Effect of sodium diffusion on the properties of CIGS solar absorbers prepared using elemental Se in a two-step process View Full Text


Ontology type: schema:ScholarlyArticle      Open Access: True


Article Info

DATE

2019-12

AUTHORS

Weimin Li, Xia Yan, Armin G. Aberle, Selvaraj Venkataraj

ABSTRACT

The influence of Na diffusion from various glass substrates during a high-temperature slenization process on the microstructure and morphology of two-step formed CIGS absorber layers is investigated. In order to minimise the CIGS absorber formation time, elemental Se vapour is used to prepare the CIGS absorber. The grain sizes of the CIGS films are found to increase with increasing sodium in the glass substrates (extra clear glass, soda-lime glass, borosilicate glass). TiN and SiN thin films are used as diffusion barrier layers inserted between the glass substrate and the Mo rear conatct to tune the Na diffusion from the soda-lime glass. The interdiffusion between the In-rich CuInSe2 surface layer and the Ga-rich CuGaSe2 layer is promoted by the barrier layer, leading to larger CIGS grains. Efforts are also taken to understand the differences in Na diffusion (from the glass substrates) and their effects on the MoSe2 intermediate layer formation during the high-temperature CIGS absorber formation processes. We find that excess amounts of Na and Se are essential for the MoSe2 growth. The excessive Na in the form of Na2Sex at the CIGS/Mo interface works as a Se source and catalyses the MoSe2 formation. The Se flow in the two-step CIGS formation process must be sufficiently high to obtain high-efficiency CIGS solar cells. More... »

PAGES

2637

Identifiers

URI

http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1038/s41598-019-39283-2

DOI

http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-39283-2

DIMENSIONS

https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1112363104

PUBMED

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30804384


Indexing Status Check whether this publication has been indexed by Scopus and Web Of Science using the SN Indexing Status Tool
Incoming Citations Browse incoming citations for this publication using opencitations.net

JSON-LD is the canonical representation for SciGraph data.

TIP: You can open this SciGraph record using an external JSON-LD service: JSON-LD Playground Google SDTT

[
  {
    "@context": "https://springernature.github.io/scigraph/jsonld/sgcontext.json", 
    "about": [
      {
        "id": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/0912", 
        "inDefinedTermSet": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/", 
        "name": "Materials Engineering", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/09", 
        "inDefinedTermSet": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/", 
        "name": "Engineering", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }
    ], 
    "author": [
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "Shenzhen Institutes of Advanced Technology", 
          "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.458489.c", 
          "name": [
            "Solar Energy Research Institute of Singapore, National University of Singapore, 117574, Singapore, Singapore", 
            "Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, 117576, Singapore, Singapore", 
            "Center for Information Photonics and Energy Materials, Shenzhen Institutes of Advanced Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 518055, Shenzhen, China"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Li", 
        "givenName": "Weimin", 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "National University of Singapore", 
          "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.4280.e", 
          "name": [
            "Solar Energy Research Institute of Singapore, National University of Singapore, 117574, Singapore, Singapore"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Yan", 
        "givenName": "Xia", 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "National University of Singapore", 
          "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.4280.e", 
          "name": [
            "Solar Energy Research Institute of Singapore, National University of Singapore, 117574, Singapore, Singapore", 
            "Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, 117576, Singapore, Singapore"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Aberle", 
        "givenName": "Armin G.", 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "National University of Singapore", 
          "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.4280.e", 
          "name": [
            "Solar Energy Research Institute of Singapore, National University of Singapore, 117574, Singapore, Singapore"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Venkataraj", 
        "givenName": "Selvaraj", 
        "type": "Person"
      }
    ], 
    "citation": [
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1002/pip.1078", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1007921002"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0257-8972(98)00676-8", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1011518331"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.solmat.2011.11.038", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1012745383"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0927-0248(00)00283-x", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1016442480"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0040-6090(99)00777-4", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1017070826"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0040-6090(03)00261-x", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1030028403"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0040-6090(03)00261-x", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1030028403"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0040-6090(00)01846-0", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1030333777"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/b978-0-12-385934-1.00010-6", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1031705747"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpcs.2005.09.025", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1031799432"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.solmat.2016.06.024", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1032905147"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1002/9780470974704.ch13", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1033065306"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1002/aic.14425", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1036464439"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tsf.2004.11.098", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1036697700"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.proeng.2015.09.231", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1045519881"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/b978-0-12-373697-0.00008-0", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1046565327"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1002/9781118695784.ch7", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1046652150"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1590/s0103-97332006000600049", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1049643497"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.solmat.2012.02.015", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1050230644"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tsf.2013.07.038", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1051322063"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1002/pssa.200881200", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1051446858"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1002/pssa.200881200", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1051446858"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1088/0022-3727/42/12/125303", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1053590779"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1063/1.3190528", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1057918172"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1063/1.366122", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1057994194"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1109/jphotov.2012.2226869", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1061294808"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1557/proc-865-f14.13", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1067960878"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.7567/jjap.54.08kc14", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1073840169"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1142/9781848167681_0006", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1088758887"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.solener.2017.08.054", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1091407763"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cap.2017.08.021", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1091416990"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1109/wcpec.1994.519833", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1093738097"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1109/wcpec.2006.279502", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1094598247"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1002/pip.3040", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1104990336"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }
    ], 
    "datePublished": "2019-12", 
    "datePublishedReg": "2019-12-01", 
    "description": "The influence of Na diffusion from various glass substrates during a high-temperature slenization process on the microstructure and morphology of two-step formed CIGS absorber layers is investigated. In order to minimise the CIGS absorber formation time, elemental Se vapour is used to prepare the CIGS absorber. The grain sizes of the CIGS films are found to increase with increasing sodium in the glass substrates (extra clear glass, soda-lime glass, borosilicate glass). TiN and SiN thin films are used as diffusion barrier layers inserted between the glass substrate and the Mo rear conatct to tune the Na diffusion from the soda-lime glass. The interdiffusion between the In-rich CuInSe2 surface layer and the Ga-rich CuGaSe2 layer is promoted by the barrier layer, leading to larger CIGS grains. Efforts are also taken to understand the differences in Na diffusion (from the glass substrates) and their effects on the MoSe2 intermediate layer formation during the high-temperature CIGS absorber formation processes. We find that excess amounts of Na and Se are essential for the MoSe2 growth. The excessive Na in the form of Na2Sex at the CIGS/Mo interface works as a Se source and catalyses the MoSe2 formation. The Se flow in the two-step CIGS formation process must be sufficiently high to obtain high-efficiency CIGS solar cells.", 
    "genre": "research_article", 
    "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/s41598-019-39283-2", 
    "inLanguage": [
      "en"
    ], 
    "isAccessibleForFree": true, 
    "isPartOf": [
      {
        "id": "sg:journal.1045337", 
        "issn": [
          "2045-2322"
        ], 
        "name": "Scientific Reports", 
        "type": "Periodical"
      }, 
      {
        "issueNumber": "1", 
        "type": "PublicationIssue"
      }, 
      {
        "type": "PublicationVolume", 
        "volumeNumber": "9"
      }
    ], 
    "name": "Effect of sodium diffusion on the properties of CIGS solar absorbers prepared using elemental Se in a two-step process", 
    "pagination": "2637", 
    "productId": [
      {
        "name": "readcube_id", 
        "type": "PropertyValue", 
        "value": [
          "23a676633f303129ac4f7c2abb4fdae08b2ff3d9faec6061746d3e012837b394"
        ]
      }, 
      {
        "name": "pubmed_id", 
        "type": "PropertyValue", 
        "value": [
          "30804384"
        ]
      }, 
      {
        "name": "nlm_unique_id", 
        "type": "PropertyValue", 
        "value": [
          "101563288"
        ]
      }, 
      {
        "name": "doi", 
        "type": "PropertyValue", 
        "value": [
          "10.1038/s41598-019-39283-2"
        ]
      }, 
      {
        "name": "dimensions_id", 
        "type": "PropertyValue", 
        "value": [
          "pub.1112363104"
        ]
      }
    ], 
    "sameAs": [
      "https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-39283-2", 
      "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1112363104"
    ], 
    "sdDataset": "articles", 
    "sdDatePublished": "2019-04-11T10:31", 
    "sdLicense": "https://scigraph.springernature.com/explorer/license/", 
    "sdPublisher": {
      "name": "Springer Nature - SN SciGraph project", 
      "type": "Organization"
    }, 
    "sdSource": "s3://com-uberresearch-data-dimensions-target-20181106-alternative/cleanup/v134/2549eaecd7973599484d7c17b260dba0a4ecb94b/merge/v9/a6c9fde33151104705d4d7ff012ea9563521a3ce/jats-lookup/v90/0000000349_0000000349/records_113647_00000005.jsonl", 
    "type": "ScholarlyArticle", 
    "url": "https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-019-39283-2"
  }
]
 

Download the RDF metadata as:  json-ld nt turtle xml License info

HOW TO GET THIS DATA PROGRAMMATICALLY:

JSON-LD is a popular format for linked data which is fully compatible with JSON.

curl -H 'Accept: application/ld+json' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1038/s41598-019-39283-2'

N-Triples is a line-based linked data format ideal for batch operations.

curl -H 'Accept: application/n-triples' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1038/s41598-019-39283-2'

Turtle is a human-readable linked data format.

curl -H 'Accept: text/turtle' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1038/s41598-019-39283-2'

RDF/XML is a standard XML format for linked data.

curl -H 'Accept: application/rdf+xml' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1038/s41598-019-39283-2'


 

This table displays all metadata directly associated to this object as RDF triples.

187 TRIPLES      21 PREDICATES      61 URIs      21 LITERALS      9 BLANK NODES

Subject Predicate Object
1 sg:pub.10.1038/s41598-019-39283-2 schema:about anzsrc-for:09
2 anzsrc-for:0912
3 schema:author N9635062d4b834a24b9bbdf2253af0990
4 schema:citation https://doi.org/10.1002/9780470974704.ch13
5 https://doi.org/10.1002/9781118695784.ch7
6 https://doi.org/10.1002/aic.14425
7 https://doi.org/10.1002/pip.1078
8 https://doi.org/10.1002/pip.3040
9 https://doi.org/10.1002/pssa.200881200
10 https://doi.org/10.1016/b978-0-12-373697-0.00008-0
11 https://doi.org/10.1016/b978-0-12-385934-1.00010-6
12 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cap.2017.08.021
13 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpcs.2005.09.025
14 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.proeng.2015.09.231
15 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.solener.2017.08.054
16 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.solmat.2011.11.038
17 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.solmat.2012.02.015
18 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.solmat.2016.06.024
19 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tsf.2004.11.098
20 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tsf.2013.07.038
21 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0040-6090(00)01846-0
22 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0040-6090(03)00261-x
23 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0040-6090(99)00777-4
24 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0257-8972(98)00676-8
25 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0927-0248(00)00283-x
26 https://doi.org/10.1063/1.3190528
27 https://doi.org/10.1063/1.366122
28 https://doi.org/10.1088/0022-3727/42/12/125303
29 https://doi.org/10.1109/jphotov.2012.2226869
30 https://doi.org/10.1109/wcpec.1994.519833
31 https://doi.org/10.1109/wcpec.2006.279502
32 https://doi.org/10.1142/9781848167681_0006
33 https://doi.org/10.1557/proc-865-f14.13
34 https://doi.org/10.1590/s0103-97332006000600049
35 https://doi.org/10.7567/jjap.54.08kc14
36 schema:datePublished 2019-12
37 schema:datePublishedReg 2019-12-01
38 schema:description The influence of Na diffusion from various glass substrates during a high-temperature slenization process on the microstructure and morphology of two-step formed CIGS absorber layers is investigated. In order to minimise the CIGS absorber formation time, elemental Se vapour is used to prepare the CIGS absorber. The grain sizes of the CIGS films are found to increase with increasing sodium in the glass substrates (extra clear glass, soda-lime glass, borosilicate glass). TiN and SiN thin films are used as diffusion barrier layers inserted between the glass substrate and the Mo rear conatct to tune the Na diffusion from the soda-lime glass. The interdiffusion between the In-rich CuInSe<sub>2</sub> surface layer and the Ga-rich CuGaSe<sub>2</sub> layer is promoted by the barrier layer, leading to larger CIGS grains. Efforts are also taken to understand the differences in Na diffusion (from the glass substrates) and their effects on the MoSe<sub>2</sub> intermediate layer formation during the high-temperature CIGS absorber formation processes. We find that excess amounts of Na and Se are essential for the MoSe<sub>2</sub> growth. The excessive Na in the form of Na<sub>2</sub>Se<sub>x</sub> at the CIGS/Mo interface works as a Se source and catalyses the MoSe<sub>2</sub> formation. The Se flow in the two-step CIGS formation process must be sufficiently high to obtain high-efficiency CIGS solar cells.
39 schema:genre research_article
40 schema:inLanguage en
41 schema:isAccessibleForFree true
42 schema:isPartOf N78077b8b39504bd38d7d62e401a01f20
43 N7d99dd9143ee41d690aae8a65ba6d76f
44 sg:journal.1045337
45 schema:name Effect of sodium diffusion on the properties of CIGS solar absorbers prepared using elemental Se in a two-step process
46 schema:pagination 2637
47 schema:productId N162dac653360414fbc9fea7056f2dc90
48 N1763c82cbb6b4f9cbc3767c4e1d1d97b
49 N4125aba4978146cf943478fccbe592b1
50 N57333f8f81544690b08d0e7efc16730e
51 Nc42f84f6d1884463962e30fc265d8191
52 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1112363104
53 https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-39283-2
54 schema:sdDatePublished 2019-04-11T10:31
55 schema:sdLicense https://scigraph.springernature.com/explorer/license/
56 schema:sdPublisher Ne3fff397347e480698a07fcf3ad08c86
57 schema:url https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-019-39283-2
58 sgo:license sg:explorer/license/
59 sgo:sdDataset articles
60 rdf:type schema:ScholarlyArticle
61 N162dac653360414fbc9fea7056f2dc90 schema:name readcube_id
62 schema:value 23a676633f303129ac4f7c2abb4fdae08b2ff3d9faec6061746d3e012837b394
63 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
64 N1763c82cbb6b4f9cbc3767c4e1d1d97b schema:name dimensions_id
65 schema:value pub.1112363104
66 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
67 N3d454648160e4c389426ebb123cb01e0 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.4280.e
68 schema:familyName Venkataraj
69 schema:givenName Selvaraj
70 rdf:type schema:Person
71 N4125aba4978146cf943478fccbe592b1 schema:name pubmed_id
72 schema:value 30804384
73 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
74 N52d913744a7741808330a263f146ea23 rdf:first N3d454648160e4c389426ebb123cb01e0
75 rdf:rest rdf:nil
76 N558adbba5a134327ae8ce87ab21ade8f schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.4280.e
77 schema:familyName Aberle
78 schema:givenName Armin G.
79 rdf:type schema:Person
80 N57333f8f81544690b08d0e7efc16730e schema:name doi
81 schema:value 10.1038/s41598-019-39283-2
82 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
83 N5c55a2f8d7b24ddf8787663ab94ce0a3 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.4280.e
84 schema:familyName Yan
85 schema:givenName Xia
86 rdf:type schema:Person
87 N78077b8b39504bd38d7d62e401a01f20 schema:issueNumber 1
88 rdf:type schema:PublicationIssue
89 N7d99dd9143ee41d690aae8a65ba6d76f schema:volumeNumber 9
90 rdf:type schema:PublicationVolume
91 N8e572cb0f78445ca95ce5de2d9dcfbb1 rdf:first N558adbba5a134327ae8ce87ab21ade8f
92 rdf:rest N52d913744a7741808330a263f146ea23
93 N9635062d4b834a24b9bbdf2253af0990 rdf:first Nc58c94ee14bc4933bd1b4b8335b5a982
94 rdf:rest Nf34e7c56ef9b440bb406a6bad6d04eea
95 Nc42f84f6d1884463962e30fc265d8191 schema:name nlm_unique_id
96 schema:value 101563288
97 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
98 Nc58c94ee14bc4933bd1b4b8335b5a982 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.458489.c
99 schema:familyName Li
100 schema:givenName Weimin
101 rdf:type schema:Person
102 Ne3fff397347e480698a07fcf3ad08c86 schema:name Springer Nature - SN SciGraph project
103 rdf:type schema:Organization
104 Nf34e7c56ef9b440bb406a6bad6d04eea rdf:first N5c55a2f8d7b24ddf8787663ab94ce0a3
105 rdf:rest N8e572cb0f78445ca95ce5de2d9dcfbb1
106 anzsrc-for:09 schema:inDefinedTermSet anzsrc-for:
107 schema:name Engineering
108 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
109 anzsrc-for:0912 schema:inDefinedTermSet anzsrc-for:
110 schema:name Materials Engineering
111 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
112 sg:journal.1045337 schema:issn 2045-2322
113 schema:name Scientific Reports
114 rdf:type schema:Periodical
115 https://doi.org/10.1002/9780470974704.ch13 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1033065306
116 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
117 https://doi.org/10.1002/9781118695784.ch7 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1046652150
118 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
119 https://doi.org/10.1002/aic.14425 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1036464439
120 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
121 https://doi.org/10.1002/pip.1078 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1007921002
122 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
123 https://doi.org/10.1002/pip.3040 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1104990336
124 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
125 https://doi.org/10.1002/pssa.200881200 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1051446858
126 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
127 https://doi.org/10.1016/b978-0-12-373697-0.00008-0 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1046565327
128 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
129 https://doi.org/10.1016/b978-0-12-385934-1.00010-6 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1031705747
130 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
131 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cap.2017.08.021 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1091416990
132 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
133 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpcs.2005.09.025 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1031799432
134 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
135 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.proeng.2015.09.231 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1045519881
136 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
137 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.solener.2017.08.054 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1091407763
138 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
139 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.solmat.2011.11.038 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1012745383
140 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
141 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.solmat.2012.02.015 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1050230644
142 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
143 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.solmat.2016.06.024 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1032905147
144 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
145 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tsf.2004.11.098 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1036697700
146 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
147 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tsf.2013.07.038 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1051322063
148 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
149 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0040-6090(00)01846-0 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1030333777
150 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
151 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0040-6090(03)00261-x schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1030028403
152 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
153 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0040-6090(99)00777-4 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1017070826
154 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
155 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0257-8972(98)00676-8 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1011518331
156 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
157 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0927-0248(00)00283-x schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1016442480
158 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
159 https://doi.org/10.1063/1.3190528 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1057918172
160 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
161 https://doi.org/10.1063/1.366122 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1057994194
162 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
163 https://doi.org/10.1088/0022-3727/42/12/125303 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1053590779
164 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
165 https://doi.org/10.1109/jphotov.2012.2226869 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1061294808
166 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
167 https://doi.org/10.1109/wcpec.1994.519833 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1093738097
168 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
169 https://doi.org/10.1109/wcpec.2006.279502 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1094598247
170 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
171 https://doi.org/10.1142/9781848167681_0006 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1088758887
172 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
173 https://doi.org/10.1557/proc-865-f14.13 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1067960878
174 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
175 https://doi.org/10.1590/s0103-97332006000600049 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1049643497
176 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
177 https://doi.org/10.7567/jjap.54.08kc14 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1073840169
178 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
179 https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.4280.e schema:alternateName National University of Singapore
180 schema:name Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, 117576, Singapore, Singapore
181 Solar Energy Research Institute of Singapore, National University of Singapore, 117574, Singapore, Singapore
182 rdf:type schema:Organization
183 https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.458489.c schema:alternateName Shenzhen Institutes of Advanced Technology
184 schema:name Center for Information Photonics and Energy Materials, Shenzhen Institutes of Advanced Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 518055, Shenzhen, China
185 Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, 117576, Singapore, Singapore
186 Solar Energy Research Institute of Singapore, National University of Singapore, 117574, Singapore, Singapore
187 rdf:type schema:Organization
 




Preview window. Press ESC to close (or click here)


...