Polygenic and clinical risk scores and their impact on age at onset and prediction of cardiometabolic diseases and common cancers View Full Text


Ontology type: schema:ScholarlyArticle      Open Access: True


Article Info

DATE

2020-04-07

AUTHORS

Aarno Palotie, Mark Daly, Howard Jacob, Athena Matakidou, Heiko Runz, Sally John, Robert Plenge, Mark McCarthy, Julie Hunkapiller, Meg Ehm, Dawn Waterworth, Caroline Fox, Anders Malarstig, Kathy Klinger, Kathy Call, Tomi Mäkelä, Jaakko Kaprio, Petri Virolainen, Kari Pulkki, Terhi Kilpi, Markus Perola, Jukka Partanen, Anne Pitkäranta, Riitta Kaarteenaho, Seppo Vainio, Kimmo Savinainen, Veli-Matti Kosma, Urho Kujala, Outi Tuovila, Minna Hendolin, Raimo Pakkanen, Jeff Waring, Bridget Riley-Gillis, Athena Matakidou, Heiko Runz, Jimmy Liu, Shameek Biswas, Julie Hunkapiller, Dawn Waterworth, Meg Ehm, Dorothee Diogo, Caroline Fox, Anders Malarstig, Catherine Marshall, Xinli Hu, Kathy Call, Kathy Klinger, Matthias Gossel, Samuli Ripatti, Johanna Schleutker, Markus Perola, Mikko Arvas, Olli Carpen, Reetta Hinttala, Johannes Kettunen, Reijo Laaksonen, Arto Mannermaa, Juha Paloneva, Urho Kujala, Outi Tuovila, Minna Hendolin, Raimo Pakkanen

ABSTRACT

Polygenic risk scores (PRSs) have shown promise in predicting susceptibility to common diseases1–3. We estimated their added value in clinical risk prediction of five common diseases, using large-scale biobank data (FinnGen; n = 135,300) and the FINRISK study with clinical risk factors to test genome-wide PRSs for coronary heart disease, type 2 diabetes, atrial fibrillation, breast cancer and prostate cancer. We evaluated the lifetime risk at different PRS levels, and the impact on disease onset and on prediction together with clinical risk scores. Compared to having an average PRS, having a high PRS contributed 21% to 38% higher lifetime risk, and 4 to 9 years earlier disease onset. PRSs improved model discrimination over age and sex in type 2 diabetes, atrial fibrillation, breast cancer and prostate cancer, and over clinical risk in type 2 diabetes, breast cancer and prostate cancer. In all diseases, PRSs improved reclassification over clinical thresholds, with the largest net reclassification improvements for early-onset coronary heart disease, atrial fibrillation and prostate cancer. This study provides evidence for the additional value of PRSs in clinical disease prediction. The practical applications of polygenic risk information for stratified screening or for guiding lifestyle and medical interventions in the clinical setting remain to be defined in further studies. More... »

PAGES

549-557

References to SciGraph publications

  • 2017-10-23. Association analysis identifies 65 new breast cancer risk loci in NATURE
  • 1998-06. A Simplified Method of Calculating an Overall Goodness-of-Fit Test for the Cox Proportional Hazards Model in LIFETIME DATA ANALYSIS
  • 2018-08-13. Genome-wide polygenic scores for common diseases identify individuals with risk equivalent to monogenic mutations in NATURE GENETICS
  • 2018-05-22. The personal and clinical utility of polygenic risk scores in NATURE REVIEWS GENETICS
  • 2019-01-15. BOADICEA: a comprehensive breast cancer risk prediction model incorporating genetic and nongenetic risk factors in GENETICS IN MEDICINE
  • 2018-06-11. Association analyses of more than 140,000 men identify 63 new prostate cancer susceptibility loci in NATURE GENETICS
  • 2017-02-07. Painting a new picture of personalised medicine for diabetes in DIABETOLOGIA
  • 2019-03-29. Clinical use of current polygenic risk scores may exacerbate health disparities in NATURE GENETICS
  • 2018-08-13. Efficiently controlling for case-control imbalance and sample relatedness in large-scale genetic association studies in NATURE GENETICS
  • 2018-10-08. Fine-mapping type 2 diabetes loci to single-variant resolution using high-density imputation and islet-specific epigenome maps in NATURE GENETICS
  • 2016-05-03. Developing and evaluating polygenic risk prediction models for stratified disease prevention in NATURE REVIEWS GENETICS
  • 2020-01-21. Genomic prediction of alcohol-related morbidity and mortality in TRANSLATIONAL PSYCHIATRY
  • 2017-12-11. Genetic architecture: the shape of the genetic contribution to human traits and disease in NATURE REVIEWS GENETICS
  • 2013-12-07. Restricted mean survival time: an alternative to the hazard ratio for the design and analysis of randomized trials with a time-to-event outcome in BMC MEDICAL RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
  • 2018-07-30. Biobank-driven genomic discovery yields new insight into atrial fibrillation biology in NATURE GENETICS
  • Journal

    TITLE

    Nature Medicine

    ISSUE

    4

    VOLUME

    26

    Identifiers

    URI

    http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1038/s41591-020-0800-0

    DOI

    http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41591-020-0800-0

    DIMENSIONS

    https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1126385870

    PUBMED

    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32273609


    Indexing Status Check whether this publication has been indexed by Scopus and Web Of Science using the SN Indexing Status Tool
    Incoming Citations Browse incoming citations for this publication using opencitations.net

    JSON-LD is the canonical representation for SciGraph data.

    TIP: You can open this SciGraph record using an external JSON-LD service: JSON-LD Playground Google SDTT

    [
      {
        "@context": "https://springernature.github.io/scigraph/jsonld/sgcontext.json", 
        "about": [
          {
            "id": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/11", 
            "inDefinedTermSet": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/", 
            "name": "Medical and Health Sciences", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/1117", 
            "inDefinedTermSet": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/", 
            "name": "Public Health and Health Services", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Adult", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Age of Onset", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Biomarkers", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Breast Neoplasms", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Cardiovascular Diseases", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Case-Control Studies", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Female", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Finland", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Genetic Markers", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Genetic Predisposition to Disease", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Genome-Wide Association Study", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Humans", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Male", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Metabolic Diseases", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Middle Aged", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Multifactorial Inheritance", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Neoplasms", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Predictive Value of Tests", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Prognosis", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Prostatic Neoplasms", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Risk Assessment", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Risk Factors", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Young Adult", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }
        ], 
        "author": [
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "Institute for Molecular Medicine Finland, HiLIFE, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland", 
              "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.452494.a", 
              "name": [
                "Institute for Molecular Medicine Finland, HiLIFE, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Palotie", 
            "givenName": "Aarno", 
            "id": "sg:person.01104742263.37", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01104742263.37"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "Institute for Molecular Medicine Finland, HiLIFE, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland", 
              "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.452494.a", 
              "name": [
                "Institute for Molecular Medicine Finland, HiLIFE, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Daly", 
            "givenName": "Mark", 
            "id": "sg:person.011517303117.07", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.011517303117.07"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "Abbvie, Chicago, IL, USA", 
              "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.431072.3", 
              "name": [
                "Abbvie, Chicago, IL, USA"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Jacob", 
            "givenName": "Howard", 
            "id": "sg:person.014375053117.13", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.014375053117.13"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "Astra Zeneca, Cambridge, UK", 
              "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.417815.e", 
              "name": [
                "Astra Zeneca, Cambridge, UK"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Matakidou", 
            "givenName": "Athena", 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "Biogen, Cambridge, MA, USA", 
              "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.417832.b", 
              "name": [
                "Biogen, Cambridge, MA, USA"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Runz", 
            "givenName": "Heiko", 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "Biogen, Cambridge, MA, USA", 
              "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.417832.b", 
              "name": [
                "Biogen, Cambridge, MA, USA"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "John", 
            "givenName": "Sally", 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "Celgene, Summit, NJ, USA", 
              "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.419971.3", 
              "name": [
                "Celgene, Summit, NJ, USA"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Plenge", 
            "givenName": "Robert", 
            "id": "sg:person.0644634524.80", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0644634524.80"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "Genentech, San Francisco, CA, USA", 
              "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.418158.1", 
              "name": [
                "Genentech, San Francisco, CA, USA"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "McCarthy", 
            "givenName": "Mark", 
            "id": "sg:person.016704245502.43", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.016704245502.43"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "Genentech, San Francisco, CA, USA", 
              "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.418158.1", 
              "name": [
                "Genentech, San Francisco, CA, USA"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Hunkapiller", 
            "givenName": "Julie", 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "GlaxoSmithKline, Brentford, UK", 
              "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.418236.a", 
              "name": [
                "GlaxoSmithKline, Brentford, UK"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Ehm", 
            "givenName": "Meg", 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "GlaxoSmithKline, Brentford, UK", 
              "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.418236.a", 
              "name": [
                "GlaxoSmithKline, Brentford, UK"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Waterworth", 
            "givenName": "Dawn", 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "Merck, Kenilworth, NJ, USA", 
              "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.417993.1", 
              "name": [
                "Merck, Kenilworth, NJ, USA"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Fox", 
            "givenName": "Caroline", 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "Pfizer, New York, NY, USA", 
              "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.410513.2", 
              "name": [
                "Pfizer, New York, NY, USA"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Malarstig", 
            "givenName": "Anders", 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "Sanofi, Paris, France", 
              "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.417924.d", 
              "name": [
                "Sanofi, Paris, France"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Klinger", 
            "givenName": "Kathy", 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "Sanofi, Paris, France", 
              "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.417924.d", 
              "name": [
                "Sanofi, Paris, France"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Call", 
            "givenName": "Kathy", 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "HiLIFE, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland", 
              "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.7737.4", 
              "name": [
                "HiLIFE, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "M\u00e4kel\u00e4", 
            "givenName": "Tomi", 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "Institute for Molecular Medicine Finland, HiLIFE, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland", 
              "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.452494.a", 
              "name": [
                "Institute for Molecular Medicine Finland, HiLIFE, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Kaprio", 
            "givenName": "Jaakko", 
            "id": "sg:person.015767231737.16", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.015767231737.16"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "Auria Biobank, Univ. of Turku, Hospital District of Southwest Finland, Turku, Finland", 
              "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.1374.1", 
              "name": [
                "Auria Biobank, Univ. of Turku, Hospital District of Southwest Finland, Turku, Finland"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Virolainen", 
            "givenName": "Petri", 
            "id": "sg:person.0722020653.61", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0722020653.61"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "Auria Biobank, Univ. of Turku, Hospital District of Southwest Finland, Turku, Finland", 
              "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.1374.1", 
              "name": [
                "Auria Biobank, Univ. of Turku, Hospital District of Southwest Finland, Turku, Finland"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Pulkki", 
            "givenName": "Kari", 
            "id": "sg:person.01267721567.12", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01267721567.12"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "THL Biobank, Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland", 
              "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.14758.3f", 
              "name": [
                "THL Biobank, Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Kilpi", 
            "givenName": "Terhi", 
            "id": "sg:person.0633117265.14", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0633117265.14"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "THL Biobank, Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland", 
              "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.14758.3f", 
              "name": [
                "THL Biobank, Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Perola", 
            "givenName": "Markus", 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "Finnish Red Cross Blood Service, Finnish Hematology Registry and Clinical Biobank, Helsinki, Finland", 
              "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.452433.7", 
              "name": [
                "Finnish Red Cross Blood Service, Finnish Hematology Registry and Clinical Biobank, Helsinki, Finland"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Partanen", 
            "givenName": "Jukka", 
            "id": "sg:person.013314322262.47", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.013314322262.47"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "Hospital District of Helsinki and Uusimaa, Helsinki, Finland", 
              "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.424664.6", 
              "name": [
                "Hospital District of Helsinki and Uusimaa, Helsinki, Finland"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Pitk\u00e4ranta", 
            "givenName": "Anne", 
            "id": "sg:person.0612457525.57", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0612457525.57"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "Northern Finland Biobank Borealis, University of Oulu, Northern Ostrobothnia Hospital District, Oulu, Finland", 
              "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.10858.34", 
              "name": [
                "Northern Finland Biobank Borealis, University of Oulu, Northern Ostrobothnia Hospital District, Oulu, Finland"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Kaarteenaho", 
            "givenName": "Riitta", 
            "id": "sg:person.01064727340.82", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01064727340.82"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "Northern Finland Biobank Borealis, University of Oulu, Northern Ostrobothnia Hospital District, Oulu, Finland", 
              "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.10858.34", 
              "name": [
                "Northern Finland Biobank Borealis, University of Oulu, Northern Ostrobothnia Hospital District, Oulu, Finland"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Vainio", 
            "givenName": "Seppo", 
            "id": "sg:person.01104210067.27", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01104210067.27"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "Finnish Clinical Biobank Tampere, University of Tampere, Pirkanmaa Hospital District, Tampere, Finland", 
              "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.502801.e", 
              "name": [
                "Finnish Clinical Biobank Tampere, University of Tampere, Pirkanmaa Hospital District, Tampere, Finland"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Savinainen", 
            "givenName": "Kimmo", 
            "id": "sg:person.0672702604.86", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0672702604.86"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "Biobank of Eastern Finland, University of Eastern Finland, Northern Savo Hospital District, Kuopio, Finland", 
              "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.9668.1", 
              "name": [
                "Biobank of Eastern Finland, University of Eastern Finland, Northern Savo Hospital District, Kuopio, Finland"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Kosma", 
            "givenName": "Veli-Matti", 
            "id": "sg:person.01240233274.17", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01240233274.17"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "Central Finland Biobank, University of Jyv\u00e4skyl\u00e4, Central Finland Health Care District, Jyv\u00e4skyl\u00e4, Finland", 
              "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/None", 
              "name": [
                "Central Finland Biobank, University of Jyv\u00e4skyl\u00e4, Central Finland Health Care District, Jyv\u00e4skyl\u00e4, Finland"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Kujala", 
            "givenName": "Urho", 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "Business Finland, Helsinki, Finland", 
              "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.511030.6", 
              "name": [
                "Business Finland, Helsinki, Finland"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Tuovila", 
            "givenName": "Outi", 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "Business Finland, Helsinki, Finland", 
              "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.511030.6", 
              "name": [
                "Business Finland, Helsinki, Finland"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Hendolin", 
            "givenName": "Minna", 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "Business Finland, Helsinki, Finland", 
              "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.511030.6", 
              "name": [
                "Business Finland, Helsinki, Finland"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Pakkanen", 
            "givenName": "Raimo", 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "Abbvie, Chicago, IL, USA", 
              "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.431072.3", 
              "name": [
                "Abbvie, Chicago, IL, USA"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Waring", 
            "givenName": "Jeff", 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "Abbvie, Chicago, IL, USA", 
              "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.431072.3", 
              "name": [
                "Abbvie, Chicago, IL, USA"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Riley-Gillis", 
            "givenName": "Bridget", 
            "id": "sg:person.0610205573.15", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0610205573.15"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "Astra Zeneca, Cambridge, UK", 
              "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.417815.e", 
              "name": [
                "Astra Zeneca, Cambridge, UK"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Matakidou", 
            "givenName": "Athena", 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "Biogen, Cambridge, MA, USA", 
              "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.417832.b", 
              "name": [
                "Biogen, Cambridge, MA, USA"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Runz", 
            "givenName": "Heiko", 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "Biogen, Cambridge, MA, USA", 
              "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.417832.b", 
              "name": [
                "Biogen, Cambridge, MA, USA"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Liu", 
            "givenName": "Jimmy", 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "Celgene, Summit, NJ, USA", 
              "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.419971.3", 
              "name": [
                "Celgene, Summit, NJ, USA"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Biswas", 
            "givenName": "Shameek", 
            "id": "sg:person.01120067124.75", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01120067124.75"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "Genentech, San Francisco, CA, USA", 
              "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.418158.1", 
              "name": [
                "Genentech, San Francisco, CA, USA"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Hunkapiller", 
            "givenName": "Julie", 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "GlaxoSmithKline, Brentford, UK", 
              "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.418236.a", 
              "name": [
                "GlaxoSmithKline, Brentford, UK"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Waterworth", 
            "givenName": "Dawn", 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "GlaxoSmithKline, Brentford, UK", 
              "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.418236.a", 
              "name": [
                "GlaxoSmithKline, Brentford, UK"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Ehm", 
            "givenName": "Meg", 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "Merck, Kenilworth, NJ, USA", 
              "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.417993.1", 
              "name": [
                "Merck, Kenilworth, NJ, USA"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Diogo", 
            "givenName": "Dorothee", 
            "id": "sg:person.01147661557.40", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01147661557.40"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "Merck, Kenilworth, NJ, USA", 
              "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.417993.1", 
              "name": [
                "Merck, Kenilworth, NJ, USA"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Fox", 
            "givenName": "Caroline", 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "Pfizer, New York, NY, USA", 
              "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.410513.2", 
              "name": [
                "Pfizer, New York, NY, USA"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Malarstig", 
            "givenName": "Anders", 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "Pfizer, New York, NY, USA", 
              "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.410513.2", 
              "name": [
                "Pfizer, New York, NY, USA"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Marshall", 
            "givenName": "Catherine", 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "Pfizer, New York, NY, USA", 
              "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.410513.2", 
              "name": [
                "Pfizer, New York, NY, USA"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Hu", 
            "givenName": "Xinli", 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "Sanofi, Paris, France", 
              "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.417924.d", 
              "name": [
                "Sanofi, Paris, France"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Call", 
            "givenName": "Kathy", 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "Sanofi, Paris, France", 
              "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.417924.d", 
              "name": [
                "Sanofi, Paris, France"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Klinger", 
            "givenName": "Kathy", 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "Sanofi, Paris, France", 
              "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.417924.d", 
              "name": [
                "Sanofi, Paris, France"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Gossel", 
            "givenName": "Matthias", 
            "id": "sg:person.013011614317.60", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.013011614317.60"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "Institute for Molecular Medicine Finland, HiLIFE, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland", 
              "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.452494.a", 
              "name": [
                "Institute for Molecular Medicine Finland, HiLIFE, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Ripatti", 
            "givenName": "Samuli", 
            "id": "sg:person.01074100021.48", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01074100021.48"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "Auria Biobank, Univ. of Turku, Hospital District of Southwest Finland, Turku, Finland", 
              "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.1374.1", 
              "name": [
                "Auria Biobank, Univ. of Turku, Hospital District of Southwest Finland, Turku, Finland"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Schleutker", 
            "givenName": "Johanna", 
            "id": "sg:person.0735116427.86", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0735116427.86"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "THL Biobank, Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland", 
              "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.14758.3f", 
              "name": [
                "THL Biobank, Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Perola", 
            "givenName": "Markus", 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "Finnish Red Cross Blood Service, Finnish Hematology Registry and Clinical Biobank, Helsinki, Finland", 
              "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.452433.7", 
              "name": [
                "Finnish Red Cross Blood Service, Finnish Hematology Registry and Clinical Biobank, Helsinki, Finland"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Arvas", 
            "givenName": "Mikko", 
            "id": "sg:person.0712733524.07", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0712733524.07"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "Hospital District of Helsinki and Uusimaa, Helsinki, Finland", 
              "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.424664.6", 
              "name": [
                "Hospital District of Helsinki and Uusimaa, Helsinki, Finland"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Carpen", 
            "givenName": "Olli", 
            "id": "sg:person.01345057137.09", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01345057137.09"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "Northern Finland Biobank Borealis, University of Oulu, Northern Ostrobothnia Hospital District, Oulu, Finland", 
              "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.10858.34", 
              "name": [
                "Northern Finland Biobank Borealis, University of Oulu, Northern Ostrobothnia Hospital District, Oulu, Finland"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Hinttala", 
            "givenName": "Reetta", 
            "id": "sg:person.0750652023.37", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0750652023.37"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "Northern Finland Biobank Borealis, University of Oulu, Northern Ostrobothnia Hospital District, Oulu, Finland", 
              "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.10858.34", 
              "name": [
                "Northern Finland Biobank Borealis, University of Oulu, Northern Ostrobothnia Hospital District, Oulu, Finland"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Kettunen", 
            "givenName": "Johannes", 
            "id": "sg:person.012330462317.71", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.012330462317.71"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "Finnish Clinical Biobank Tampere, University of Tampere, Pirkanmaa Hospital District, Tampere, Finland", 
              "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.502801.e", 
              "name": [
                "Finnish Clinical Biobank Tampere, University of Tampere, Pirkanmaa Hospital District, Tampere, Finland"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Laaksonen", 
            "givenName": "Reijo", 
            "id": "sg:person.01276707545.24", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01276707545.24"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "Biobank of Eastern Finland, University of Eastern Finland, Northern Savo Hospital District, Kuopio, Finland", 
              "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.9668.1", 
              "name": [
                "Biobank of Eastern Finland, University of Eastern Finland, Northern Savo Hospital District, Kuopio, Finland"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Mannermaa", 
            "givenName": "Arto", 
            "id": "sg:person.01247663165.54", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01247663165.54"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "Central Finland Biobank, University of Jyv\u00e4skyl\u00e4, Central Finland Health Care District, Jyv\u00e4skyl\u00e4, Finland", 
              "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/None", 
              "name": [
                "Central Finland Biobank, University of Jyv\u00e4skyl\u00e4, Central Finland Health Care District, Jyv\u00e4skyl\u00e4, Finland"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Paloneva", 
            "givenName": "Juha", 
            "id": "sg:person.01056115360.19", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01056115360.19"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "Central Finland Biobank, University of Jyv\u00e4skyl\u00e4, Central Finland Health Care District, Jyv\u00e4skyl\u00e4, Finland", 
              "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/None", 
              "name": [
                "Central Finland Biobank, University of Jyv\u00e4skyl\u00e4, Central Finland Health Care District, Jyv\u00e4skyl\u00e4, Finland"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Kujala", 
            "givenName": "Urho", 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "Business Finland, Helsinki, Finland", 
              "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.511030.6", 
              "name": [
                "Business Finland, Helsinki, Finland"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Tuovila", 
            "givenName": "Outi", 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "Business Finland, Helsinki, Finland", 
              "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.511030.6", 
              "name": [
                "Business Finland, Helsinki, Finland"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Hendolin", 
            "givenName": "Minna", 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "Business Finland, Helsinki, Finland", 
              "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.511030.6", 
              "name": [
                "Business Finland, Helsinki, Finland"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Pakkanen", 
            "givenName": "Raimo", 
            "type": "Person"
          }
        ], 
        "citation": [
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/s41588-018-0184-y", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1106070347", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/s41588-018-0184-y"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/s41436-018-0406-9", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1111333416", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/s41436-018-0406-9"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/s00125-017-4210-x", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1083698190", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/s00125-017-4210-x"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1186/1471-2288-13-152", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1042461669", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2288-13-152"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/s41588-019-0379-x", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1113054547", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/s41588-019-0379-x"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/nrg.2017.101", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1099637369", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/nrg.2017.101"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/s41576-018-0018-x", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1104132099", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/s41576-018-0018-x"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/s41398-019-0676-2", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1124914323", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/s41398-019-0676-2"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/nature24284", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1092349555", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/nature24284"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1023/a:1009612305785", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1018550313", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1023/a:1009612305785"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/s41588-018-0241-6", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1107353303", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/s41588-018-0241-6"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/s41588-018-0142-8", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1104478461", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/s41588-018-0142-8"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/s41588-018-0183-z", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1106070346", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/s41588-018-0183-z"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/nrg.2016.27", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1016127632", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/nrg.2016.27"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/s41588-018-0171-3", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1105858690", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/s41588-018-0171-3"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }
        ], 
        "datePublished": "2020-04-07", 
        "datePublishedReg": "2020-04-07", 
        "description": "Polygenic risk scores (PRSs) have shown promise in predicting susceptibility to common diseases1\u20133. We estimated their added value in clinical risk prediction of five common diseases, using large-scale biobank data (FinnGen; n\u2009=\u2009135,300) and the FINRISK study with clinical risk factors to test genome-wide PRSs for coronary heart disease, type 2 diabetes, atrial fibrillation, breast cancer and prostate cancer. We evaluated the lifetime risk at different PRS levels, and the impact on disease onset and on prediction together with clinical risk scores. Compared to having an average PRS, having a high PRS contributed 21% to 38% higher lifetime risk, and 4 to 9 years earlier disease onset. PRSs improved model discrimination over age and sex in type 2 diabetes, atrial fibrillation, breast cancer and prostate cancer, and over clinical risk in type 2 diabetes, breast cancer and prostate cancer. In all diseases, PRSs improved reclassification over clinical thresholds, with the largest net reclassification improvements for early-onset coronary heart disease, atrial fibrillation and prostate cancer. This study provides evidence for the additional value of PRSs in clinical disease prediction. The practical applications of polygenic risk information for stratified screening or for guiding lifestyle and medical interventions in the clinical setting remain to be defined in further studies.", 
        "genre": "article", 
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/s41591-020-0800-0", 
        "isAccessibleForFree": true, 
        "isFundedItemOf": [
          {
            "id": "sg:grant.8842628", 
            "type": "MonetaryGrant"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:grant.4250762", 
            "type": "MonetaryGrant"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:grant.5050713", 
            "type": "MonetaryGrant"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:grant.8844587", 
            "type": "MonetaryGrant"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:grant.8839135", 
            "type": "MonetaryGrant"
          }
        ], 
        "isPartOf": [
          {
            "id": "sg:journal.1113716", 
            "issn": [
              "1078-8956", 
              "1546-170X"
            ], 
            "name": "Nature Medicine", 
            "publisher": "Springer Nature", 
            "type": "Periodical"
          }, 
          {
            "issueNumber": "4", 
            "type": "PublicationIssue"
          }, 
          {
            "type": "PublicationVolume", 
            "volumeNumber": "26"
          }
        ], 
        "keywords": [
          "type 2 diabetes", 
          "clinical risk score", 
          "coronary heart disease", 
          "polygenic risk scores", 
          "prostate cancer", 
          "atrial fibrillation", 
          "breast cancer", 
          "risk score", 
          "heart disease", 
          "lifetime risk", 
          "disease onset", 
          "early-onset coronary heart disease", 
          "polygenic risk information", 
          "clinical risk factors", 
          "net reclassification improvement", 
          "genome-wide polygenic risk score", 
          "high lifetime risk", 
          "higher polygenic risk score", 
          "clinical risk prediction", 
          "PRS levels", 
          "cardiometabolic diseases", 
          "average PRS", 
          "reclassification improvement", 
          "common cancer", 
          "risk factors", 
          "clinical risk", 
          "FINRISK Study", 
          "clinical threshold", 
          "medical interventions", 
          "stratified screening", 
          "clinical setting", 
          "cancer", 
          "diabetes", 
          "common disease", 
          "disease", 
          "fibrillation", 
          "risk prediction", 
          "Further studies", 
          "scores", 
          "risk", 
          "onset", 
          "model discrimination", 
          "additional value", 
          "age", 
          "risk information", 
          "Biobank data", 
          "study", 
          "disease prediction", 
          "intervention", 
          "sex", 
          "screening", 
          "lifestyle", 
          "reclassification", 
          "years", 
          "susceptibility", 
          "setting", 
          "large-scale biobank data", 
          "evidence", 
          "factors", 
          "levels", 
          "impact", 
          "improvement", 
          "threshold", 
          "promise", 
          "data", 
          "values", 
          "discrimination", 
          "information", 
          "prediction", 
          "applications", 
          "practical applications"
        ], 
        "name": "Polygenic and clinical risk scores and their impact on age at onset and prediction of cardiometabolic diseases and common cancers", 
        "pagination": "549-557", 
        "productId": [
          {
            "name": "dimensions_id", 
            "type": "PropertyValue", 
            "value": [
              "pub.1126385870"
            ]
          }, 
          {
            "name": "doi", 
            "type": "PropertyValue", 
            "value": [
              "10.1038/s41591-020-0800-0"
            ]
          }, 
          {
            "name": "pubmed_id", 
            "type": "PropertyValue", 
            "value": [
              "32273609"
            ]
          }
        ], 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://doi.org/10.1038/s41591-020-0800-0", 
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1126385870"
        ], 
        "sdDataset": "articles", 
        "sdDatePublished": "2022-10-01T06:47", 
        "sdLicense": "https://scigraph.springernature.com/explorer/license/", 
        "sdPublisher": {
          "name": "Springer Nature - SN SciGraph project", 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "sdSource": "s3://com-springernature-scigraph/baseset/20221001/entities/gbq_results/article/article_864.jsonl", 
        "type": "ScholarlyArticle", 
        "url": "https://doi.org/10.1038/s41591-020-0800-0"
      }
    ]
     

    Download the RDF metadata as:  json-ld nt turtle xml License info

    HOW TO GET THIS DATA PROGRAMMATICALLY:

    JSON-LD is a popular format for linked data which is fully compatible with JSON.

    curl -H 'Accept: application/ld+json' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1038/s41591-020-0800-0'

    N-Triples is a line-based linked data format ideal for batch operations.

    curl -H 'Accept: application/n-triples' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1038/s41591-020-0800-0'

    Turtle is a human-readable linked data format.

    curl -H 'Accept: text/turtle' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1038/s41591-020-0800-0'

    RDF/XML is a standard XML format for linked data.

    curl -H 'Accept: application/rdf+xml' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1038/s41591-020-0800-0'


     

    This table displays all metadata directly associated to this object as RDF triples.

    752 TRIPLES      21 PREDICATES      136 URIs      113 LITERALS      32 BLANK NODES

    Subject Predicate Object
    1 sg:pub.10.1038/s41591-020-0800-0 schema:about N077bc3fb884b453983ed9676d0d3614d
    2 N098fcd95e43144d3bbd94531932e6f6c
    3 N12e7df081bef4e37b6b8a23e70fcc1a7
    4 N2634034e540f4abc986069f061fd774a
    5 N38e61d7d1448464d8dee6e2114b4ffbb
    6 N44309330826d427eb424c2f2b7f16896
    7 N4f38d7c6556a4d1298b366e4358cf1af
    8 N54cde0dfbeab431887c91a1dae567ced
    9 N58080d015a904a4b91bc965e60a11c17
    10 N597f1830cfdb4e1d987b965f00d0c138
    11 N62af82658a594393a78d247389d3f636
    12 N8d3a00bb9ffb4744bb934a527fc2cf2e
    13 N99433b8656c34b8cb31fcdd3be8eb35b
    14 N9dd2d93cbf4e4fa78f700951a857a007
    15 Na18fa3ba14cc426b8dd7a31bfbbca45a
    16 Nb3b057cb817c48f99937f39777317920
    17 Nb93fa7e6a9d74d45b9ca572c8fa5e7a1
    18 Nbb9e22b366694a839a870d0e500ef68c
    19 Nc95d687049a24d3ebab1e6ea9839ea77
    20 Nca277f39827b4f0dbbae5457c006c91b
    21 Ne8ad6a2c5ec5402c9401b8640f84733f
    22 Nea092f70e8934ee98e4bec0247e1351a
    23 Nf7bab97288b24c4cb67ad643b86a4222
    24 Nf966e227fb9245ada4f841214587cf86
    25 Nfa75e9879eef4f9099da5e83e738b100
    26 anzsrc-for:11
    27 anzsrc-for:1117
    28 schema:author N32c457886e57461ca16a42f456ecb965
    29 schema:citation sg:pub.10.1007/s00125-017-4210-x
    30 sg:pub.10.1023/a:1009612305785
    31 sg:pub.10.1038/nature24284
    32 sg:pub.10.1038/nrg.2016.27
    33 sg:pub.10.1038/nrg.2017.101
    34 sg:pub.10.1038/s41398-019-0676-2
    35 sg:pub.10.1038/s41436-018-0406-9
    36 sg:pub.10.1038/s41576-018-0018-x
    37 sg:pub.10.1038/s41588-018-0142-8
    38 sg:pub.10.1038/s41588-018-0171-3
    39 sg:pub.10.1038/s41588-018-0183-z
    40 sg:pub.10.1038/s41588-018-0184-y
    41 sg:pub.10.1038/s41588-018-0241-6
    42 sg:pub.10.1038/s41588-019-0379-x
    43 sg:pub.10.1186/1471-2288-13-152
    44 schema:datePublished 2020-04-07
    45 schema:datePublishedReg 2020-04-07
    46 schema:description Polygenic risk scores (PRSs) have shown promise in predicting susceptibility to common diseases1–3. We estimated their added value in clinical risk prediction of five common diseases, using large-scale biobank data (FinnGen; n = 135,300) and the FINRISK study with clinical risk factors to test genome-wide PRSs for coronary heart disease, type 2 diabetes, atrial fibrillation, breast cancer and prostate cancer. We evaluated the lifetime risk at different PRS levels, and the impact on disease onset and on prediction together with clinical risk scores. Compared to having an average PRS, having a high PRS contributed 21% to 38% higher lifetime risk, and 4 to 9 years earlier disease onset. PRSs improved model discrimination over age and sex in type 2 diabetes, atrial fibrillation, breast cancer and prostate cancer, and over clinical risk in type 2 diabetes, breast cancer and prostate cancer. In all diseases, PRSs improved reclassification over clinical thresholds, with the largest net reclassification improvements for early-onset coronary heart disease, atrial fibrillation and prostate cancer. This study provides evidence for the additional value of PRSs in clinical disease prediction. The practical applications of polygenic risk information for stratified screening or for guiding lifestyle and medical interventions in the clinical setting remain to be defined in further studies.
    47 schema:genre article
    48 schema:isAccessibleForFree true
    49 schema:isPartOf Nd30513ecb1824f70ae335384a29b86fb
    50 Ne07905d4190e4786a9cf478bbd42372b
    51 sg:journal.1113716
    52 schema:keywords Biobank data
    53 FINRISK Study
    54 Further studies
    55 PRS levels
    56 additional value
    57 age
    58 applications
    59 atrial fibrillation
    60 average PRS
    61 breast cancer
    62 cancer
    63 cardiometabolic diseases
    64 clinical risk
    65 clinical risk factors
    66 clinical risk prediction
    67 clinical risk score
    68 clinical setting
    69 clinical threshold
    70 common cancer
    71 common disease
    72 coronary heart disease
    73 data
    74 diabetes
    75 discrimination
    76 disease
    77 disease onset
    78 disease prediction
    79 early-onset coronary heart disease
    80 evidence
    81 factors
    82 fibrillation
    83 genome-wide polygenic risk score
    84 heart disease
    85 high lifetime risk
    86 higher polygenic risk score
    87 impact
    88 improvement
    89 information
    90 intervention
    91 large-scale biobank data
    92 levels
    93 lifestyle
    94 lifetime risk
    95 medical interventions
    96 model discrimination
    97 net reclassification improvement
    98 onset
    99 polygenic risk information
    100 polygenic risk scores
    101 practical applications
    102 prediction
    103 promise
    104 prostate cancer
    105 reclassification
    106 reclassification improvement
    107 risk
    108 risk factors
    109 risk information
    110 risk prediction
    111 risk score
    112 scores
    113 screening
    114 setting
    115 sex
    116 stratified screening
    117 study
    118 susceptibility
    119 threshold
    120 type 2 diabetes
    121 values
    122 years
    123 schema:name Polygenic and clinical risk scores and their impact on age at onset and prediction of cardiometabolic diseases and common cancers
    124 schema:pagination 549-557
    125 schema:productId N57c7a9eea7aa4eda9353498bd933acaf
    126 N836072224f8242d291c75a92e281e4d3
    127 Nfb31315bfb9a40e5925a9c93982e0b61
    128 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1126385870
    129 https://doi.org/10.1038/s41591-020-0800-0
    130 schema:sdDatePublished 2022-10-01T06:47
    131 schema:sdLicense https://scigraph.springernature.com/explorer/license/
    132 schema:sdPublisher N176b3d739a5440edb57fe58709f78578
    133 schema:url https://doi.org/10.1038/s41591-020-0800-0
    134 sgo:license sg:explorer/license/
    135 sgo:sdDataset articles
    136 rdf:type schema:ScholarlyArticle
    137 N027aff702a1347149079e4a13a7ec1f3 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.511030.6
    138 schema:familyName Pakkanen
    139 schema:givenName Raimo
    140 rdf:type schema:Person
    141 N06d69554675d4b6da455c852cff52b53 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.418236.a
    142 schema:familyName Waterworth
    143 schema:givenName Dawn
    144 rdf:type schema:Person
    145 N06ef1a7bb2254d1f94c54d24d0511005 rdf:first sg:person.0722020653.61
    146 rdf:rest Ne78876e2bd934e24bb6faffd74a8b14d
    147 N077bc3fb884b453983ed9676d0d3614d schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    148 schema:name Cardiovascular Diseases
    149 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    150 N098fcd95e43144d3bbd94531932e6f6c schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    151 schema:name Risk Assessment
    152 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    153 N0bba32c35bf044a6ae699257263687a4 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.418236.a
    154 schema:familyName Waterworth
    155 schema:givenName Dawn
    156 rdf:type schema:Person
    157 N0e57bc86d2ca4f9e9ae0e2847fc6e411 rdf:first Ndc65e6ee09cb4997b269b91200caa405
    158 rdf:rest rdf:nil
    159 N11c93a67dc0b43d985bebf8f6236450e rdf:first Naa1c9bed913e4745a97c056243afc1c6
    160 rdf:rest Nb9fe0e20716a411c97ffcdfc9cfbc341
    161 N12e7df081bef4e37b6b8a23e70fcc1a7 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    162 schema:name Risk Factors
    163 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    164 N152c56a10967403db56f11b7095ddeeb rdf:first Na4bfbd83653e4811ba525513a5c7569f
    165 rdf:rest N436de09fd9124cbf99e5d1654140b031
    166 N168a5d0d614d4f678dd3b9d2d3d6c756 rdf:first Nbc3bccb486334859b31a67073f1530cc
    167 rdf:rest Ne55550a3df094e4a8bc0660f03c0ae8c
    168 N176b3d739a5440edb57fe58709f78578 schema:name Springer Nature - SN SciGraph project
    169 rdf:type schema:Organization
    170 N190ab37747f447c092e50724cbed9496 rdf:first sg:person.01056115360.19
    171 rdf:rest N328fe261c33a4aacaa5c21ea9f0873dd
    172 N1e899f83ce604c28871bcb4d6d621d46 rdf:first N35d07582fe364fde9bc043f8825e1640
    173 rdf:rest Na5b72187d5044eb98a57dfe08a5d4426
    174 N1f23b0ad1bbd40089bfafffd9a38f9df schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.511030.6
    175 schema:familyName Hendolin
    176 schema:givenName Minna
    177 rdf:type schema:Person
    178 N209f9c773b4a4b85bcfee375133f2a17 rdf:first N95463455da0e404581a53790b1f092ca
    179 rdf:rest Nc410bf624ee7464ea222bab508e61254
    180 N230d0e40fef444f5ba6a4186ab8ae4d6 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.410513.2
    181 schema:familyName Malarstig
    182 schema:givenName Anders
    183 rdf:type schema:Person
    184 N2592c50f8b984f9c8adf7373f0be4d2f rdf:first sg:person.0612457525.57
    185 rdf:rest N995a50ff0db4422b8a71ec8f0b313908
    186 N2634034e540f4abc986069f061fd774a schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    187 schema:name Breast Neoplasms
    188 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    189 N27ed60ad736541e291f99b0a54b74866 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.418158.1
    190 schema:familyName Hunkapiller
    191 schema:givenName Julie
    192 rdf:type schema:Person
    193 N2d5fcdb5e2694408881a2c4e0d02ce86 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.417815.e
    194 schema:familyName Matakidou
    195 schema:givenName Athena
    196 rdf:type schema:Person
    197 N328fe261c33a4aacaa5c21ea9f0873dd rdf:first Nb56d7512e7d74341982cacf03b6637d2
    198 rdf:rest Nd16e6de0a4dc49a69e07bc8dc210a111
    199 N32c457886e57461ca16a42f456ecb965 rdf:first sg:person.01104742263.37
    200 rdf:rest N7ffd996388b043ca98a0360ff8bc717a
    201 N346b612d212148ba87850798eb80cd9d rdf:first Nd0bfe9893a584246a6e212b21ba11c71
    202 rdf:rest Nd16c139875d5427ea0689ace71b7fe6a
    203 N35d07582fe364fde9bc043f8825e1640 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.418236.a
    204 schema:familyName Ehm
    205 schema:givenName Meg
    206 rdf:type schema:Person
    207 N35e47f89ab7f45678c87ee057cde63cd rdf:first sg:person.0633117265.14
    208 rdf:rest N11c93a67dc0b43d985bebf8f6236450e
    209 N3835fecb092e4938b3d517dcfcb4415a rdf:first N2d5fcdb5e2694408881a2c4e0d02ce86
    210 rdf:rest N44bd84d918244e8094ab1c4508825274
    211 N38e61d7d1448464d8dee6e2114b4ffbb schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    212 schema:name Biomarkers
    213 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    214 N3d020029d0d74e53a58bb27bb7848eb0 rdf:first sg:person.01120067124.75
    215 rdf:rest Nb8683928540c4014b02d8798d7aff0bc
    216 N3d1b7de488ff430190ff21a1e5890714 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.417832.b
    217 schema:familyName Runz
    218 schema:givenName Heiko
    219 rdf:type schema:Person
    220 N436de09fd9124cbf99e5d1654140b031 rdf:first Nbe51ac192ae94ab49fa953f1489338f0
    221 rdf:rest Nf34181b977fd4c89babb9f1ea3ebd82b
    222 N4406b389e2c449abb99c7fa4f3519e07 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.417924.d
    223 schema:familyName Klinger
    224 schema:givenName Kathy
    225 rdf:type schema:Person
    226 N44309330826d427eb424c2f2b7f16896 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    227 schema:name Age of Onset
    228 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    229 N44bd84d918244e8094ab1c4508825274 rdf:first N3d1b7de488ff430190ff21a1e5890714
    230 rdf:rest N665373289c9c458c9f4a1c2e2821514f
    231 N452f8951678640e0ad87b610216a4364 rdf:first sg:person.0712733524.07
    232 rdf:rest N67b6c2b1a2ca4b85ba36868b7565110a
    233 N474eb863c3f14ccc92dd94b30627de4b rdf:first sg:person.01104210067.27
    234 rdf:rest Ne88c40936f1243f0860796015c4c62be
    235 N4e8ab662eed84258a08756b43b4eb58b rdf:first N4406b389e2c449abb99c7fa4f3519e07
    236 rdf:rest N8d0beb88c33f4b31974105f00843532a
    237 N4f38d7c6556a4d1298b366e4358cf1af schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    238 schema:name Female
    239 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    240 N54cde0dfbeab431887c91a1dae567ced schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    241 schema:name Neoplasms
    242 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    243 N56654a0cd4cf407fa2920c3e8032ccbf rdf:first N0bba32c35bf044a6ae699257263687a4
    244 rdf:rest N168a5d0d614d4f678dd3b9d2d3d6c756
    245 N57c7a9eea7aa4eda9353498bd933acaf schema:name dimensions_id
    246 schema:value pub.1126385870
    247 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
    248 N58080d015a904a4b91bc965e60a11c17 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    249 schema:name Genetic Markers
    250 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    251 N597f1830cfdb4e1d987b965f00d0c138 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    252 schema:name Predictive Value of Tests
    253 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    254 N5b142f37921e41f1a9223ef34dea1305 rdf:first Nb840da3b14b64591a3baeb947d20cb62
    255 rdf:rest N56654a0cd4cf407fa2920c3e8032ccbf
    256 N5f3604cdd3c44ed2bcccc3e5fef2df52 rdf:first sg:person.014375053117.13
    257 rdf:rest N3835fecb092e4938b3d517dcfcb4415a
    258 N60720e8e8d27437e93ee05306489a438 rdf:first sg:person.01276707545.24
    259 rdf:rest Nb66d0687d6344a1cb44bd80ccd150dd1
    260 N61012c8b308243eca9147524c910f00a rdf:first sg:person.013011614317.60
    261 rdf:rest Nbc2bf396d13f44d58c5a021e62575586
    262 N62af82658a594393a78d247389d3f636 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    263 schema:name Finland
    264 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    265 N6471e34caffd4708ac4fd73005ecbde9 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.417815.e
    266 schema:familyName Matakidou
    267 schema:givenName Athena
    268 rdf:type schema:Person
    269 N665373289c9c458c9f4a1c2e2821514f rdf:first Nf1b02aaf99044b73a356cb458d34284a
    270 rdf:rest N70c0ec83c36b4712b031505b2007d187
    271 N67b6c2b1a2ca4b85ba36868b7565110a rdf:first sg:person.01345057137.09
    272 rdf:rest N742d201ee9c540278f2dceb90fd46ec8
    273 N6e133abc581545f78dd1e6df04794d8f rdf:first sg:person.012330462317.71
    274 rdf:rest N60720e8e8d27437e93ee05306489a438
    275 N70c0ec83c36b4712b031505b2007d187 rdf:first sg:person.0644634524.80
    276 rdf:rest Nf61dca9946964665be5205cdd1bbb4bc
    277 N72bbee2f68ad4d9aae6562193cae5646 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.417924.d
    278 schema:familyName Call
    279 schema:givenName Kathy
    280 rdf:type schema:Person
    281 N742d201ee9c540278f2dceb90fd46ec8 rdf:first sg:person.0750652023.37
    282 rdf:rest N6e133abc581545f78dd1e6df04794d8f
    283 N76922c59f5f44e13bd14e7b417ed4570 rdf:first Ne89503f380334a4c9bac5125dca4be2d
    284 rdf:rest Ne91df6cd209c4176ae3b8c26aec14520
    285 N7bad93faed174dd3a1e24990e22593a9 rdf:first N9815e135c4aa41ebae197ba079536908
    286 rdf:rest N452f8951678640e0ad87b610216a4364
    287 N7ffd996388b043ca98a0360ff8bc717a rdf:first sg:person.011517303117.07
    288 rdf:rest N5f3604cdd3c44ed2bcccc3e5fef2df52
    289 N8138faabafbb4a7abd59482f1734ddc7 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:None
    290 schema:familyName Kujala
    291 schema:givenName Urho
    292 rdf:type schema:Person
    293 N81808f8ccd1f4577bb0f9b54b99b1c07 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.417924.d
    294 schema:familyName Call
    295 schema:givenName Kathy
    296 rdf:type schema:Person
    297 N836072224f8242d291c75a92e281e4d3 schema:name doi
    298 schema:value 10.1038/s41591-020-0800-0
    299 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
    300 N88d8b3f203584742b61790ba84818dbf schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.417993.1
    301 schema:familyName Fox
    302 schema:givenName Caroline
    303 rdf:type schema:Person
    304 N8921658a3bbb4f82ae47821ef21db181 rdf:first sg:person.01240233274.17
    305 rdf:rest Nf6a3bb02dca545c9a9fb9c5a9cc10599
    306 N8d0beb88c33f4b31974105f00843532a rdf:first N81808f8ccd1f4577bb0f9b54b99b1c07
    307 rdf:rest N209f9c773b4a4b85bcfee375133f2a17
    308 N8d3a00bb9ffb4744bb934a527fc2cf2e schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    309 schema:name Adult
    310 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    311 N95463455da0e404581a53790b1f092ca schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.7737.4
    312 schema:familyName Mäkelä
    313 schema:givenName Tomi
    314 rdf:type schema:Person
    315 N9569fe3839d24e36b753bccf95109c54 rdf:first sg:person.0610205573.15
    316 rdf:rest Nae6cd932f1424a49a805987a89279fd5
    317 N9815e135c4aa41ebae197ba079536908 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.14758.3f
    318 schema:familyName Perola
    319 schema:givenName Markus
    320 rdf:type schema:Person
    321 N99433b8656c34b8cb31fcdd3be8eb35b schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    322 schema:name Male
    323 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    324 N995a50ff0db4422b8a71ec8f0b313908 rdf:first sg:person.01064727340.82
    325 rdf:rest N474eb863c3f14ccc92dd94b30627de4b
    326 N9c4a5af672134ba29a076d9a06671955 rdf:first Nd2b11a1092614485968fb9f50212d782
    327 rdf:rest N61012c8b308243eca9147524c910f00a
    328 N9dd2d93cbf4e4fa78f700951a857a007 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    329 schema:name Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2
    330 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    331 N9fb17f155e3145d6a1c14231ea215347 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.418158.1
    332 schema:familyName Hunkapiller
    333 schema:givenName Julie
    334 rdf:type schema:Person
    335 Na029974e7d05445d8ebf1ff21f6bf91d schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.417832.b
    336 schema:familyName Liu
    337 schema:givenName Jimmy
    338 rdf:type schema:Person
    339 Na18fa3ba14cc426b8dd7a31bfbbca45a schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    340 schema:name Multifactorial Inheritance
    341 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    342 Na4bfbd83653e4811ba525513a5c7569f schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.410513.2
    343 schema:familyName Marshall
    344 schema:givenName Catherine
    345 rdf:type schema:Person
    346 Na5b72187d5044eb98a57dfe08a5d4426 rdf:first sg:person.01147661557.40
    347 rdf:rest Nb844658634d44ca081d237b3401b4488
    348 Na8891be19d334494bb1f271aada54f07 rdf:first Nf4fa6f16a7ce45709e0a251643f2fdd5
    349 rdf:rest N76922c59f5f44e13bd14e7b417ed4570
    350 Naa1c9bed913e4745a97c056243afc1c6 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.14758.3f
    351 schema:familyName Perola
    352 schema:givenName Markus
    353 rdf:type schema:Person
    354 Nab15e2eb35824269b4022e79b5b77ba5 rdf:first Ned6a2c82e55b4290bbbfdb672c2caa16
    355 rdf:rest N9569fe3839d24e36b753bccf95109c54
    356 Nae6cd932f1424a49a805987a89279fd5 rdf:first N6471e34caffd4708ac4fd73005ecbde9
    357 rdf:rest N346b612d212148ba87850798eb80cd9d
    358 Nb3b057cb817c48f99937f39777317920 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    359 schema:name Humans
    360 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    361 Nb56d7512e7d74341982cacf03b6637d2 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:None
    362 schema:familyName Kujala
    363 schema:givenName Urho
    364 rdf:type schema:Person
    365 Nb66d0687d6344a1cb44bd80ccd150dd1 rdf:first sg:person.01247663165.54
    366 rdf:rest N190ab37747f447c092e50724cbed9496
    367 Nb840da3b14b64591a3baeb947d20cb62 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.418236.a
    368 schema:familyName Ehm
    369 schema:givenName Meg
    370 rdf:type schema:Person
    371 Nb844658634d44ca081d237b3401b4488 rdf:first N88d8b3f203584742b61790ba84818dbf
    372 rdf:rest Ne5af4da80ae3464596f25c870106c6af
    373 Nb8683928540c4014b02d8798d7aff0bc rdf:first N27ed60ad736541e291f99b0a54b74866
    374 rdf:rest Ndeffe5d7944c47f2a87b5f881459ba41
    375 Nb93fa7e6a9d74d45b9ca572c8fa5e7a1 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    376 schema:name Prostatic Neoplasms
    377 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    378 Nb9fe0e20716a411c97ffcdfc9cfbc341 rdf:first sg:person.013314322262.47
    379 rdf:rest N2592c50f8b984f9c8adf7373f0be4d2f
    380 Nbb9e22b366694a839a870d0e500ef68c schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    381 schema:name Genetic Predisposition to Disease
    382 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    383 Nbbd2fc4f35ab48e6807a0053541686fe rdf:first N1f23b0ad1bbd40089bfafffd9a38f9df
    384 rdf:rest N0e57bc86d2ca4f9e9ae0e2847fc6e411
    385 Nbc2bf396d13f44d58c5a021e62575586 rdf:first sg:person.01074100021.48
    386 rdf:rest Nbce2ab5cd6f947308cbf7bb5372252c9
    387 Nbc3bccb486334859b31a67073f1530cc schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.417993.1
    388 schema:familyName Fox
    389 schema:givenName Caroline
    390 rdf:type schema:Person
    391 Nbce2ab5cd6f947308cbf7bb5372252c9 rdf:first sg:person.0735116427.86
    392 rdf:rest N7bad93faed174dd3a1e24990e22593a9
    393 Nbe51ac192ae94ab49fa953f1489338f0 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.410513.2
    394 schema:familyName Hu
    395 schema:givenName Xinli
    396 rdf:type schema:Person
    397 Nc410bf624ee7464ea222bab508e61254 rdf:first sg:person.015767231737.16
    398 rdf:rest N06ef1a7bb2254d1f94c54d24d0511005
    399 Nc95d687049a24d3ebab1e6ea9839ea77 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    400 schema:name Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide
    401 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    402 Nca277f39827b4f0dbbae5457c006c91b schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    403 schema:name Young Adult
    404 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    405 Nd0bfe9893a584246a6e212b21ba11c71 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.417832.b
    406 schema:familyName Runz
    407 schema:givenName Heiko
    408 rdf:type schema:Person
    409 Nd16c139875d5427ea0689ace71b7fe6a rdf:first Na029974e7d05445d8ebf1ff21f6bf91d
    410 rdf:rest N3d020029d0d74e53a58bb27bb7848eb0
    411 Nd16e6de0a4dc49a69e07bc8dc210a111 rdf:first Nfdc9b263b4644e20b07c9ef69eb5fe8d
    412 rdf:rest Nbbd2fc4f35ab48e6807a0053541686fe
    413 Nd2b11a1092614485968fb9f50212d782 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.417924.d
    414 schema:familyName Klinger
    415 schema:givenName Kathy
    416 rdf:type schema:Person
    417 Nd30513ecb1824f70ae335384a29b86fb schema:volumeNumber 26
    418 rdf:type schema:PublicationVolume
    419 Nd7274de6b22141379e13b9479491f11e rdf:first N9fb17f155e3145d6a1c14231ea215347
    420 rdf:rest N5b142f37921e41f1a9223ef34dea1305
    421 Ndc65e6ee09cb4997b269b91200caa405 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.511030.6
    422 schema:familyName Pakkanen
    423 schema:givenName Raimo
    424 rdf:type schema:Person
    425 Ndeffe5d7944c47f2a87b5f881459ba41 rdf:first N06d69554675d4b6da455c852cff52b53
    426 rdf:rest N1e899f83ce604c28871bcb4d6d621d46
    427 Ne07905d4190e4786a9cf478bbd42372b schema:issueNumber 4
    428 rdf:type schema:PublicationIssue
    429 Ne55550a3df094e4a8bc0660f03c0ae8c rdf:first N230d0e40fef444f5ba6a4186ab8ae4d6
    430 rdf:rest N4e8ab662eed84258a08756b43b4eb58b
    431 Ne5af4da80ae3464596f25c870106c6af rdf:first Nf019bf84d18f4c13bf1fad86179915f3
    432 rdf:rest N152c56a10967403db56f11b7095ddeeb
    433 Ne78876e2bd934e24bb6faffd74a8b14d rdf:first sg:person.01267721567.12
    434 rdf:rest N35e47f89ab7f45678c87ee057cde63cd
    435 Ne88c40936f1243f0860796015c4c62be rdf:first sg:person.0672702604.86
    436 rdf:rest N8921658a3bbb4f82ae47821ef21db181
    437 Ne89503f380334a4c9bac5125dca4be2d schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.511030.6
    438 schema:familyName Hendolin
    439 schema:givenName Minna
    440 rdf:type schema:Person
    441 Ne8ad6a2c5ec5402c9401b8640f84733f schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    442 schema:name Case-Control Studies
    443 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    444 Ne91df6cd209c4176ae3b8c26aec14520 rdf:first N027aff702a1347149079e4a13a7ec1f3
    445 rdf:rest Nab15e2eb35824269b4022e79b5b77ba5
    446 Nea092f70e8934ee98e4bec0247e1351a schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    447 schema:name Metabolic Diseases
    448 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    449 Ned6a2c82e55b4290bbbfdb672c2caa16 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.431072.3
    450 schema:familyName Waring
    451 schema:givenName Jeff
    452 rdf:type schema:Person
    453 Nf019bf84d18f4c13bf1fad86179915f3 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.410513.2
    454 schema:familyName Malarstig
    455 schema:givenName Anders
    456 rdf:type schema:Person
    457 Nf1b02aaf99044b73a356cb458d34284a schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.417832.b
    458 schema:familyName John
    459 schema:givenName Sally
    460 rdf:type schema:Person
    461 Nf34181b977fd4c89babb9f1ea3ebd82b rdf:first N72bbee2f68ad4d9aae6562193cae5646
    462 rdf:rest N9c4a5af672134ba29a076d9a06671955
    463 Nf4fa6f16a7ce45709e0a251643f2fdd5 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.511030.6
    464 schema:familyName Tuovila
    465 schema:givenName Outi
    466 rdf:type schema:Person
    467 Nf61dca9946964665be5205cdd1bbb4bc rdf:first sg:person.016704245502.43
    468 rdf:rest Nd7274de6b22141379e13b9479491f11e
    469 Nf6a3bb02dca545c9a9fb9c5a9cc10599 rdf:first N8138faabafbb4a7abd59482f1734ddc7
    470 rdf:rest Na8891be19d334494bb1f271aada54f07
    471 Nf7bab97288b24c4cb67ad643b86a4222 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    472 schema:name Prognosis
    473 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    474 Nf966e227fb9245ada4f841214587cf86 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    475 schema:name Genome-Wide Association Study
    476 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    477 Nfa75e9879eef4f9099da5e83e738b100 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    478 schema:name Middle Aged
    479 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    480 Nfb31315bfb9a40e5925a9c93982e0b61 schema:name pubmed_id
    481 schema:value 32273609
    482 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
    483 Nfdc9b263b4644e20b07c9ef69eb5fe8d schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.511030.6
    484 schema:familyName Tuovila
    485 schema:givenName Outi
    486 rdf:type schema:Person
    487 anzsrc-for:11 schema:inDefinedTermSet anzsrc-for:
    488 schema:name Medical and Health Sciences
    489 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    490 anzsrc-for:1117 schema:inDefinedTermSet anzsrc-for:
    491 schema:name Public Health and Health Services
    492 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    493 sg:grant.4250762 http://pending.schema.org/fundedItem sg:pub.10.1038/s41591-020-0800-0
    494 rdf:type schema:MonetaryGrant
    495 sg:grant.5050713 http://pending.schema.org/fundedItem sg:pub.10.1038/s41591-020-0800-0
    496 rdf:type schema:MonetaryGrant
    497 sg:grant.8839135 http://pending.schema.org/fundedItem sg:pub.10.1038/s41591-020-0800-0
    498 rdf:type schema:MonetaryGrant
    499 sg:grant.8842628 http://pending.schema.org/fundedItem sg:pub.10.1038/s41591-020-0800-0
    500 rdf:type schema:MonetaryGrant
    501 sg:grant.8844587 http://pending.schema.org/fundedItem sg:pub.10.1038/s41591-020-0800-0
    502 rdf:type schema:MonetaryGrant
    503 sg:journal.1113716 schema:issn 1078-8956
    504 1546-170X
    505 schema:name Nature Medicine
    506 schema:publisher Springer Nature
    507 rdf:type schema:Periodical
    508 sg:person.01056115360.19 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:None
    509 schema:familyName Paloneva
    510 schema:givenName Juha
    511 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01056115360.19
    512 rdf:type schema:Person
    513 sg:person.01064727340.82 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.10858.34
    514 schema:familyName Kaarteenaho
    515 schema:givenName Riitta
    516 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01064727340.82
    517 rdf:type schema:Person
    518 sg:person.01074100021.48 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.452494.a
    519 schema:familyName Ripatti
    520 schema:givenName Samuli
    521 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01074100021.48
    522 rdf:type schema:Person
    523 sg:person.01104210067.27 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.10858.34
    524 schema:familyName Vainio
    525 schema:givenName Seppo
    526 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01104210067.27
    527 rdf:type schema:Person
    528 sg:person.01104742263.37 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.452494.a
    529 schema:familyName Palotie
    530 schema:givenName Aarno
    531 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01104742263.37
    532 rdf:type schema:Person
    533 sg:person.01120067124.75 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.419971.3
    534 schema:familyName Biswas
    535 schema:givenName Shameek
    536 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01120067124.75
    537 rdf:type schema:Person
    538 sg:person.01147661557.40 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.417993.1
    539 schema:familyName Diogo
    540 schema:givenName Dorothee
    541 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01147661557.40
    542 rdf:type schema:Person
    543 sg:person.011517303117.07 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.452494.a
    544 schema:familyName Daly
    545 schema:givenName Mark
    546 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.011517303117.07
    547 rdf:type schema:Person
    548 sg:person.012330462317.71 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.10858.34
    549 schema:familyName Kettunen
    550 schema:givenName Johannes
    551 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.012330462317.71
    552 rdf:type schema:Person
    553 sg:person.01240233274.17 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.9668.1
    554 schema:familyName Kosma
    555 schema:givenName Veli-Matti
    556 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01240233274.17
    557 rdf:type schema:Person
    558 sg:person.01247663165.54 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.9668.1
    559 schema:familyName Mannermaa
    560 schema:givenName Arto
    561 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01247663165.54
    562 rdf:type schema:Person
    563 sg:person.01267721567.12 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.1374.1
    564 schema:familyName Pulkki
    565 schema:givenName Kari
    566 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01267721567.12
    567 rdf:type schema:Person
    568 sg:person.01276707545.24 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.502801.e
    569 schema:familyName Laaksonen
    570 schema:givenName Reijo
    571 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01276707545.24
    572 rdf:type schema:Person
    573 sg:person.013011614317.60 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.417924.d
    574 schema:familyName Gossel
    575 schema:givenName Matthias
    576 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.013011614317.60
    577 rdf:type schema:Person
    578 sg:person.013314322262.47 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.452433.7
    579 schema:familyName Partanen
    580 schema:givenName Jukka
    581 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.013314322262.47
    582 rdf:type schema:Person
    583 sg:person.01345057137.09 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.424664.6
    584 schema:familyName Carpen
    585 schema:givenName Olli
    586 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01345057137.09
    587 rdf:type schema:Person
    588 sg:person.014375053117.13 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.431072.3
    589 schema:familyName Jacob
    590 schema:givenName Howard
    591 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.014375053117.13
    592 rdf:type schema:Person
    593 sg:person.015767231737.16 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.452494.a
    594 schema:familyName Kaprio
    595 schema:givenName Jaakko
    596 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.015767231737.16
    597 rdf:type schema:Person
    598 sg:person.016704245502.43 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.418158.1
    599 schema:familyName McCarthy
    600 schema:givenName Mark
    601 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.016704245502.43
    602 rdf:type schema:Person
    603 sg:person.0610205573.15 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.431072.3
    604 schema:familyName Riley-Gillis
    605 schema:givenName Bridget
    606 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0610205573.15
    607 rdf:type schema:Person
    608 sg:person.0612457525.57 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.424664.6
    609 schema:familyName Pitkäranta
    610 schema:givenName Anne
    611 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0612457525.57
    612 rdf:type schema:Person
    613 sg:person.0633117265.14 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.14758.3f
    614 schema:familyName Kilpi
    615 schema:givenName Terhi
    616 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0633117265.14
    617 rdf:type schema:Person
    618 sg:person.0644634524.80 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.419971.3
    619 schema:familyName Plenge
    620 schema:givenName Robert
    621 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0644634524.80
    622 rdf:type schema:Person
    623 sg:person.0672702604.86 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.502801.e
    624 schema:familyName Savinainen
    625 schema:givenName Kimmo
    626 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0672702604.86
    627 rdf:type schema:Person
    628 sg:person.0712733524.07 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.452433.7
    629 schema:familyName Arvas
    630 schema:givenName Mikko
    631 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0712733524.07
    632 rdf:type schema:Person
    633 sg:person.0722020653.61 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.1374.1
    634 schema:familyName Virolainen
    635 schema:givenName Petri
    636 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0722020653.61
    637 rdf:type schema:Person
    638 sg:person.0735116427.86 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.1374.1
    639 schema:familyName Schleutker
    640 schema:givenName Johanna
    641 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0735116427.86
    642 rdf:type schema:Person
    643 sg:person.0750652023.37 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.10858.34
    644 schema:familyName Hinttala
    645 schema:givenName Reetta
    646 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0750652023.37
    647 rdf:type schema:Person
    648 sg:pub.10.1007/s00125-017-4210-x schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1083698190
    649 https://doi.org/10.1007/s00125-017-4210-x
    650 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    651 sg:pub.10.1023/a:1009612305785 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1018550313
    652 https://doi.org/10.1023/a:1009612305785
    653 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    654 sg:pub.10.1038/nature24284 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1092349555
    655 https://doi.org/10.1038/nature24284
    656 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    657 sg:pub.10.1038/nrg.2016.27 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1016127632
    658 https://doi.org/10.1038/nrg.2016.27
    659 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    660 sg:pub.10.1038/nrg.2017.101 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1099637369
    661 https://doi.org/10.1038/nrg.2017.101
    662 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    663 sg:pub.10.1038/s41398-019-0676-2 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1124914323
    664 https://doi.org/10.1038/s41398-019-0676-2
    665 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    666 sg:pub.10.1038/s41436-018-0406-9 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1111333416
    667 https://doi.org/10.1038/s41436-018-0406-9
    668 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    669 sg:pub.10.1038/s41576-018-0018-x schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1104132099
    670 https://doi.org/10.1038/s41576-018-0018-x
    671 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    672 sg:pub.10.1038/s41588-018-0142-8 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1104478461
    673 https://doi.org/10.1038/s41588-018-0142-8
    674 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    675 sg:pub.10.1038/s41588-018-0171-3 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1105858690
    676 https://doi.org/10.1038/s41588-018-0171-3
    677 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    678 sg:pub.10.1038/s41588-018-0183-z schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1106070346
    679 https://doi.org/10.1038/s41588-018-0183-z
    680 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    681 sg:pub.10.1038/s41588-018-0184-y schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1106070347
    682 https://doi.org/10.1038/s41588-018-0184-y
    683 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    684 sg:pub.10.1038/s41588-018-0241-6 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1107353303
    685 https://doi.org/10.1038/s41588-018-0241-6
    686 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    687 sg:pub.10.1038/s41588-019-0379-x schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1113054547
    688 https://doi.org/10.1038/s41588-019-0379-x
    689 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    690 sg:pub.10.1186/1471-2288-13-152 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1042461669
    691 https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2288-13-152
    692 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    693 grid-institutes:None schema:alternateName Central Finland Biobank, University of Jyväskylä, Central Finland Health Care District, Jyväskylä, Finland
    694 schema:name Central Finland Biobank, University of Jyväskylä, Central Finland Health Care District, Jyväskylä, Finland
    695 rdf:type schema:Organization
    696 grid-institutes:grid.10858.34 schema:alternateName Northern Finland Biobank Borealis, University of Oulu, Northern Ostrobothnia Hospital District, Oulu, Finland
    697 schema:name Northern Finland Biobank Borealis, University of Oulu, Northern Ostrobothnia Hospital District, Oulu, Finland
    698 rdf:type schema:Organization
    699 grid-institutes:grid.1374.1 schema:alternateName Auria Biobank, Univ. of Turku, Hospital District of Southwest Finland, Turku, Finland
    700 schema:name Auria Biobank, Univ. of Turku, Hospital District of Southwest Finland, Turku, Finland
    701 rdf:type schema:Organization
    702 grid-institutes:grid.14758.3f schema:alternateName THL Biobank, Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland
    703 schema:name THL Biobank, Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland
    704 rdf:type schema:Organization
    705 grid-institutes:grid.410513.2 schema:alternateName Pfizer, New York, NY, USA
    706 schema:name Pfizer, New York, NY, USA
    707 rdf:type schema:Organization
    708 grid-institutes:grid.417815.e schema:alternateName Astra Zeneca, Cambridge, UK
    709 schema:name Astra Zeneca, Cambridge, UK
    710 rdf:type schema:Organization
    711 grid-institutes:grid.417832.b schema:alternateName Biogen, Cambridge, MA, USA
    712 schema:name Biogen, Cambridge, MA, USA
    713 rdf:type schema:Organization
    714 grid-institutes:grid.417924.d schema:alternateName Sanofi, Paris, France
    715 schema:name Sanofi, Paris, France
    716 rdf:type schema:Organization
    717 grid-institutes:grid.417993.1 schema:alternateName Merck, Kenilworth, NJ, USA
    718 schema:name Merck, Kenilworth, NJ, USA
    719 rdf:type schema:Organization
    720 grid-institutes:grid.418158.1 schema:alternateName Genentech, San Francisco, CA, USA
    721 schema:name Genentech, San Francisco, CA, USA
    722 rdf:type schema:Organization
    723 grid-institutes:grid.418236.a schema:alternateName GlaxoSmithKline, Brentford, UK
    724 schema:name GlaxoSmithKline, Brentford, UK
    725 rdf:type schema:Organization
    726 grid-institutes:grid.419971.3 schema:alternateName Celgene, Summit, NJ, USA
    727 schema:name Celgene, Summit, NJ, USA
    728 rdf:type schema:Organization
    729 grid-institutes:grid.424664.6 schema:alternateName Hospital District of Helsinki and Uusimaa, Helsinki, Finland
    730 schema:name Hospital District of Helsinki and Uusimaa, Helsinki, Finland
    731 rdf:type schema:Organization
    732 grid-institutes:grid.431072.3 schema:alternateName Abbvie, Chicago, IL, USA
    733 schema:name Abbvie, Chicago, IL, USA
    734 rdf:type schema:Organization
    735 grid-institutes:grid.452433.7 schema:alternateName Finnish Red Cross Blood Service, Finnish Hematology Registry and Clinical Biobank, Helsinki, Finland
    736 schema:name Finnish Red Cross Blood Service, Finnish Hematology Registry and Clinical Biobank, Helsinki, Finland
    737 rdf:type schema:Organization
    738 grid-institutes:grid.452494.a schema:alternateName Institute for Molecular Medicine Finland, HiLIFE, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
    739 schema:name Institute for Molecular Medicine Finland, HiLIFE, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
    740 rdf:type schema:Organization
    741 grid-institutes:grid.502801.e schema:alternateName Finnish Clinical Biobank Tampere, University of Tampere, Pirkanmaa Hospital District, Tampere, Finland
    742 schema:name Finnish Clinical Biobank Tampere, University of Tampere, Pirkanmaa Hospital District, Tampere, Finland
    743 rdf:type schema:Organization
    744 grid-institutes:grid.511030.6 schema:alternateName Business Finland, Helsinki, Finland
    745 schema:name Business Finland, Helsinki, Finland
    746 rdf:type schema:Organization
    747 grid-institutes:grid.7737.4 schema:alternateName HiLIFE, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
    748 schema:name HiLIFE, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
    749 rdf:type schema:Organization
    750 grid-institutes:grid.9668.1 schema:alternateName Biobank of Eastern Finland, University of Eastern Finland, Northern Savo Hospital District, Kuopio, Finland
    751 schema:name Biobank of Eastern Finland, University of Eastern Finland, Northern Savo Hospital District, Kuopio, Finland
    752 rdf:type schema:Organization
     




    Preview window. Press ESC to close (or click here)


    ...