Synthetic CpG-ODN rapidly enriches immune compartments in neonatal chicks to induce protective immunity against bacterial infections View Full Text


Ontology type: schema:ScholarlyArticle      Open Access: True


Article Info

DATE

2019-12

AUTHORS

Thushari Gunawardana, Khawaja Ashfaque Ahmed, Kalhari Goonewardene, Shelly Popowich, Shanika Kurukulasuriya, Ruwani Karunarathna, Ashish Gupta, Betty Lockerbie, Marianna Foldvari, Suresh K. Tikoo, Philip Willson, Susantha Gomis

ABSTRACT

Oligodeoxynucleotides containing CpG motifs (CpG-ODN) induce innate immunity against bacterial infections. Despite recent advances, how CpG-ODN alone protects against bacterial infections remained elusive. Here, we report for the first time, to our knowledge, that CpG-ODN orchestrates anti-microbial protective immunity by inducing a rapid enrichment of various immune compartments in chickens. In this study, eighteen-day-old embryonated eggs were injected with either 50 µg of CpG-ODN or saline (~n = 90 per group). In the first experiment, four days after CpG-ODN treatment, chicks were challenged subcutaneously with a virulent strain of Escherichia coli (E. coli) and mortality was monitored for 8 days. We found significant protection, and reduced clinical scores in CpG-ODN treated chicks. To gain insights into mechanisms of protection induced by CpG-ODN, first we investigated cytokine expression kinetics elicited by CpG-ODN. The spleen and lung were collected from embryos or chicks (n = 3-4 per group) at 10 time points post-CpG-ODN inoculation. Multiplex gene analysis (interleukin (IL)-1, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-18, interferon (IFN)-γ, IFN-α, and lipopolysaccharide induced tumor necrosis factor (LITAF), revealed a significantly higher expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines following CpG-ODN treatment compared to the saline controls. In our study, LITAF stands out in the cytokine profiles of spleen and lungs, underscoring its role in CpG-ODN-induced protection. The third experiment was designed to examine the effects of CpG-ODN on immune cell populations in spleen, lungs, and thymus. Flow cytometry analysis was conducted at 24, 48 and 72 hrs (thymus only collected at 72 hr) after CpG-ODN administration to examine the changes in CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell subsets, monocyte/macrophage cell populations and their expression of maturation markers (CD40 and CD86). Flow cytometry data indicated a significant enrichment of macrophages, CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell subsets in both spleen and lungs of CpG-ODN treated embryos and chicks. Macrophages in spleen and lungs showed an upregulation of CD40 but not CD86, whereas thymocytes revealed significantly high CD4 and CD8 expression. Overall, the present study has demonstrated that CpG-ODN provides protection in neonatal chicks against E. coli infection not only by eliciting cytokine responses and stimulating immune cells but also through enriching immunological niches in spleen and lungs. More... »

PAGES

341

Identifiers

URI

http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1038/s41598-018-36588-6

DOI

http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-36588-6

DIMENSIONS

https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1111621476

PUBMED

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30674918


Indexing Status Check whether this publication has been indexed by Scopus and Web Of Science using the SN Indexing Status Tool
Incoming Citations Browse incoming citations for this publication using opencitations.net

JSON-LD is the canonical representation for SciGraph data.

TIP: You can open this SciGraph record using an external JSON-LD service: JSON-LD Playground Google SDTT

[
  {
    "@context": "https://springernature.github.io/scigraph/jsonld/sgcontext.json", 
    "about": [
      {
        "id": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/1107", 
        "inDefinedTermSet": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/", 
        "name": "Immunology", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/11", 
        "inDefinedTermSet": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/", 
        "name": "Medical and Health Sciences", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }
    ], 
    "author": [
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "University of Saskatchewan", 
          "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.25152.31", 
          "name": [
            "Department of Veterinary Pathology, Western College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, S7N 5B4, Saskatoon, SK, Canada"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Gunawardana", 
        "givenName": "Thushari", 
        "id": "sg:person.01110142247.09", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01110142247.09"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "University of Saskatchewan", 
          "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.25152.31", 
          "name": [
            "Department of Veterinary Pathology, Western College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, S7N 5B4, Saskatoon, SK, Canada"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Ahmed", 
        "givenName": "Khawaja Ashfaque", 
        "id": "sg:person.0615411674.38", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0615411674.38"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "University of Saskatchewan", 
          "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.25152.31", 
          "name": [
            "Department of Veterinary Pathology, Western College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, S7N 5B4, Saskatoon, SK, Canada"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Goonewardene", 
        "givenName": "Kalhari", 
        "id": "sg:person.014030342615.47", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.014030342615.47"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "University of Saskatchewan", 
          "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.25152.31", 
          "name": [
            "Department of Veterinary Pathology, Western College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, S7N 5B4, Saskatoon, SK, Canada"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Popowich", 
        "givenName": "Shelly", 
        "id": "sg:person.01272504047.25", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01272504047.25"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "University of Saskatchewan", 
          "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.25152.31", 
          "name": [
            "Department of Veterinary Pathology, Western College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, S7N 5B4, Saskatoon, SK, Canada"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Kurukulasuriya", 
        "givenName": "Shanika", 
        "id": "sg:person.012112642073.03", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.012112642073.03"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "University of Saskatchewan", 
          "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.25152.31", 
          "name": [
            "Department of Veterinary Pathology, Western College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, S7N 5B4, Saskatoon, SK, Canada"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Karunarathna", 
        "givenName": "Ruwani", 
        "id": "sg:person.015540616530.56", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.015540616530.56"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "University of Saskatchewan", 
          "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.25152.31", 
          "name": [
            "Department of Veterinary Pathology, Western College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, S7N 5B4, Saskatoon, SK, Canada"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Gupta", 
        "givenName": "Ashish", 
        "id": "sg:person.013232762215.01", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.013232762215.01"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "University of Saskatchewan", 
          "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.25152.31", 
          "name": [
            "Department of Veterinary Pathology, Western College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, S7N 5B4, Saskatoon, SK, Canada"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Lockerbie", 
        "givenName": "Betty", 
        "id": "sg:person.01061145766.96", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01061145766.96"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "University of Waterloo", 
          "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.46078.3d", 
          "name": [
            "School of Pharmacy, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, N2L 3G1, Waterloo, ON, Canada"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Foldvari", 
        "givenName": "Marianna", 
        "id": "sg:person.01072441273.30", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01072441273.30"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "University of Saskatchewan", 
          "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.25152.31", 
          "name": [
            "Vaccinology and Immunotherapy, School of Public Health, University of Saskatchewan, S7N 5E3, Saskatoon, SK, Canada"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Tikoo", 
        "givenName": "Suresh K.", 
        "id": "sg:person.0611652263.30", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0611652263.30"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "University of Saskatchewan", 
          "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.25152.31", 
          "name": [
            "Canadian Centre for Health and Safety in Agriculture, University of Saskatchewan, S7N 5E5, Saskatoon, SK, Canada"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Willson", 
        "givenName": "Philip", 
        "id": "sg:person.0723404236.16", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0723404236.16"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "University of Saskatchewan", 
          "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.25152.31", 
          "name": [
            "Department of Veterinary Pathology, Western College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, S7N 5B4, Saskatoon, SK, Canada"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Gomis", 
        "givenName": "Susantha", 
        "id": "sg:person.01177403660.21", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01177403660.21"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }
    ], 
    "citation": [
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1177/1087057105277414", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1000703814"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1177/1087057105277414", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1000703814"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1189/jlb.2hi0215-049rr", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1000928176"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/0021-9150(94)05503-b", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1002097966"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2015.10.072", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1002227137"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/31002", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1003087371", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1038/31002"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/31002", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1003087371", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1038/31002"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0043381", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1004390339"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.2147/ijn.s114477", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1004438774"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.msec.2016.03.045", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1005941205"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.it.2011.01.003", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1006280399"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1053/gast.2000.8538", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1009793263"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1128/iai.00316-13", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1009843863"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dci.2008.02.007", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1010609779"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1046/j.1523-1747.1999.00785.x", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1011431569", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1523-1747.1999.00785.x"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vetimm.2016.04.002", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1012936435"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1186/1472-6750-11-88", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1012993255", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1186/1472-6750-11-88"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vetimm.2011.09.004", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1014233030"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vetimm.2008.10.001", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1014382350"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.89.11.4864", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1015449908"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0145-305x(03)00079-x", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1016169332"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0145-305x(03)00079-x", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1016169332"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1586/erv.10.174", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1016917318"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1128/iai.71.2.857-863.2003", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1017140390"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.febslet.2005.04.087", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1018324032"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.febslet.2005.04.087", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1018324032"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1086/317513", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1018929039"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.molimm.2009.06.002", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1019994806"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0898-6568(03)00100-1", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1021051983"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0898-6568(03)00100-1", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1021051983"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/ni1004-971", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1021225905", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1038/ni1004-971"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/ni1004-971", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1021225905", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1038/ni1004-971"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.femsim.2004.07.009", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1021327467"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/978-1-4939-3389-1_20", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1024349534", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4939-3389-1_20"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1305273110", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1024349554"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1637/10832-032814-reg", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1026196311"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/s00441-010-1026-0", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1026693585", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1007/s00441-010-1026-0"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/s00441-010-1026-0", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1026693585", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1007/s00441-010-1026-0"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/s00441-010-1026-0", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1026693585", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1007/s00441-010-1026-0"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1634/stemcells.22-6-1085", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1027418319"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vetimm.2014.05.004", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1028920131"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1093/intimm/dxl007", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1029372528"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1128/jvi.77.21.11471-11479.2003", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1030868801"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1182/blood-2002-02-0401", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1031023232"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vetimm.2007.03.002", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1033270765"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vetimm.2003.10.001", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1034666827"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dci.2016.03.008", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1035790773"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines3020390", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1035929116"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0902745106", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1040518882"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1128/iai.71.12.7014-7022.2003", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1040547280"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2009.12.055", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1040568871"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1002/path.2287", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1040572238"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0609.1999.tb01850.x", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1042103427"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0105713", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1042407983"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.antiviral.2010.11.013", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1043761239"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.intimp.2008.05.010", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1044102148"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1128/iai.72.6.3543-3548.2004", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1045389532"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.94.20.10833", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1045773718"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vetimm.2014.12.005", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1049519719"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2017.01.005", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1051287755"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1128/iai.74.2.1442-1444.2006", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1051850935"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1002/1521-4141(200010)30:10<3057::aid-immu3057>3.0.co;2-p", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1053191193"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1089/jir.1998.18.407", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1059280502"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0169154", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1067096401"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1637/0005-2086(2007)051[0078:pocaal]2.0.co;2", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1068165505"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1637/7154-010704r", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1068166215"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1637/7194-041204r", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1068166243"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1637/8196-121907-reg", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1068166602"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.2174/138161206777947542", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1069165946"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.2174/156720109787048221", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1069186580"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1074355416", 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.164.3.1617", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1074578446"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.171.4.1809", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1075327709"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.176.8.4902", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1077217038"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.0901921", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1078166439"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1078640559", 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1083312099", 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1083343959", 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2017.03.075", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1084535627"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1111/1348-0421.12487", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1085120367"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/nri.2017.103", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1092066057", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1038/nri.2017.103"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.11.010", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1092650768"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2017.11.073", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1099690810"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1637/11684-060617-reg.1", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1100434979"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }
    ], 
    "datePublished": "2019-12", 
    "datePublishedReg": "2019-12-01", 
    "description": "Oligodeoxynucleotides containing CpG motifs (CpG-ODN) induce innate immunity against bacterial infections. Despite recent advances, how CpG-ODN alone protects against bacterial infections remained elusive. Here, we report for the first time, to our knowledge, that CpG-ODN orchestrates anti-microbial protective immunity by inducing a rapid enrichment of various immune compartments in chickens. In this study, eighteen-day-old embryonated eggs were injected with either 50\u2009\u00b5g of CpG-ODN or saline (~n\u2009=\u200990 per group). In the first experiment, four days after CpG-ODN treatment, chicks were challenged subcutaneously with a virulent strain of Escherichia coli (E. coli) and mortality was monitored for 8 days. We found significant protection, and reduced clinical scores in CpG-ODN treated chicks. To gain insights into mechanisms of protection induced by CpG-ODN, first we investigated cytokine expression kinetics elicited by CpG-ODN. The spleen and lung were collected from embryos or chicks (n\u2009=\u20093-4 per group) at 10 time points post-CpG-ODN inoculation. Multiplex gene analysis (interleukin (IL)-1, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-18, interferon (IFN)-\u03b3, IFN-\u03b1, and lipopolysaccharide induced tumor necrosis factor (LITAF), revealed a significantly higher expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines following CpG-ODN treatment compared to the saline controls. In our study, LITAF stands out in the cytokine profiles of spleen and lungs, underscoring its role in CpG-ODN-induced protection. The third experiment was designed to examine the effects of CpG-ODN on immune cell populations in spleen, lungs, and thymus. Flow cytometry analysis was conducted at 24, 48 and 72\u2009hrs (thymus only collected at 72\u2009hr) after CpG-ODN administration to examine the changes in CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell subsets, monocyte/macrophage cell populations and their expression of maturation markers (CD40 and CD86). Flow cytometry data indicated a significant enrichment of macrophages, CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell subsets in both spleen and lungs of CpG-ODN treated embryos and chicks. Macrophages in spleen and lungs showed an upregulation of CD40 but not CD86, whereas thymocytes revealed significantly high CD4 and CD8 expression. Overall, the present study has demonstrated that CpG-ODN provides protection in neonatal chicks against E. coli infection not only by eliciting cytokine responses and stimulating immune cells but also through enriching immunological niches in spleen and lungs.", 
    "genre": "research_article", 
    "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/s41598-018-36588-6", 
    "inLanguage": [
      "en"
    ], 
    "isAccessibleForFree": true, 
    "isPartOf": [
      {
        "id": "sg:journal.1045337", 
        "issn": [
          "2045-2322"
        ], 
        "name": "Scientific Reports", 
        "type": "Periodical"
      }, 
      {
        "issueNumber": "1", 
        "type": "PublicationIssue"
      }, 
      {
        "type": "PublicationVolume", 
        "volumeNumber": "9"
      }
    ], 
    "name": "Synthetic CpG-ODN rapidly enriches immune compartments in neonatal chicks to induce protective immunity against bacterial infections", 
    "pagination": "341", 
    "productId": [
      {
        "name": "readcube_id", 
        "type": "PropertyValue", 
        "value": [
          "634409a76db00306d6771f519a0eec772b364c302502e4fd897c0807416c4a5f"
        ]
      }, 
      {
        "name": "pubmed_id", 
        "type": "PropertyValue", 
        "value": [
          "30674918"
        ]
      }, 
      {
        "name": "nlm_unique_id", 
        "type": "PropertyValue", 
        "value": [
          "101563288"
        ]
      }, 
      {
        "name": "doi", 
        "type": "PropertyValue", 
        "value": [
          "10.1038/s41598-018-36588-6"
        ]
      }, 
      {
        "name": "dimensions_id", 
        "type": "PropertyValue", 
        "value": [
          "pub.1111621476"
        ]
      }
    ], 
    "sameAs": [
      "https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-36588-6", 
      "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1111621476"
    ], 
    "sdDataset": "articles", 
    "sdDatePublished": "2019-04-11T08:58", 
    "sdLicense": "https://scigraph.springernature.com/explorer/license/", 
    "sdPublisher": {
      "name": "Springer Nature - SN SciGraph project", 
      "type": "Organization"
    }, 
    "sdSource": "s3://com-uberresearch-data-dimensions-target-20181106-alternative/cleanup/v134/2549eaecd7973599484d7c17b260dba0a4ecb94b/merge/v9/a6c9fde33151104705d4d7ff012ea9563521a3ce/jats-lookup/v90/0000000326_0000000326/records_68466_00000000.jsonl", 
    "type": "ScholarlyArticle", 
    "url": "https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-018-36588-6"
  }
]
 

Download the RDF metadata as:  json-ld nt turtle xml License info

HOW TO GET THIS DATA PROGRAMMATICALLY:

JSON-LD is a popular format for linked data which is fully compatible with JSON.

curl -H 'Accept: application/ld+json' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1038/s41598-018-36588-6'

N-Triples is a line-based linked data format ideal for batch operations.

curl -H 'Accept: application/n-triples' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1038/s41598-018-36588-6'

Turtle is a human-readable linked data format.

curl -H 'Accept: text/turtle' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1038/s41598-018-36588-6'

RDF/XML is a standard XML format for linked data.

curl -H 'Accept: application/rdf+xml' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1038/s41598-018-36588-6'


 

This table displays all metadata directly associated to this object as RDF triples.

381 TRIPLES      21 PREDICATES      105 URIs      21 LITERALS      9 BLANK NODES

Subject Predicate Object
1 sg:pub.10.1038/s41598-018-36588-6 schema:about anzsrc-for:11
2 anzsrc-for:1107
3 schema:author N15204408455b40e1aac0978473163c86
4 schema:citation sg:pub.10.1007/978-1-4939-3389-1_20
5 sg:pub.10.1007/s00441-010-1026-0
6 sg:pub.10.1038/31002
7 sg:pub.10.1038/ni1004-971
8 sg:pub.10.1038/nri.2017.103
9 sg:pub.10.1046/j.1523-1747.1999.00785.x
10 sg:pub.10.1186/1472-6750-11-88
11 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1074355416
12 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1078640559
13 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1083312099
14 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1083343959
15 https://doi.org/10.1002/1521-4141(200010)30:10<3057::aid-immu3057>3.0.co;2-p
16 https://doi.org/10.1002/path.2287
17 https://doi.org/10.1016/0021-9150(94)05503-b
18 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.antiviral.2010.11.013
19 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2009.12.055
20 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dci.2008.02.007
21 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dci.2016.03.008
22 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.febslet.2005.04.087
23 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.femsim.2004.07.009
24 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.intimp.2008.05.010
25 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.it.2011.01.003
26 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.molimm.2009.06.002
27 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.msec.2016.03.045
28 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2015.10.072
29 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2017.01.005
30 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2017.03.075
31 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2017.11.073
32 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vetimm.2003.10.001
33 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vetimm.2007.03.002
34 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vetimm.2008.10.001
35 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vetimm.2011.09.004
36 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vetimm.2014.05.004
37 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vetimm.2014.12.005
38 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vetimm.2016.04.002
39 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.11.010
40 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0145-305x(03)00079-x
41 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0898-6568(03)00100-1
42 https://doi.org/10.1053/gast.2000.8538
43 https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0902745106
44 https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1305273110
45 https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.89.11.4864
46 https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.94.20.10833
47 https://doi.org/10.1086/317513
48 https://doi.org/10.1089/jir.1998.18.407
49 https://doi.org/10.1093/intimm/dxl007
50 https://doi.org/10.1111/1348-0421.12487
51 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0609.1999.tb01850.x
52 https://doi.org/10.1128/iai.00316-13
53 https://doi.org/10.1128/iai.71.12.7014-7022.2003
54 https://doi.org/10.1128/iai.71.2.857-863.2003
55 https://doi.org/10.1128/iai.72.6.3543-3548.2004
56 https://doi.org/10.1128/iai.74.2.1442-1444.2006
57 https://doi.org/10.1128/jvi.77.21.11471-11479.2003
58 https://doi.org/10.1177/1087057105277414
59 https://doi.org/10.1182/blood-2002-02-0401
60 https://doi.org/10.1189/jlb.2hi0215-049rr
61 https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0043381
62 https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0105713
63 https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0169154
64 https://doi.org/10.1586/erv.10.174
65 https://doi.org/10.1634/stemcells.22-6-1085
66 https://doi.org/10.1637/0005-2086(2007)051[0078:pocaal]2.0.co;2
67 https://doi.org/10.1637/10832-032814-reg
68 https://doi.org/10.1637/11684-060617-reg.1
69 https://doi.org/10.1637/7154-010704r
70 https://doi.org/10.1637/7194-041204r
71 https://doi.org/10.1637/8196-121907-reg
72 https://doi.org/10.2147/ijn.s114477
73 https://doi.org/10.2174/138161206777947542
74 https://doi.org/10.2174/156720109787048221
75 https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines3020390
76 https://doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.0901921
77 https://doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.164.3.1617
78 https://doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.171.4.1809
79 https://doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.176.8.4902
80 schema:datePublished 2019-12
81 schema:datePublishedReg 2019-12-01
82 schema:description Oligodeoxynucleotides containing CpG motifs (CpG-ODN) induce innate immunity against bacterial infections. Despite recent advances, how CpG-ODN alone protects against bacterial infections remained elusive. Here, we report for the first time, to our knowledge, that CpG-ODN orchestrates anti-microbial protective immunity by inducing a rapid enrichment of various immune compartments in chickens. In this study, eighteen-day-old embryonated eggs were injected with either 50 µg of CpG-ODN or saline (~n = 90 per group). In the first experiment, four days after CpG-ODN treatment, chicks were challenged subcutaneously with a virulent strain of Escherichia coli (E. coli) and mortality was monitored for 8 days. We found significant protection, and reduced clinical scores in CpG-ODN treated chicks. To gain insights into mechanisms of protection induced by CpG-ODN, first we investigated cytokine expression kinetics elicited by CpG-ODN. The spleen and lung were collected from embryos or chicks (n = 3-4 per group) at 10 time points post-CpG-ODN inoculation. Multiplex gene analysis (interleukin (IL)-1, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-18, interferon (IFN)-γ, IFN-α, and lipopolysaccharide induced tumor necrosis factor (LITAF), revealed a significantly higher expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines following CpG-ODN treatment compared to the saline controls. In our study, LITAF stands out in the cytokine profiles of spleen and lungs, underscoring its role in CpG-ODN-induced protection. The third experiment was designed to examine the effects of CpG-ODN on immune cell populations in spleen, lungs, and thymus. Flow cytometry analysis was conducted at 24, 48 and 72 hrs (thymus only collected at 72 hr) after CpG-ODN administration to examine the changes in CD4<sup>+</sup> and CD8<sup>+</sup> T-cell subsets, monocyte/macrophage cell populations and their expression of maturation markers (CD40 and CD86). Flow cytometry data indicated a significant enrichment of macrophages, CD4<sup>+</sup> and CD8<sup>+</sup> T-cell subsets in both spleen and lungs of CpG-ODN treated embryos and chicks. Macrophages in spleen and lungs showed an upregulation of CD40 but not CD86, whereas thymocytes revealed significantly high CD4 and CD8 expression. Overall, the present study has demonstrated that CpG-ODN provides protection in neonatal chicks against E. coli infection not only by eliciting cytokine responses and stimulating immune cells but also through enriching immunological niches in spleen and lungs.
83 schema:genre research_article
84 schema:inLanguage en
85 schema:isAccessibleForFree true
86 schema:isPartOf N394a3a16e48744dfa4e7f2139df0fe6e
87 Nddfa844d1f0f4cb8a050fb563f206871
88 sg:journal.1045337
89 schema:name Synthetic CpG-ODN rapidly enriches immune compartments in neonatal chicks to induce protective immunity against bacterial infections
90 schema:pagination 341
91 schema:productId N4009bcc669904c45be8439a6b7992115
92 N42312438e8354c448b89eb3502c67ff7
93 N5644af65fc0c4ab882cc835635f61122
94 N88dbc052bfa5470d8c15db6a03662f78
95 Nfd855007fab242b696f0a2ce4a9db49c
96 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1111621476
97 https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-36588-6
98 schema:sdDatePublished 2019-04-11T08:58
99 schema:sdLicense https://scigraph.springernature.com/explorer/license/
100 schema:sdPublisher Nae14e6552f5f4b91b4a128eb1540b946
101 schema:url https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-018-36588-6
102 sgo:license sg:explorer/license/
103 sgo:sdDataset articles
104 rdf:type schema:ScholarlyArticle
105 N053529e8a35747c98f25dc6123a7170e rdf:first sg:person.014030342615.47
106 rdf:rest N212660391d5b4f10a124e72e8ba8102f
107 N15204408455b40e1aac0978473163c86 rdf:first sg:person.01110142247.09
108 rdf:rest Ncc434eaac6cb45c8a3e1d64f5c91c212
109 N212660391d5b4f10a124e72e8ba8102f rdf:first sg:person.01272504047.25
110 rdf:rest N37a35b3892ac43d5bae2469653345e48
111 N37a35b3892ac43d5bae2469653345e48 rdf:first sg:person.012112642073.03
112 rdf:rest Nd7ea4fa83ee04ba7977b19e8942cda9d
113 N394a3a16e48744dfa4e7f2139df0fe6e schema:volumeNumber 9
114 rdf:type schema:PublicationVolume
115 N4009bcc669904c45be8439a6b7992115 schema:name doi
116 schema:value 10.1038/s41598-018-36588-6
117 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
118 N42312438e8354c448b89eb3502c67ff7 schema:name nlm_unique_id
119 schema:value 101563288
120 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
121 N5644af65fc0c4ab882cc835635f61122 schema:name readcube_id
122 schema:value 634409a76db00306d6771f519a0eec772b364c302502e4fd897c0807416c4a5f
123 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
124 N8703fe2453184f65b28f4a4bd70d92b2 rdf:first sg:person.01177403660.21
125 rdf:rest rdf:nil
126 N88dbc052bfa5470d8c15db6a03662f78 schema:name dimensions_id
127 schema:value pub.1111621476
128 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
129 N932019b9287e44338ce373a13487008e rdf:first sg:person.01072441273.30
130 rdf:rest Nfea7810e0508464b86918ae71756918a
131 Nae14e6552f5f4b91b4a128eb1540b946 schema:name Springer Nature - SN SciGraph project
132 rdf:type schema:Organization
133 Nb3f7a1d89a92465a9d311777d867bc2d rdf:first sg:person.013232762215.01
134 rdf:rest Nb62a412e9d8d462f81b7c38737db8394
135 Nb62a412e9d8d462f81b7c38737db8394 rdf:first sg:person.01061145766.96
136 rdf:rest N932019b9287e44338ce373a13487008e
137 Ncc434eaac6cb45c8a3e1d64f5c91c212 rdf:first sg:person.0615411674.38
138 rdf:rest N053529e8a35747c98f25dc6123a7170e
139 Nd7ea4fa83ee04ba7977b19e8942cda9d rdf:first sg:person.015540616530.56
140 rdf:rest Nb3f7a1d89a92465a9d311777d867bc2d
141 Nddfa844d1f0f4cb8a050fb563f206871 schema:issueNumber 1
142 rdf:type schema:PublicationIssue
143 Nef67c62d4b0c4d338769a63200f28797 rdf:first sg:person.0723404236.16
144 rdf:rest N8703fe2453184f65b28f4a4bd70d92b2
145 Nfd855007fab242b696f0a2ce4a9db49c schema:name pubmed_id
146 schema:value 30674918
147 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
148 Nfea7810e0508464b86918ae71756918a rdf:first sg:person.0611652263.30
149 rdf:rest Nef67c62d4b0c4d338769a63200f28797
150 anzsrc-for:11 schema:inDefinedTermSet anzsrc-for:
151 schema:name Medical and Health Sciences
152 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
153 anzsrc-for:1107 schema:inDefinedTermSet anzsrc-for:
154 schema:name Immunology
155 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
156 sg:journal.1045337 schema:issn 2045-2322
157 schema:name Scientific Reports
158 rdf:type schema:Periodical
159 sg:person.01061145766.96 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.25152.31
160 schema:familyName Lockerbie
161 schema:givenName Betty
162 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01061145766.96
163 rdf:type schema:Person
164 sg:person.01072441273.30 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.46078.3d
165 schema:familyName Foldvari
166 schema:givenName Marianna
167 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01072441273.30
168 rdf:type schema:Person
169 sg:person.01110142247.09 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.25152.31
170 schema:familyName Gunawardana
171 schema:givenName Thushari
172 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01110142247.09
173 rdf:type schema:Person
174 sg:person.01177403660.21 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.25152.31
175 schema:familyName Gomis
176 schema:givenName Susantha
177 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01177403660.21
178 rdf:type schema:Person
179 sg:person.012112642073.03 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.25152.31
180 schema:familyName Kurukulasuriya
181 schema:givenName Shanika
182 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.012112642073.03
183 rdf:type schema:Person
184 sg:person.01272504047.25 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.25152.31
185 schema:familyName Popowich
186 schema:givenName Shelly
187 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01272504047.25
188 rdf:type schema:Person
189 sg:person.013232762215.01 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.25152.31
190 schema:familyName Gupta
191 schema:givenName Ashish
192 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.013232762215.01
193 rdf:type schema:Person
194 sg:person.014030342615.47 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.25152.31
195 schema:familyName Goonewardene
196 schema:givenName Kalhari
197 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.014030342615.47
198 rdf:type schema:Person
199 sg:person.015540616530.56 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.25152.31
200 schema:familyName Karunarathna
201 schema:givenName Ruwani
202 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.015540616530.56
203 rdf:type schema:Person
204 sg:person.0611652263.30 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.25152.31
205 schema:familyName Tikoo
206 schema:givenName Suresh K.
207 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0611652263.30
208 rdf:type schema:Person
209 sg:person.0615411674.38 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.25152.31
210 schema:familyName Ahmed
211 schema:givenName Khawaja Ashfaque
212 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0615411674.38
213 rdf:type schema:Person
214 sg:person.0723404236.16 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.25152.31
215 schema:familyName Willson
216 schema:givenName Philip
217 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0723404236.16
218 rdf:type schema:Person
219 sg:pub.10.1007/978-1-4939-3389-1_20 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1024349534
220 https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4939-3389-1_20
221 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
222 sg:pub.10.1007/s00441-010-1026-0 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1026693585
223 https://doi.org/10.1007/s00441-010-1026-0
224 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
225 sg:pub.10.1038/31002 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1003087371
226 https://doi.org/10.1038/31002
227 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
228 sg:pub.10.1038/ni1004-971 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1021225905
229 https://doi.org/10.1038/ni1004-971
230 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
231 sg:pub.10.1038/nri.2017.103 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1092066057
232 https://doi.org/10.1038/nri.2017.103
233 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
234 sg:pub.10.1046/j.1523-1747.1999.00785.x schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1011431569
235 https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1523-1747.1999.00785.x
236 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
237 sg:pub.10.1186/1472-6750-11-88 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1012993255
238 https://doi.org/10.1186/1472-6750-11-88
239 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
240 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1074355416 schema:CreativeWork
241 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1078640559 schema:CreativeWork
242 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1083312099 schema:CreativeWork
243 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1083343959 schema:CreativeWork
244 https://doi.org/10.1002/1521-4141(200010)30:10<3057::aid-immu3057>3.0.co;2-p schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1053191193
245 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
246 https://doi.org/10.1002/path.2287 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1040572238
247 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
248 https://doi.org/10.1016/0021-9150(94)05503-b schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1002097966
249 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
250 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.antiviral.2010.11.013 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1043761239
251 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
252 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2009.12.055 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1040568871
253 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
254 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dci.2008.02.007 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1010609779
255 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
256 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dci.2016.03.008 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1035790773
257 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
258 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.febslet.2005.04.087 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1018324032
259 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
260 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.femsim.2004.07.009 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1021327467
261 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
262 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.intimp.2008.05.010 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1044102148
263 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
264 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.it.2011.01.003 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1006280399
265 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
266 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.molimm.2009.06.002 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1019994806
267 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
268 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.msec.2016.03.045 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1005941205
269 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
270 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2015.10.072 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1002227137
271 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
272 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2017.01.005 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1051287755
273 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
274 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2017.03.075 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1084535627
275 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
276 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2017.11.073 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1099690810
277 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
278 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vetimm.2003.10.001 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1034666827
279 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
280 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vetimm.2007.03.002 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1033270765
281 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
282 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vetimm.2008.10.001 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1014382350
283 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
284 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vetimm.2011.09.004 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1014233030
285 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
286 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vetimm.2014.05.004 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1028920131
287 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
288 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vetimm.2014.12.005 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1049519719
289 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
290 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vetimm.2016.04.002 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1012936435
291 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
292 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.11.010 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1092650768
293 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
294 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0145-305x(03)00079-x schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1016169332
295 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
296 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0898-6568(03)00100-1 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1021051983
297 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
298 https://doi.org/10.1053/gast.2000.8538 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1009793263
299 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
300 https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0902745106 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1040518882
301 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
302 https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1305273110 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1024349554
303 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
304 https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.89.11.4864 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1015449908
305 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
306 https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.94.20.10833 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1045773718
307 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
308 https://doi.org/10.1086/317513 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1018929039
309 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
310 https://doi.org/10.1089/jir.1998.18.407 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1059280502
311 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
312 https://doi.org/10.1093/intimm/dxl007 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1029372528
313 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
314 https://doi.org/10.1111/1348-0421.12487 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1085120367
315 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
316 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0609.1999.tb01850.x schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1042103427
317 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
318 https://doi.org/10.1128/iai.00316-13 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1009843863
319 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
320 https://doi.org/10.1128/iai.71.12.7014-7022.2003 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1040547280
321 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
322 https://doi.org/10.1128/iai.71.2.857-863.2003 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1017140390
323 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
324 https://doi.org/10.1128/iai.72.6.3543-3548.2004 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1045389532
325 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
326 https://doi.org/10.1128/iai.74.2.1442-1444.2006 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1051850935
327 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
328 https://doi.org/10.1128/jvi.77.21.11471-11479.2003 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1030868801
329 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
330 https://doi.org/10.1177/1087057105277414 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1000703814
331 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
332 https://doi.org/10.1182/blood-2002-02-0401 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1031023232
333 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
334 https://doi.org/10.1189/jlb.2hi0215-049rr schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1000928176
335 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
336 https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0043381 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1004390339
337 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
338 https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0105713 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1042407983
339 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
340 https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0169154 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1067096401
341 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
342 https://doi.org/10.1586/erv.10.174 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1016917318
343 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
344 https://doi.org/10.1634/stemcells.22-6-1085 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1027418319
345 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
346 https://doi.org/10.1637/0005-2086(2007)051[0078:pocaal]2.0.co;2 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1068165505
347 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
348 https://doi.org/10.1637/10832-032814-reg schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1026196311
349 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
350 https://doi.org/10.1637/11684-060617-reg.1 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1100434979
351 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
352 https://doi.org/10.1637/7154-010704r schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1068166215
353 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
354 https://doi.org/10.1637/7194-041204r schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1068166243
355 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
356 https://doi.org/10.1637/8196-121907-reg schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1068166602
357 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
358 https://doi.org/10.2147/ijn.s114477 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1004438774
359 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
360 https://doi.org/10.2174/138161206777947542 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1069165946
361 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
362 https://doi.org/10.2174/156720109787048221 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1069186580
363 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
364 https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines3020390 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1035929116
365 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
366 https://doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.0901921 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1078166439
367 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
368 https://doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.164.3.1617 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1074578446
369 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
370 https://doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.171.4.1809 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1075327709
371 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
372 https://doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.176.8.4902 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1077217038
373 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
374 https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.25152.31 schema:alternateName University of Saskatchewan
375 schema:name Canadian Centre for Health and Safety in Agriculture, University of Saskatchewan, S7N 5E5, Saskatoon, SK, Canada
376 Department of Veterinary Pathology, Western College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, S7N 5B4, Saskatoon, SK, Canada
377 Vaccinology and Immunotherapy, School of Public Health, University of Saskatchewan, S7N 5E3, Saskatoon, SK, Canada
378 rdf:type schema:Organization
379 https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.46078.3d schema:alternateName University of Waterloo
380 schema:name School of Pharmacy, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, N2L 3G1, Waterloo, ON, Canada
381 rdf:type schema:Organization
 




Preview window. Press ESC to close (or click here)


...