On the origin of second harmonic generation in silicon waveguides with silicon nitride cladding View Full Text


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Article Info

DATE

2019-12

AUTHORS

Claudio Castellan, Alessandro Trenti, Chiara Vecchi, Alessandro Marchesini, Mattia Mancinelli, Mher Ghulinyan, Georg Pucker, Lorenzo Pavesi

ABSTRACT

Strained silicon waveguides have been proposed to break the silicon centrosymmetry, which inhibits second-order nonlinearities. Even if electro-optic effect and second harmonic generation (SHG) were measured, the published results presented plenty of ambiguities due to the concurrence of different effects affecting the process. In this work, the origin of SHG in a silicon waveguide strained by a silicon nitride cladding is investigated in detail. From the measured SHG efficiencies, an effective second-order nonlinear susceptibility of ~0.5 pmV-1 is extracted. To evidence the role of strain, SHG is studied under an external mechanical load, demonstrating no significant dependence on the applied stress. On the contrary, a 254 nm ultraviolet (UV) exposure of the strained silicon waveguide suppresses completely the SHG signal. Since UV irradiation is known to passivate charged defects accumulated in the silicon nitride cladding, this measurement evidences the crucial role of charged centers. In fact, charged defects cause an electric field in the waveguide that via the third order silicon nonlinearity induces the SHG. This conclusion is supported by numerical simulations, which accurately model the experimental results. More... »

PAGES

1088

Identifiers

URI

http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1038/s41598-018-37660-x

DOI

http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-37660-x

DIMENSIONS

https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1111776683

PUBMED

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30705314


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53 schema:description Strained silicon waveguides have been proposed to break the silicon centrosymmetry, which inhibits second-order nonlinearities. Even if electro-optic effect and second harmonic generation (SHG) were measured, the published results presented plenty of ambiguities due to the concurrence of different effects affecting the process. In this work, the origin of SHG in a silicon waveguide strained by a silicon nitride cladding is investigated in detail. From the measured SHG efficiencies, an effective second-order nonlinear susceptibility of ~0.5 pmV<sup>-1</sup> is extracted. To evidence the role of strain, SHG is studied under an external mechanical load, demonstrating no significant dependence on the applied stress. On the contrary, a 254 nm ultraviolet (UV) exposure of the strained silicon waveguide suppresses completely the SHG signal. Since UV irradiation is known to passivate charged defects accumulated in the silicon nitride cladding, this measurement evidences the crucial role of charged centers. In fact, charged defects cause an electric field in the waveguide that via the third order silicon nonlinearity induces the SHG. This conclusion is supported by numerical simulations, which accurately model the experimental results.
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