Air pollutants associated with smoking in indoor/outdoor of waterpipe cafés in Tehran, Iran: Concentrations, affecting factors and health risk assessment View Full Text


Ontology type: schema:ScholarlyArticle      Open Access: True


Article Info

DATE

2019-12

AUTHORS

Mohammad Reza Masjedi, Farhad Taghizadeh, Sanaz Hamzehali, Sonia Ghaffari, Mehdi Fazlzadeh, Ahmad Jonidi Jafari, Sadegh Niazi, Ehsan Abouee Mehrizi, Masoud Moradi, Hasan Pasalari, Hossein Arfaeinia

ABSTRACT

Despite increasingly growth in waterpipe smoking in Tehran, so far no study has been conducted on the air quality of the waterpipe and cigarette cafés. Thirty-six cafés were selected and the concentration of three pollutants including formaldehyde, carbon monoxide and nicotine were measured in both indoor and outdoor air of cafés two times (week-day and weekend's session). Air sampling was performed for 180 min for each pollutant. It was observed that the concentration of pollutants inside the cafés was higher during weekend session (with a higher number of "active waterpipe heads") compared with findings during the week-day sessions. Furthermore, the concentration of pollutants in the indoor air of the cafés was significantly higher than that of the outdoors (p < 0.05). According to path analysis, the number of "active waterpipe heads" had the maximum impact on generation of pollutants inside the cafés, followed by the type of tobacco as the second influential factor. The average of lifetime cancer risk (LTCR) resulted by formaldehyde exposure through inhalation in waterpipe (WS), cigarette (CS), waterpipe and cigarette (WCS) and none-smoking (NS) cafés in week-day and weekend sessions were estimated to be 111 × 10-5 and 61.2 × 10-5, 33.7 × 10-5 and 39.4 × 10-5, 271 × 10-5 and 322 × 10-5, and 4.80 × 10-5 and 5.90 × 10-5, respectively, which exceed the limit value by the U.S.EPA and WHO. The concentration of pollutants in the indoor air of smoking cafés in Tehran is significantly high, such that it can pose serious risks for the health of both personnel and customers. Therefore, decision makers are expected to enact applicable and strict policies so as to abate this public health risk. More... »

PAGES

3110

Identifiers

URI

http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1038/s41598-019-39684-3

DOI

http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-39684-3

DIMENSIONS

https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1112441297

PUBMED

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30816239


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41 schema:description Despite increasingly growth in waterpipe smoking in Tehran, so far no study has been conducted on the air quality of the waterpipe and cigarette cafés. Thirty-six cafés were selected and the concentration of three pollutants including formaldehyde, carbon monoxide and nicotine were measured in both indoor and outdoor air of cafés two times (week-day and weekend's session). Air sampling was performed for 180 min for each pollutant. It was observed that the concentration of pollutants inside the cafés was higher during weekend session (with a higher number of "active waterpipe heads") compared with findings during the week-day sessions. Furthermore, the concentration of pollutants in the indoor air of the cafés was significantly higher than that of the outdoors (p &lt; 0.05). According to path analysis, the number of "active waterpipe heads" had the maximum impact on generation of pollutants inside the cafés, followed by the type of tobacco as the second influential factor. The average of lifetime cancer risk (LTCR) resulted by formaldehyde exposure through inhalation in waterpipe (WS), cigarette (CS), waterpipe and cigarette (WCS) and none-smoking (NS) cafés in week-day and weekend sessions were estimated to be 111 × 10<sup>-5</sup> and 61.2 × 10<sup>-5</sup>, 33.7 × 10<sup>-5</sup> and 39.4 × 10<sup>-5</sup>, 271 × 10<sup>-5</sup> and 322 × 10<sup>-5</sup>, and 4.80 × 10<sup>-5</sup> and 5.90 × 10<sup>-5</sup>, respectively, which exceed the limit value by the U.S.EPA and WHO. The concentration of pollutants in the indoor air of smoking cafés in Tehran is significantly high, such that it can pose serious risks for the health of both personnel and customers. Therefore, decision makers are expected to enact applicable and strict policies so as to abate this public health risk.
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