d7c853bfeaa schema:name readcube_id
    82 schema:value 72e8aaa24162dbbea5623e36a01dab63fbb52ea8c2fa4b57eab1235a8fee2097
    83 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
    84 Na8ca575fe27a4b85a18ae396b330fbb4 rdf:first Nf354327a57734066b0edeac0106f71ca
    85 rdf:rest rdf:nil
    86 Nad30257707524f38a3ec55412cc430da rdf:first Nafe2a42b8da94d1d81acd15aa7937981
    87 rdf:rest Na8ca575fe27a4b85a18ae396b330fbb4
    88 Nae4954b4ce9f41b28e15e0f13f13e5e7 schema:name pubmed_id
    89 schema:value 30862800
    90 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
    91 Nafe2a42b8da94d1d81acd15aa7937981 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.261112.7
    92 schema:familyName Ducourthial
    93 schema:givenName Guillaume
    94 rdf:type schema:Person
    95 Nd2ec3497eb8e45f085d5a295b78aa487 schema:name nlm_unique_id
    96 schema:value 101563288
    97 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
    98 Nd9b206d1423e4964a9d6e5ac83424480 schema:name Springer Nature - SN SciGraph project
    99 rdf:type schema:Organization
    100 Ned2cc43497634dec848372e2ac9f4edb schema:name doi
    101 schema:value 10.1038/s41598-019-40871-5
    102 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
    103 Nf354327a57734066b0edeac0106f71ca schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.261112.7
    104 schema:familyName Spring
    105 schema:givenName Bryan Q.
    106 rdf:type schema:Person
    107 anzsrc-for:02 schema:inDefinedTermSet anzsrc-for:
    108 schema:name Physical Sciences
    109 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    110 anzsrc-for:0299 schema:inDefinedTermSet anzsrc-for:
    111 schema:name Other Physical Sciences
    112 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    113 sg:grant.4454834 http://pending.schema.org/fundedItem sg:pub.10.1038/s41598-019-40871-5
    114 rdf:type schema:MonetaryGrant
    115 sg:journal.1045337 schema:issn 2045-2322
    116 schema:name Scientific Reports
    117 rdf:type schema:Periodical
    118 sg:pub.10.1007/978-0-387-45524-2_28 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1053534786
    119 https://doi.org/10.1007/978-0-387-45524-2_28
    120 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    121 sg:pub.10.1007/s00340-016-6598-2 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1014881128
    122 https://doi.org/10.1007/s00340-016-6598-2
    123 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    124 sg:pub.10.1007/s003400050479 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1040083814
    125 https://doi.org/10.1007/s003400050479
    126 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    127 sg:pub.10.1038/nbt899 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1034655204
    128 https://doi.org/10.1038/nbt899
    129 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    130 sg:pub.10.1038/ncomms8004 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1021561071
    131 https://doi.org/10.1038/ncomms8004
    132 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    133 sg:pub.10.1038/nmeth.1175 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1045304966
    134 https://doi.org/10.1038/nmeth.1175
    135 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    136 sg:pub.10.1038/nmeth.4040 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1009180349
    137 https://doi.org/10.1038/nmeth.4040
    138 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    139 sg:pub.10.1038/nmeth818 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1028724631
    140 https://doi.org/10.1038/nmeth818
    141 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    142 sg:pub.10.1038/nphoton.2009.283 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1038500962
    143 https://doi.org/10.1038/nphoton.2009.283
    144 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    145 sg:pub.10.1038/nphoton.2012.336 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1031617546
    146 https://doi.org/10.1038/nphoton.2012.336
    147 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    148 sg:pub.10.1038/nphoton.2013.280 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1053136888
    149 https://doi.org/10.1038/nphoton.2013.280
    150 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    151 sg:pub.10.1038/nphoton.2013.284 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1029605517
    152 https://doi.org/10.1038/nphoton.2013.284
    153 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    154 sg:pub.10.1038/nphoton.2013.360 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1047927415
    155 https://doi.org/10.1038/nphoton.2013.360
    156 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    157 sg:pub.10.1038/nphoton.2015.61 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1022299498
    158 https://doi.org/10.1038/nphoton.2015.61
    159 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    160 sg:pub.10.1038/s41551-016-0001 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1031388106
    161 https://doi.org/10.1038/s41551-016-0001
    162 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    163 sg:pub.10.1038/srep24995 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1028127626
    164 https://doi.org/10.1038/srep24995
    165 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    166 https://doi.org/10.1002/lapl.200810098 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1050404439
    167 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    168 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.optcom.2015.11.043 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1018746252
    169 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    170 https://doi.org/10.1063/1.4962867 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1001297170
    171 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    172 https://doi.org/10.1103/physreva.77.023814 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1060504206
    173 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    174 https://doi.org/10.1109/jstqe.2011.2179919 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1061336467
    175 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    176 https://doi.org/10.1109/jstqe.2013.2276860 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1061336769
    177 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    178 https://doi.org/10.1109/jstqe.2017.2779749 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1093159672
    179 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    180 https://doi.org/10.1117/1.3153842 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1042607803
    181 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    182 https://doi.org/10.1364/boe.3.001972 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1039148910
    183 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    184 https://doi.org/10.1364/boe.7.000324 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1029014287
    185 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    186 https://doi.org/10.1364/boe.7.003531 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1065138804
    187 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    188 https://doi.org/10.1364/boe.8.004921 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1092145743
    189 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    190 https://doi.org/10.1364/josab.13.000481 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1065168088
    191 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    192 https://doi.org/10.1364/josab.27.001978 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1065173293
    193 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    194 https://doi.org/10.1364/oe.14.010095 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1049816902
    195 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    196 https://doi.org/10.1364/oe.16.011453 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1065188154
    197 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    198 https://doi.org/10.1364/oe.17.013354 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1043877908
    199 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    200 https://doi.org/10.1364/oe.17.023137 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1065192128
    201 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    202 https://doi.org/10.1364/ol.34.000593 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1065226901
    203 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    204 https://doi.org/10.1364/ol.38.004327 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1065234600
    205 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    206 https://doi.org/10.1364/ol.40.003500 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1065237892
    207 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    208 https://doi.org/10.1364/ol.43.002672 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1104320178
    209 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    210 https://doi.org/10.1364/optica.4.000649 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1086010196
    211 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    212 https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.261112.7 schema:alternateName Northeastern University
    213 schema:name Department of Bioengineering, Northeastern University, Boston, 02115, Massachusetts, USA
    214 Department of Physics, Northeastern University, Boston, 02115, Massachusetts, USA
    215 Translational Biophotonics Cluster, Northeastern University, Boston, 02115, Massachusetts, USA
    216 rdf:type schema:Organization
     




    Preview window. Press ESC to close (or click here)


    ...