Altered TMPRSS2 usage by SARS-CoV-2 Omicron impacts infectivity and fusogenicity View Full Text


Ontology type: schema:ScholarlyArticle      Open Access: True


Article Info

DATE

2022-02-01

AUTHORS

Bo Meng, Adam Abdullahi, Isabella A. T. M. Ferreira, Niluka Goonawardane, Akatsuki Saito, Izumi Kimura, Daichi Yamasoba, Pehuén Pereyra Gerber, Saman Fatihi, Surabhi Rathore, Samantha K. Zepeda, Guido Papa, Steven A. Kemp, Terumasa Ikeda, Mako Toyoda, Toong Seng Tan, Jin Kuramochi, Shigeki Mitsunaga, Takamasa Ueno, Kotaro Shirakawa, Akifumi Takaori-Kondo, Teresa Brevini, Donna L. Mallery, Oscar J. Charles, John E. Bowen, Anshu Joshi, Alexandra C. Walls, Laurelle Jackson, Darren Martin, Kenneth G. C. Smith, John Bradley, John A. G. Briggs, Jinwook Choi, Elo Madissoon, Kerstin B. Meyer, Petra Mlcochova, Lourdes Ceron-Gutierrez, Rainer Doffinger, Sarah A. Teichmann, Andrew J. Fisher, Matteo S. Pizzuto, Anna de Marco, Davide Corti, Myra Hosmillo, Joo Hyeon Lee, Leo C. James, Lipi Thukral, David Veesler, Alex Sigal, Fotios Sampaziotis, Ian G. Goodfellow, Nicholas J. Matheson, Kei Sato, Ravindra K. Gupta

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 Omicron BA.1 variant emerged in 20211 and has multiple mutations in its spike protein2. Here we show that the spike protein of Omicron has a higher affinity for ACE2 compared with Delta, and a marked change in its antigenicity increases Omicron’s evasion of therapeutic monoclonal and vaccine-elicited polyclonal neutralizing antibodies after two doses. mRNA vaccination as a third vaccine dose rescues and broadens neutralization. Importantly, the antiviral drugs remdesivir and molnupiravir retain efficacy against Omicron BA.1. Replication was similar for Omicron and Delta virus isolates in human nasal epithelial cultures. However, in lung cells and gut cells, Omicron demonstrated lower replication. Omicron spike protein was less efficiently cleaved compared with Delta. The differences in replication were mapped to the entry efficiency of the virus on the basis of spike-pseudotyped virus assays. The defect in entry of Omicron pseudotyped virus to specific cell types effectively correlated with higher cellular RNA expression of TMPRSS2, and deletion of TMPRSS2 affected Delta entry to a greater extent than Omicron. Furthermore, drug inhibitors targeting specific entry pathways3 demonstrated that the Omicron spike inefficiently uses the cellular protease TMPRSS2, which promotes cell entry through plasma membrane fusion, with greater dependency on cell entry through the endocytic pathway. Consistent with suboptimal S1/S2 cleavage and inability to use TMPRSS2, syncytium formation by the Omicron spike was substantially impaired compared with the Delta spike. The less efficient spike cleavage of Omicron at S1/S2 is associated with a shift in cellular tropism away from TMPRSS2-expressing cells, with implications for altered pathogenesis. More... »

PAGES

706-714

References to SciGraph publications

  • 2019-12-27. Gencore: an efficient tool to generate consensus reads for error suppressing and duplicate removing of NGS data in BMC BIOINFORMATICS
  • 2021-12-23. Omicron extensively but incompletely escapes Pfizer BNT162b2 neutralization in NATURE
  • 2020-10-12. SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibody structures inform therapeutic strategies in NATURE
  • 2008-03-20. Colocalization of fluorescent markers in confocal microscope images of plant cells in NATURE PROTOCOLS
  • 2021-04-27. The furin cleavage site in the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein is required for transmission in ferrets in NATURE MICROBIOLOGY
  • 2021-09-06. SARS-CoV-2 B.1.617.2 Delta variant replication and immune evasion in NATURE
  • 2020-11-25. Progenitor identification and SARS-CoV-2 infection in human distal lung organoids in NATURE
  • 2021-04-07. Drugs that inhibit TMEM16 proteins block SARS-CoV-2 spike-induced syncytia in NATURE
  • 2003-11. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 is a functional receptor for the SARS coronavirus in NATURE
  • 2022-01-21. Attenuated replication and pathogenicity of SARS-CoV-2 B.1.1.529 Omicron in NATURE
  • 2021-03-11. Sensitivity of SARS-CoV-2 B.1.1.7 to mRNA vaccine-elicited antibodies in NATURE
  • 2021-09-09. Sequences in the cytoplasmic tail of SARS-CoV-2 Spike facilitate expression at the cell surface and syncytia formation in NATURE COMMUNICATIONS
  • 2021-07-15. Highly accurate protein structure prediction with AlphaFold in NATURE
  • 2022-01-07. Rapid epidemic expansion of the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant in southern Africa in NATURE
  • 2005-01-01. Protein tagging and detection with engineered self-assembling fragments of green fluorescent protein in NATURE BIOTECHNOLOGY
  • 2021-11-25. Enhanced fusogenicity and pathogenicity of SARS-CoV-2 Delta P681R mutation in NATURE
  • 2020-10-28. Coronavirus biology and replication: implications for SARS-CoV-2 in NATURE REVIEWS MICROBIOLOGY
  • 2021-12-23. Broadly neutralizing antibodies overcome SARS-CoV-2 Omicron antigenic shift in NATURE
  • 2012-03-04. Fast gapped-read alignment with Bowtie 2 in NATURE METHODS
  • Journal

    TITLE

    Nature

    ISSUE

    7902

    VOLUME

    603

    Author Affiliations

  • Department of Medicine, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK
  • Department of Veterinary Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Miyazaki, Miyazaki, Japan
  • Division of Systems Virology, Department of Infectious Disease Control, International Research Center for Infectious Diseases, The Institute of Medical Science, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan
  • CSIR Institute of Genomics and Integrative Biology, Delhi, India
  • Department of Biochemistry, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA
  • MRC—Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Cambridge, UK
  • Division of Molecular Virology and Genetics, Joint Research Center for Human Retrovirus Infection, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto, Japan
  • Division of Infection and Immunity, Joint Research Center for Human Retrovirus Infection, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto, Japan
  • Kuramochi Clinic Interpark, Utsunomiya, Japan
  • Human Genetics Laboratory, National Institute of Genetics, Mishima, Japan
  • Department of Hematology and Oncology, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan
  • Division of Infection and Immunity, UCL, London, UK
  • Department of Virology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK
  • Africa Health Research Institute, Durban, South Africa
  • University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
  • Max Planck Institute of Biochemistry, Martinsried, Germany
  • Wellcome-MRC Cambridge Stem Cell Institute, Cambridge, UK
  • European Molecular Biology Laboratory, European Bioinformatics Institute, EMBL-EBI, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, UK
  • Welcome Sanger Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, UK
  • Addenbrooke’s Hospital, Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Cambridge Biomedical Campus, Cambridge, UK
  • Cavendish Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK
  • Transplant and Regenerative Medicine Laboratory, Translational and Clinical Research Institute, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Newcastle University, Newcastle Upon Tyne, UK
  • Humabs Biomed SA, a subsidiary of Vir Biotechnology, Bellinzona, Switzerland
  • Department of Physiology, Development and Neuroscience, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK
  • Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Seattle, WA, USA
  • School of Laboratory Medicine and Medical Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa
  • NHS Blood and Transplant, Cambridge, UK
  • CREST, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Saitama, Japan
  • Identifiers

    URI

    http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1038/s41586-022-04474-x

    DOI

    http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41586-022-04474-x

    DIMENSIONS

    https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1145155022

    PUBMED

    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/35104837


    Indexing Status Check whether this publication has been indexed by Scopus and Web Of Science using the SN Indexing Status Tool
    Incoming Citations Browse incoming citations for this publication using opencitations.net

    JSON-LD is the canonical representation for SciGraph data.

    TIP: You can open this SciGraph record using an external JSON-LD service: JSON-LD Playground Google SDTT

    [
      {
        "@context": "https://springernature.github.io/scigraph/jsonld/sgcontext.json", 
        "about": [
          {
            "id": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/06", 
            "inDefinedTermSet": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/", 
            "name": "Biological Sciences", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/0601", 
            "inDefinedTermSet": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/", 
            "name": "Biochemistry and Cell Biology", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Adult", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Aged", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Aged, 80 and over", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Animals", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Antibodies, Neutralizing", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Antibodies, Viral", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "COVID-19", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "COVID-19 Vaccines", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Cell Line", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Cell Membrane", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Chlorocebus aethiops", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Convalescence", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Female", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Humans", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Immune Sera", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Intestines", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Lung", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Male", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Membrane Fusion", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Middle Aged", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Mutation", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Nasal Mucosa", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "SARS-CoV-2", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Serine Endopeptidases", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Tissue Culture Techniques", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Virulence", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Virus Internalization", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Virus Replication", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }
        ], 
        "author": [
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "Department of Medicine, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK", 
              "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.5335.0", 
              "name": [
                "Cambridge Institute of Therapeutic Immunology & Infectious Disease (CITIID), Cambridge, UK", 
                "Department of Medicine, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Meng", 
            "givenName": "Bo", 
            "id": "sg:person.01172550034.74", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01172550034.74"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "Department of Medicine, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK", 
              "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.5335.0", 
              "name": [
                "Cambridge Institute of Therapeutic Immunology & Infectious Disease (CITIID), Cambridge, UK", 
                "Department of Medicine, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Abdullahi", 
            "givenName": "Adam", 
            "id": "sg:person.013206156104.46", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.013206156104.46"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "Department of Medicine, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK", 
              "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.5335.0", 
              "name": [
                "Cambridge Institute of Therapeutic Immunology & Infectious Disease (CITIID), Cambridge, UK", 
                "Department of Medicine, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Ferreira", 
            "givenName": "Isabella A. T. M.", 
            "id": "sg:person.016400270617.72", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.016400270617.72"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "Department of Medicine, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK", 
              "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.5335.0", 
              "name": [
                "Cambridge Institute of Therapeutic Immunology & Infectious Disease (CITIID), Cambridge, UK", 
                "Department of Medicine, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Goonawardane", 
            "givenName": "Niluka", 
            "id": "sg:person.016500502257.30", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.016500502257.30"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "Department of Veterinary Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Miyazaki, Miyazaki, Japan", 
              "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.410849.0", 
              "name": [
                "Department of Veterinary Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Miyazaki, Miyazaki, Japan"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Saito", 
            "givenName": "Akatsuki", 
            "id": "sg:person.01176047565.20", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01176047565.20"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "Division of Systems Virology, Department of Infectious Disease Control, International Research Center for Infectious Diseases, The Institute of Medical Science, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan", 
              "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.26999.3d", 
              "name": [
                "Division of Systems Virology, Department of Infectious Disease Control, International Research Center for Infectious Diseases, The Institute of Medical Science, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Kimura", 
            "givenName": "Izumi", 
            "id": "sg:person.014355352764.09", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.014355352764.09"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "Division of Systems Virology, Department of Infectious Disease Control, International Research Center for Infectious Diseases, The Institute of Medical Science, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan", 
              "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.26999.3d", 
              "name": [
                "Division of Systems Virology, Department of Infectious Disease Control, International Research Center for Infectious Diseases, The Institute of Medical Science, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Yamasoba", 
            "givenName": "Daichi", 
            "id": "sg:person.0671555150.92", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0671555150.92"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "Department of Medicine, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK", 
              "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.5335.0", 
              "name": [
                "Cambridge Institute of Therapeutic Immunology & Infectious Disease (CITIID), Cambridge, UK", 
                "Department of Medicine, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Gerber", 
            "givenName": "Pehu\u00e9n Pereyra", 
            "id": "sg:person.01024516236.10", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01024516236.10"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "CSIR Institute of Genomics and Integrative Biology, Delhi, India", 
              "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.417639.e", 
              "name": [
                "CSIR Institute of Genomics and Integrative Biology, Delhi, India"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Fatihi", 
            "givenName": "Saman", 
            "id": "sg:person.014140460447.60", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.014140460447.60"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "CSIR Institute of Genomics and Integrative Biology, Delhi, India", 
              "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.417639.e", 
              "name": [
                "CSIR Institute of Genomics and Integrative Biology, Delhi, India"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Rathore", 
            "givenName": "Surabhi", 
            "id": "sg:person.014601144413.34", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.014601144413.34"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "Department of Biochemistry, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA", 
              "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.34477.33", 
              "name": [
                "Department of Biochemistry, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Zepeda", 
            "givenName": "Samantha K.", 
            "id": "sg:person.010374014653.49", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.010374014653.49"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "MRC\u2014Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Cambridge, UK", 
              "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.42475.30", 
              "name": [
                "MRC\u2014Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Cambridge, UK"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Papa", 
            "givenName": "Guido", 
            "id": "sg:person.014116501431.07", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.014116501431.07"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "Department of Medicine, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK", 
              "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.5335.0", 
              "name": [
                "Cambridge Institute of Therapeutic Immunology & Infectious Disease (CITIID), Cambridge, UK", 
                "Department of Medicine, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Kemp", 
            "givenName": "Steven A.", 
            "id": "sg:person.010527002457.96", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.010527002457.96"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "Division of Molecular Virology and Genetics, Joint Research Center for Human Retrovirus Infection, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto, Japan", 
              "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.274841.c", 
              "name": [
                "Division of Molecular Virology and Genetics, Joint Research Center for Human Retrovirus Infection, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto, Japan"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Ikeda", 
            "givenName": "Terumasa", 
            "id": "sg:person.0741654565.08", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0741654565.08"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "Division of Infection and Immunity, Joint Research Center for Human Retrovirus Infection, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto, Japan", 
              "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.274841.c", 
              "name": [
                "Division of Infection and Immunity, Joint Research Center for Human Retrovirus Infection, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto, Japan"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Toyoda", 
            "givenName": "Mako", 
            "id": "sg:person.01037524127.04", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01037524127.04"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "Division of Infection and Immunity, Joint Research Center for Human Retrovirus Infection, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto, Japan", 
              "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.274841.c", 
              "name": [
                "Division of Infection and Immunity, Joint Research Center for Human Retrovirus Infection, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto, Japan"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Tan", 
            "givenName": "Toong Seng", 
            "id": "sg:person.014674001117.01", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.014674001117.01"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "Kuramochi Clinic Interpark, Utsunomiya, Japan", 
              "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/None", 
              "name": [
                "Kuramochi Clinic Interpark, Utsunomiya, Japan"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Kuramochi", 
            "givenName": "Jin", 
            "id": "sg:person.01371154041.06", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01371154041.06"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "Human Genetics Laboratory, National Institute of Genetics, Mishima, Japan", 
              "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.288127.6", 
              "name": [
                "Human Genetics Laboratory, National Institute of Genetics, Mishima, Japan"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Mitsunaga", 
            "givenName": "Shigeki", 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "Division of Infection and Immunity, Joint Research Center for Human Retrovirus Infection, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto, Japan", 
              "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.274841.c", 
              "name": [
                "Division of Infection and Immunity, Joint Research Center for Human Retrovirus Infection, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto, Japan"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Ueno", 
            "givenName": "Takamasa", 
            "id": "sg:person.012635140262.79", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.012635140262.79"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "Department of Hematology and Oncology, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan", 
              "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.258799.8", 
              "name": [
                "Department of Hematology and Oncology, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Shirakawa", 
            "givenName": "Kotaro", 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "Department of Hematology and Oncology, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan", 
              "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.258799.8", 
              "name": [
                "Department of Hematology and Oncology, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Takaori-Kondo", 
            "givenName": "Akifumi", 
            "id": "sg:person.0743352217.37", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0743352217.37"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "Department of Medicine, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK", 
              "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.5335.0", 
              "name": [
                "Department of Medicine, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Brevini", 
            "givenName": "Teresa", 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "MRC\u2014Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Cambridge, UK", 
              "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.42475.30", 
              "name": [
                "MRC\u2014Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Cambridge, UK"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Mallery", 
            "givenName": "Donna L.", 
            "id": "sg:person.01367765152.30", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01367765152.30"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "Division of Infection and Immunity, UCL, London, UK", 
              "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.83440.3b", 
              "name": [
                "Division of Infection and Immunity, UCL, London, UK"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Charles", 
            "givenName": "Oscar J.", 
            "id": "sg:person.013261660457.37", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.013261660457.37"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "Department of Biochemistry, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA", 
              "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.34477.33", 
              "name": [
                "Department of Biochemistry, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Bowen", 
            "givenName": "John E.", 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "Department of Biochemistry, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA", 
              "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.34477.33", 
              "name": [
                "Department of Biochemistry, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Joshi", 
            "givenName": "Anshu", 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "Department of Virology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK", 
              "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.5335.0", 
              "name": [
                "Department of Biochemistry, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA", 
                "Department of Virology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Walls", 
            "givenName": "Alexandra C.", 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "Africa Health Research Institute, Durban, South Africa", 
              "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.488675.0", 
              "name": [
                "Africa Health Research Institute, Durban, South Africa"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Jackson", 
            "givenName": "Laurelle", 
            "id": "sg:person.011140425455.72", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.011140425455.72"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa", 
              "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.7836.a", 
              "name": [
                "University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Martin", 
            "givenName": "Darren", 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "Department of Medicine, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK", 
              "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.5335.0", 
              "name": [
                "Cambridge Institute of Therapeutic Immunology & Infectious Disease (CITIID), Cambridge, UK", 
                "Department of Medicine, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Smith", 
            "givenName": "Kenneth G. C.", 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "Department of Medicine, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK", 
              "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.5335.0", 
              "name": [
                "Department of Medicine, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Bradley", 
            "givenName": "John", 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "Max Planck Institute of Biochemistry, Martinsried, Germany", 
              "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.418615.f", 
              "name": [
                "Max Planck Institute of Biochemistry, Martinsried, Germany"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Briggs", 
            "givenName": "John A. G.", 
            "id": "sg:person.011327121142.30", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.011327121142.30"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "Wellcome-MRC Cambridge Stem Cell Institute, Cambridge, UK", 
              "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.449973.4", 
              "name": [
                "Wellcome-MRC Cambridge Stem Cell Institute, Cambridge, UK"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Choi", 
            "givenName": "Jinwook", 
            "id": "sg:person.07760352111.62", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.07760352111.62"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "European Molecular Biology Laboratory, European Bioinformatics Institute, EMBL-EBI, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, UK", 
              "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.225360.0", 
              "name": [
                "Welcome Sanger Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, UK", 
                "European Molecular Biology Laboratory, European Bioinformatics Institute, EMBL-EBI, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, UK"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Madissoon", 
            "givenName": "Elo", 
            "id": "sg:person.01033775030.15", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01033775030.15"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "Welcome Sanger Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, UK", 
              "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.52788.30", 
              "name": [
                "Welcome Sanger Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, UK"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Meyer", 
            "givenName": "Kerstin B.", 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "Department of Medicine, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK", 
              "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.5335.0", 
              "name": [
                "Cambridge Institute of Therapeutic Immunology & Infectious Disease (CITIID), Cambridge, UK", 
                "Department of Medicine, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Mlcochova", 
            "givenName": "Petra", 
            "id": "sg:person.0604754166.75", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0604754166.75"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "Addenbrooke\u2019s Hospital, Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Cambridge Biomedical Campus, Cambridge, UK", 
              "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.120073.7", 
              "name": [
                "Addenbrooke\u2019s Hospital, Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Cambridge Biomedical Campus, Cambridge, UK"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Ceron-Gutierrez", 
            "givenName": "Lourdes", 
            "id": "sg:person.01062620045.26", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01062620045.26"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "Addenbrooke\u2019s Hospital, Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Cambridge Biomedical Campus, Cambridge, UK", 
              "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.120073.7", 
              "name": [
                "Addenbrooke\u2019s Hospital, Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Cambridge Biomedical Campus, Cambridge, UK"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Doffinger", 
            "givenName": "Rainer", 
            "id": "sg:person.0636075303.08", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0636075303.08"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "Cavendish Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK", 
              "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.5335.0", 
              "name": [
                "Welcome Sanger Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, UK", 
                "Cavendish Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Teichmann", 
            "givenName": "Sarah A.", 
            "id": "sg:person.01122476621.52", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01122476621.52"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "Transplant and Regenerative Medicine Laboratory, Translational and Clinical Research Institute, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Newcastle University, Newcastle Upon Tyne, UK", 
              "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.1006.7", 
              "name": [
                "Transplant and Regenerative Medicine Laboratory, Translational and Clinical Research Institute, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Newcastle University, Newcastle Upon Tyne, UK"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Fisher", 
            "givenName": "Andrew J.", 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "Humabs Biomed SA, a subsidiary of Vir Biotechnology, Bellinzona, Switzerland", 
              "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.498378.9", 
              "name": [
                "Humabs Biomed SA, a subsidiary of Vir Biotechnology, Bellinzona, Switzerland"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Pizzuto", 
            "givenName": "Matteo S.", 
            "id": "sg:person.0761277112.16", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0761277112.16"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "Humabs Biomed SA, a subsidiary of Vir Biotechnology, Bellinzona, Switzerland", 
              "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.498378.9", 
              "name": [
                "Humabs Biomed SA, a subsidiary of Vir Biotechnology, Bellinzona, Switzerland"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "de Marco", 
            "givenName": "Anna", 
            "id": "sg:person.014507234055.41", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.014507234055.41"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "Humabs Biomed SA, a subsidiary of Vir Biotechnology, Bellinzona, Switzerland", 
              "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.498378.9", 
              "name": [
                "Humabs Biomed SA, a subsidiary of Vir Biotechnology, Bellinzona, Switzerland"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Corti", 
            "givenName": "Davide", 
            "id": "sg:person.01340264536.63", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01340264536.63"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "Department of Virology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK", 
              "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.5335.0", 
              "name": [
                "Department of Virology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Hosmillo", 
            "givenName": "Myra", 
            "id": "sg:person.0641332372.02", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0641332372.02"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "Department of Physiology, Development and Neuroscience, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK", 
              "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.5335.0", 
              "name": [
                "Wellcome-MRC Cambridge Stem Cell Institute, Cambridge, UK", 
                "Department of Physiology, Development and Neuroscience, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Lee", 
            "givenName": "Joo Hyeon", 
            "id": "sg:person.01203124066.66", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01203124066.66"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "MRC\u2014Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Cambridge, UK", 
              "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.42475.30", 
              "name": [
                "MRC\u2014Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Cambridge, UK"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "James", 
            "givenName": "Leo C.", 
            "id": "sg:person.01142773011.58", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01142773011.58"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "CSIR Institute of Genomics and Integrative Biology, Delhi, India", 
              "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.417639.e", 
              "name": [
                "CSIR Institute of Genomics and Integrative Biology, Delhi, India"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Thukral", 
            "givenName": "Lipi", 
            "id": "sg:person.0624116122.90", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0624116122.90"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Seattle, WA, USA", 
              "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.413575.1", 
              "name": [
                "Department of Biochemistry, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA", 
                "Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Seattle, WA, USA"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Veesler", 
            "givenName": "David", 
            "id": "sg:person.01002414777.95", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01002414777.95"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "School of Laboratory Medicine and Medical Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa", 
              "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.16463.36", 
              "name": [
                "Africa Health Research Institute, Durban, South Africa", 
                "Max Planck Institute for Infection Biology, Berlin, Germany", 
                "School of Laboratory Medicine and Medical Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Sigal", 
            "givenName": "Alex", 
            "id": "sg:person.01173767522.63", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01173767522.63"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "Addenbrooke\u2019s Hospital, Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Cambridge Biomedical Campus, Cambridge, UK", 
              "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.120073.7", 
              "name": [
                "Cambridge Institute of Therapeutic Immunology & Infectious Disease (CITIID), Cambridge, UK", 
                "Department of Medicine, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK", 
                "Wellcome-MRC Cambridge Stem Cell Institute, Cambridge, UK", 
                "Addenbrooke\u2019s Hospital, Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Cambridge Biomedical Campus, Cambridge, UK"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Sampaziotis", 
            "givenName": "Fotios", 
            "id": "sg:person.0754127215.55", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0754127215.55"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "Department of Virology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK", 
              "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.5335.0", 
              "name": [
                "Department of Virology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Goodfellow", 
            "givenName": "Ian G.", 
            "id": "sg:person.0754526214.03", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0754526214.03"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "NHS Blood and Transplant, Cambridge, UK", 
              "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.436365.1", 
              "name": [
                "Cambridge Institute of Therapeutic Immunology & Infectious Disease (CITIID), Cambridge, UK", 
                "Department of Medicine, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK", 
                "Addenbrooke\u2019s Hospital, Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Cambridge Biomedical Campus, Cambridge, UK", 
                "NHS Blood and Transplant, Cambridge, UK"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Matheson", 
            "givenName": "Nicholas J.", 
            "id": "sg:person.01371210161.89", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01371210161.89"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "CREST, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Saitama, Japan", 
              "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.419082.6", 
              "name": [
                "Division of Systems Virology, Department of Infectious Disease Control, International Research Center for Infectious Diseases, The Institute of Medical Science, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan", 
                "CREST, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Saitama, Japan"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Sato", 
            "givenName": "Kei", 
            "id": "sg:person.0710074174.33", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0710074174.33"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "Africa Health Research Institute, Durban, South Africa", 
              "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.488675.0", 
              "name": [
                "Cambridge Institute of Therapeutic Immunology & Infectious Disease (CITIID), Cambridge, UK", 
                "Department of Medicine, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK", 
                "Africa Health Research Institute, Durban, South Africa"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Gupta", 
            "givenName": "Ravindra K.", 
            "id": "sg:person.015420553744.98", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.015420553744.98"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }
        ], 
        "citation": [
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/nprot.2008.31", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1052864466", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/nprot.2008.31"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/s41579-020-00468-6", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1132055968", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/s41579-020-00468-6"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/s41586-020-2852-1", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1131609746", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-2852-1"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/nmeth.1923", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1006541515", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/nmeth.1923"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/nature02145", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1040468747", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/nature02145"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/s41586-021-03491-6", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1136981887", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-021-03491-6"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/s41586-022-04442-5", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1144855444", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-022-04442-5"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/s41586-022-04411-y", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1144751745", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-022-04411-y"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/s41586-021-04266-9", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1143040377", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-021-04266-9"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/s41586-021-03819-2", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1139691916", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-021-03819-2"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/nbt1044", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1009347902", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/nbt1044"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/s41586-020-3014-1", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1132921383", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-3014-1"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1186/s12859-019-3280-9", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1123694433", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1186/s12859-019-3280-9"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/s41564-021-00908-w", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1137490978", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/s41564-021-00908-w"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/s41586-021-04387-1", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1144583296", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-021-04387-1"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/s41586-021-04386-2", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1144583143", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-021-04386-2"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/s41586-021-03412-7", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1136301049", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-021-03412-7"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/s41467-021-25589-1", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1140998333", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-25589-1"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/s41586-021-03944-y", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1140902921", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-021-03944-y"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }
        ], 
        "datePublished": "2022-02-01", 
        "datePublishedReg": "2022-02-01", 
        "description": "The SARS-CoV-2 Omicron BA.1 variant emerged in 20211 and has multiple mutations in its spike protein2. Here we show that the spike protein of Omicron has a higher affinity for ACE2 compared with Delta, and a marked change in its antigenicity increases Omicron\u2019s evasion of therapeutic monoclonal and vaccine-elicited polyclonal neutralizing antibodies after two doses. mRNA vaccination as a third vaccine dose rescues and broadens neutralization. Importantly, the antiviral drugs remdesivir and molnupiravir retain efficacy against Omicron BA.1. Replication was similar for Omicron and Delta virus isolates in human nasal epithelial cultures. However,\u00a0in lung cells and gut cells, Omicron demonstrated lower replication. Omicron spike protein was less efficiently cleaved compared with Delta. The differences in replication were mapped to the entry efficiency of the virus on the basis\u00a0of spike-pseudotyped\u00a0virus assays. The defect in entry of Omicron pseudotyped virus to specific cell types effectively correlated with higher cellular RNA expression of TMPRSS2, and deletion of TMPRSS2 affected Delta entry to a greater extent than Omicron. Furthermore, drug inhibitors targeting specific entry pathways3 demonstrated that the Omicron spike inefficiently uses the cellular protease TMPRSS2, which promotes cell entry through plasma membrane fusion, with greater dependency on cell entry through the endocytic pathway. Consistent with suboptimal S1/S2 cleavage and inability to use TMPRSS2, syncytium formation by the Omicron spike was substantially impaired compared with the Delta spike. The less efficient spike cleavage of Omicron at S1/S2 is associated with a shift in cellular tropism away from TMPRSS2-expressing cells, with implications for altered pathogenesis.", 
        "genre": "article", 
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/s41586-022-04474-x", 
        "inLanguage": "en", 
        "isAccessibleForFree": true, 
        "isFundedItemOf": [
          {
            "id": "sg:grant.6945258", 
            "type": "MonetaryGrant"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:grant.7159982", 
            "type": "MonetaryGrant"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:grant.9728686", 
            "type": "MonetaryGrant"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:grant.6665527", 
            "type": "MonetaryGrant"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:grant.9642296", 
            "type": "MonetaryGrant"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:grant.7439430", 
            "type": "MonetaryGrant"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:grant.9728075", 
            "type": "MonetaryGrant"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:grant.4295093", 
            "type": "MonetaryGrant"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:grant.4580228", 
            "type": "MonetaryGrant"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:grant.9945864", 
            "type": "MonetaryGrant"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:grant.2756682", 
            "type": "MonetaryGrant"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:grant.7169995", 
            "type": "MonetaryGrant"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:grant.9534495", 
            "type": "MonetaryGrant"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:grant.6944636", 
            "type": "MonetaryGrant"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:grant.9618938", 
            "type": "MonetaryGrant"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:grant.9329969", 
            "type": "MonetaryGrant"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:grant.2683880", 
            "type": "MonetaryGrant"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:grant.9414658", 
            "type": "MonetaryGrant"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:grant.2770813", 
            "type": "MonetaryGrant"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:grant.9642300", 
            "type": "MonetaryGrant"
          }
        ], 
        "isPartOf": [
          {
            "id": "sg:journal.1018957", 
            "issn": [
              "0028-0836", 
              "1476-4687"
            ], 
            "name": "Nature", 
            "publisher": "Springer Nature", 
            "type": "Periodical"
          }, 
          {
            "issueNumber": "7902", 
            "type": "PublicationIssue"
          }, 
          {
            "type": "PublicationVolume", 
            "volumeNumber": "603"
          }
        ], 
        "keywords": [
          "S1/S2 cleavage", 
          "SARS-CoV-2 Omicron", 
          "cellular protease TMPRSS2", 
          "human nasal epithelial cultures", 
          "cellular RNA expression", 
          "nasal epithelial cultures", 
          "cell entry", 
          "Omicron Spike", 
          "mRNA vaccination", 
          "altered pathogenesis", 
          "protease TMPRSS2", 
          "antiviral drugs", 
          "spike cleavage", 
          "cellular tropism", 
          "lung cells", 
          "TMPRSS2", 
          "virus assay", 
          "delta virus", 
          "syncytium formation", 
          "spike protein", 
          "RNA expression", 
          "epithelial cultures", 
          "Omicron", 
          "S1/S2", 
          "gut cells", 
          "virus", 
          "drug inhibitors", 
          "specific cell types", 
          "plasma membrane fusion", 
          "cell types", 
          "multiple mutations", 
          "cells", 
          "high affinity", 
          "endocytic pathway", 
          "membrane fusion", 
          "entry efficiency", 
          "evasion", 
          "vaccination", 
          "pathogenesis", 
          "ACE2", 
          "doses", 
          "replication", 
          "antibodies", 
          "drugs", 
          "efficacy", 
          "tropism", 
          "delta entry", 
          "entry", 
          "greater extent", 
          "low replication", 
          "infectivity", 
          "antigenicity", 
          "protein", 
          "inhibitors", 
          "assays", 
          "greater dependency", 
          "expression", 
          "pathway", 
          "mutations", 
          "neutralization", 
          "inability", 
          "cleavage", 
          "rescue", 
          "differences", 
          "deletion", 
          "variants", 
          "protein2", 
          "S2 cleavage", 
          "spikes", 
          "fusogenicity", 
          "defects", 
          "delta", 
          "changes", 
          "culture", 
          "affinity", 
          "extent", 
          "fusion", 
          "types", 
          "implications", 
          "S2", 
          "basis", 
          "formation", 
          "usage", 
          "shift", 
          "dependency", 
          "Ba", 
          "efficiency"
        ], 
        "name": "Altered TMPRSS2 usage by SARS-CoV-2 Omicron impacts infectivity and fusogenicity", 
        "pagination": "706-714", 
        "productId": [
          {
            "name": "dimensions_id", 
            "type": "PropertyValue", 
            "value": [
              "pub.1145155022"
            ]
          }, 
          {
            "name": "doi", 
            "type": "PropertyValue", 
            "value": [
              "10.1038/s41586-022-04474-x"
            ]
          }, 
          {
            "name": "pubmed_id", 
            "type": "PropertyValue", 
            "value": [
              "35104837"
            ]
          }
        ], 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-022-04474-x", 
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1145155022"
        ], 
        "sdDataset": "articles", 
        "sdDatePublished": "2022-06-01T22:24", 
        "sdLicense": "https://scigraph.springernature.com/explorer/license/", 
        "sdPublisher": {
          "name": "Springer Nature - SN SciGraph project", 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "sdSource": "s3://com-springernature-scigraph/baseset/20220601/entities/gbq_results/article/article_932.jsonl", 
        "type": "ScholarlyArticle", 
        "url": "https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-022-04474-x"
      }
    ]
     

    Download the RDF metadata as:  json-ld nt turtle xml License info

    HOW TO GET THIS DATA PROGRAMMATICALLY:

    JSON-LD is a popular format for linked data which is fully compatible with JSON.

    curl -H 'Accept: application/ld+json' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1038/s41586-022-04474-x'

    N-Triples is a line-based linked data format ideal for batch operations.

    curl -H 'Accept: application/n-triples' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1038/s41586-022-04474-x'

    Turtle is a human-readable linked data format.

    curl -H 'Accept: text/turtle' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1038/s41586-022-04474-x'

    RDF/XML is a standard XML format for linked data.

    curl -H 'Accept: application/rdf+xml' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1038/s41586-022-04474-x'


     

    This table displays all metadata directly associated to this object as RDF triples.

    839 TRIPLES      22 PREDICATES      162 URIs      135 LITERALS      37 BLANK NODES

    Subject Predicate Object
    1 sg:pub.10.1038/s41586-022-04474-x schema:about N05ae14f2ab5c42b4a41deaaed2508b27
    2 N0e12398255d4491f90f31ae322993fde
    3 N118c78dd4e954ea1987e6e2fae94d7e5
    4 N17fcb1a9f24643fe90377872fdebfa75
    5 N1be57fd8df6544c09813f5473e1fbc32
    6 N20155f8a72d64c19a482712a0c7ff2af
    7 N22c4f0e3db504ebdb69aa1f7a4195407
    8 N56a3140bb8034bd18520f2f86efe6021
    9 N6049573d255b4bee8e41cb348b692461
    10 N6697226e22e4498e960b38ff291a0516
    11 N6d12379debbc4fb5a8de47f66ab7a380
    12 N821555eb430c4e05bfb04aae65c0bfbc
    13 N8cd5f54e5caa4ff1b6c651c513ec1c18
    14 N961938f78bd94e278d36dffe5cd05639
    15 N9760d3b984344aac82f42b39fdbabd2d
    16 N997107a8251544bbafcfb3597a68bb7d
    17 Na2b831b852d44f94baf80b53ec9005e5
    18 Nadcb742a7ac840dc89d1790c538b470d
    19 Nb1b89fe2bd4749d0bd1e79253614a465
    20 Nbbd8a966eaf043db940aa4bfa7ce1b5b
    21 Nbd06aa6bc93b4b7e99ecd525e709e196
    22 Nbeed5579647d45349a2390f44a9bcad8
    23 Nc27850c6e4134b9399a47efc47499f05
    24 Nd2ca324a49c740ca9868f4d9b3e8f74f
    25 Nd443a645aea8484b9a5f930c39554900
    26 Nd6fb0c78e7b841b7b159e1bee563c800
    27 Nda7e8d9c57c547d1b4ad91d18b1810c0
    28 Nf402f9dde10f48298e6f38347759f9ac
    29 Nf7ac5d5e12404eba8158640dc9afafc3
    30 Nfc3177a85290478cb776b2756be6644a
    31 anzsrc-for:06
    32 anzsrc-for:0601
    33 schema:author N330b2af52d394439a992fa3a6851eb14
    34 schema:citation sg:pub.10.1038/nature02145
    35 sg:pub.10.1038/nbt1044
    36 sg:pub.10.1038/nmeth.1923
    37 sg:pub.10.1038/nprot.2008.31
    38 sg:pub.10.1038/s41467-021-25589-1
    39 sg:pub.10.1038/s41564-021-00908-w
    40 sg:pub.10.1038/s41579-020-00468-6
    41 sg:pub.10.1038/s41586-020-2852-1
    42 sg:pub.10.1038/s41586-020-3014-1
    43 sg:pub.10.1038/s41586-021-03412-7
    44 sg:pub.10.1038/s41586-021-03491-6
    45 sg:pub.10.1038/s41586-021-03819-2
    46 sg:pub.10.1038/s41586-021-03944-y
    47 sg:pub.10.1038/s41586-021-04266-9
    48 sg:pub.10.1038/s41586-021-04386-2
    49 sg:pub.10.1038/s41586-021-04387-1
    50 sg:pub.10.1038/s41586-022-04411-y
    51 sg:pub.10.1038/s41586-022-04442-5
    52 sg:pub.10.1186/s12859-019-3280-9
    53 schema:datePublished 2022-02-01
    54 schema:datePublishedReg 2022-02-01
    55 schema:description The SARS-CoV-2 Omicron BA.1 variant emerged in 20211 and has multiple mutations in its spike protein2. Here we show that the spike protein of Omicron has a higher affinity for ACE2 compared with Delta, and a marked change in its antigenicity increases Omicron’s evasion of therapeutic monoclonal and vaccine-elicited polyclonal neutralizing antibodies after two doses. mRNA vaccination as a third vaccine dose rescues and broadens neutralization. Importantly, the antiviral drugs remdesivir and molnupiravir retain efficacy against Omicron BA.1. Replication was similar for Omicron and Delta virus isolates in human nasal epithelial cultures. However, in lung cells and gut cells, Omicron demonstrated lower replication. Omicron spike protein was less efficiently cleaved compared with Delta. The differences in replication were mapped to the entry efficiency of the virus on the basis of spike-pseudotyped virus assays. The defect in entry of Omicron pseudotyped virus to specific cell types effectively correlated with higher cellular RNA expression of TMPRSS2, and deletion of TMPRSS2 affected Delta entry to a greater extent than Omicron. Furthermore, drug inhibitors targeting specific entry pathways3 demonstrated that the Omicron spike inefficiently uses the cellular protease TMPRSS2, which promotes cell entry through plasma membrane fusion, with greater dependency on cell entry through the endocytic pathway. Consistent with suboptimal S1/S2 cleavage and inability to use TMPRSS2, syncytium formation by the Omicron spike was substantially impaired compared with the Delta spike. The less efficient spike cleavage of Omicron at S1/S2 is associated with a shift in cellular tropism away from TMPRSS2-expressing cells, with implications for altered pathogenesis.
    56 schema:genre article
    57 schema:inLanguage en
    58 schema:isAccessibleForFree true
    59 schema:isPartOf N74f4b8a3a4f4433b9271a39fa95d6d06
    60 N7f68e3f8d1124e249cb76339268e9884
    61 sg:journal.1018957
    62 schema:keywords ACE2
    63 Ba
    64 Omicron
    65 Omicron Spike
    66 RNA expression
    67 S1/S2
    68 S1/S2 cleavage
    69 S2
    70 S2 cleavage
    71 SARS-CoV-2 Omicron
    72 TMPRSS2
    73 affinity
    74 altered pathogenesis
    75 antibodies
    76 antigenicity
    77 antiviral drugs
    78 assays
    79 basis
    80 cell entry
    81 cell types
    82 cells
    83 cellular RNA expression
    84 cellular protease TMPRSS2
    85 cellular tropism
    86 changes
    87 cleavage
    88 culture
    89 defects
    90 deletion
    91 delta
    92 delta entry
    93 delta virus
    94 dependency
    95 differences
    96 doses
    97 drug inhibitors
    98 drugs
    99 efficacy
    100 efficiency
    101 endocytic pathway
    102 entry
    103 entry efficiency
    104 epithelial cultures
    105 evasion
    106 expression
    107 extent
    108 formation
    109 fusion
    110 fusogenicity
    111 greater dependency
    112 greater extent
    113 gut cells
    114 high affinity
    115 human nasal epithelial cultures
    116 implications
    117 inability
    118 infectivity
    119 inhibitors
    120 low replication
    121 lung cells
    122 mRNA vaccination
    123 membrane fusion
    124 multiple mutations
    125 mutations
    126 nasal epithelial cultures
    127 neutralization
    128 pathogenesis
    129 pathway
    130 plasma membrane fusion
    131 protease TMPRSS2
    132 protein
    133 protein2
    134 replication
    135 rescue
    136 shift
    137 specific cell types
    138 spike cleavage
    139 spike protein
    140 spikes
    141 syncytium formation
    142 tropism
    143 types
    144 usage
    145 vaccination
    146 variants
    147 virus
    148 virus assay
    149 schema:name Altered TMPRSS2 usage by SARS-CoV-2 Omicron impacts infectivity and fusogenicity
    150 schema:pagination 706-714
    151 schema:productId N03f29f4c3c7a4a6884f0906ff0d2068c
    152 N24fe20934d2146a1ae10ae53d8796cec
    153 Nee2db07f4ffc44e5b90f8b2a975a4d09
    154 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1145155022
    155 https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-022-04474-x
    156 schema:sdDatePublished 2022-06-01T22:24
    157 schema:sdLicense https://scigraph.springernature.com/explorer/license/
    158 schema:sdPublisher Nbc560bc47bc74884a419713a2e57eb3a
    159 schema:url https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-022-04474-x
    160 sgo:license sg:explorer/license/
    161 sgo:sdDataset articles
    162 rdf:type schema:ScholarlyArticle
    163 N012bf27cf1134e6687214537384a430d rdf:first sg:person.01371154041.06
    164 rdf:rest N65c9e839673a4566a1a295876210d713
    165 N03f29f4c3c7a4a6884f0906ff0d2068c schema:name pubmed_id
    166 schema:value 35104837
    167 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
    168 N05ae14f2ab5c42b4a41deaaed2508b27 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    169 schema:name Immune Sera
    170 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    171 N0c5f6e0bc8524a25bf5ce458f415cdf7 rdf:first sg:person.01024516236.10
    172 rdf:rest N175aa2e1fa304dac8dcd7dab63b0d280
    173 N0e12398255d4491f90f31ae322993fde schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    174 schema:name Virus Replication
    175 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    176 N100dd51151454583ad5f44ed07f643b0 rdf:first sg:person.012635140262.79
    177 rdf:rest Ne8d25d37390541e8af75d4698f9f38c7
    178 N107f75e572ac4f2eb8ce822c2cbdd650 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.288127.6
    179 schema:familyName Mitsunaga
    180 schema:givenName Shigeki
    181 rdf:type schema:Person
    182 N118c78dd4e954ea1987e6e2fae94d7e5 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    183 schema:name Animals
    184 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    185 N12313b6f492340b09ede9f49a3e4ad3e rdf:first sg:person.01002414777.95
    186 rdf:rest N413825b852544faab421e023cdebfcbf
    187 N1669ecb02c8a439daa7d406e94ba097b rdf:first sg:person.016500502257.30
    188 rdf:rest Na1fe8d6bb1fd494282391d8f63fd9861
    189 N175aa2e1fa304dac8dcd7dab63b0d280 rdf:first sg:person.014140460447.60
    190 rdf:rest Nf77183ac73ef48c6b90fe30244b6608e
    191 N17fcb1a9f24643fe90377872fdebfa75 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    192 schema:name Membrane Fusion
    193 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    194 N1be57fd8df6544c09813f5473e1fbc32 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    195 schema:name Aged, 80 and over
    196 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    197 N20155f8a72d64c19a482712a0c7ff2af schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    198 schema:name COVID-19
    199 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    200 N215b9ccf13cd48c4ba891133ea4d6ce2 rdf:first sg:person.01367765152.30
    201 rdf:rest Nf904f0d6c2154e278b1bcedddc30bbbd
    202 N22c4f0e3db504ebdb69aa1f7a4195407 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    203 schema:name Male
    204 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    205 N24fe20934d2146a1ae10ae53d8796cec schema:name dimensions_id
    206 schema:value pub.1145155022
    207 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
    208 N28e4f673de9a4d8d85e9a6eb6f2bdcf8 rdf:first sg:person.011327121142.30
    209 rdf:rest Naaf896ec07c14173aea048e389459a6f
    210 N29fb2d15966943ccb6c5bb4e0f8d7b84 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.258799.8
    211 schema:familyName Shirakawa
    212 schema:givenName Kotaro
    213 rdf:type schema:Person
    214 N330b2af52d394439a992fa3a6851eb14 rdf:first sg:person.01172550034.74
    215 rdf:rest N83684622bfdc43c582272e1a51ed169a
    216 N340aa747653943c0838a8bee54474094 rdf:first Nb782ff289e524221a779d9f6fccbd4bb
    217 rdf:rest Nc058f8d05f8940c08cee3ed2a437aa0c
    218 N3458761d67c447328b92431c093ea151 rdf:first N5f415b5539424bbd8c33c5664a2d5d3f
    219 rdf:rest N9bcab72847204ed7ac7aa2dcd3478f12
    220 N413825b852544faab421e023cdebfcbf rdf:first sg:person.01173767522.63
    221 rdf:rest Ne2800fc04d9b4efd80013d8eff53cc28
    222 N450cb71995d244488288ead6b683cfb1 rdf:first sg:person.01371210161.89
    223 rdf:rest N53c164d0aa7e4a62b9db7a3e0b4da696
    224 N50df4a79c1024434978e204cb884aebc rdf:first sg:person.0624116122.90
    225 rdf:rest N12313b6f492340b09ede9f49a3e4ad3e
    226 N53c164d0aa7e4a62b9db7a3e0b4da696 rdf:first sg:person.0710074174.33
    227 rdf:rest Nd71e4e6cb1654d709803f638ca4b690c
    228 N56a3140bb8034bd18520f2f86efe6021 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    229 schema:name Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2
    230 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    231 N572baa21c4204f91a578de09f9a7ea22 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.5335.0
    232 schema:familyName Walls
    233 schema:givenName Alexandra C.
    234 rdf:type schema:Person
    235 N5c73bd203b704332a4cb99ae39f258b8 rdf:first sg:person.01122476621.52
    236 rdf:rest Nb6580534e210473d8616c877b35a9228
    237 N5f415b5539424bbd8c33c5664a2d5d3f schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.52788.30
    238 schema:familyName Meyer
    239 schema:givenName Kerstin B.
    240 rdf:type schema:Person
    241 N6049573d255b4bee8e41cb348b692461 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    242 schema:name SARS-CoV-2
    243 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    244 N6070e09680824987b105e3c2461cf81b rdf:first sg:person.0741654565.08
    245 rdf:rest N8e8e1c94a21346f890e215cfc144304b
    246 N60de6dd7f166435a962b1f41249a79ad rdf:first sg:person.011140425455.72
    247 rdf:rest Nb64e8ea8a5f14a6b87ce06f553c2a66a
    248 N65c9e839673a4566a1a295876210d713 rdf:first N107f75e572ac4f2eb8ce822c2cbdd650
    249 rdf:rest N100dd51151454583ad5f44ed07f643b0
    250 N6697226e22e4498e960b38ff291a0516 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    251 schema:name Virus Internalization
    252 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    253 N6d12379debbc4fb5a8de47f66ab7a380 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    254 schema:name Aged
    255 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    256 N6f742c426cf8496781c2f727f4b9512d rdf:first sg:person.014507234055.41
    257 rdf:rest Na80c8cc14eab4d9ba7ce065048ec5bb3
    258 N6f7f0a1d5c0d423cbc6f1dcfbaa5e399 rdf:first sg:person.0761277112.16
    259 rdf:rest N6f742c426cf8496781c2f727f4b9512d
    260 N74f4b8a3a4f4433b9271a39fa95d6d06 schema:issueNumber 7902
    261 rdf:type schema:PublicationIssue
    262 N7797a9bfefc84195be1fa43435aaf4ec rdf:first Nb8fca0a1912a40be8d95debdfb16c93b
    263 rdf:rest N28e4f673de9a4d8d85e9a6eb6f2bdcf8
    264 N7f68e3f8d1124e249cb76339268e9884 schema:volumeNumber 603
    265 rdf:type schema:PublicationVolume
    266 N821555eb430c4e05bfb04aae65c0bfbc schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    267 schema:name Antibodies, Neutralizing
    268 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    269 N83684622bfdc43c582272e1a51ed169a rdf:first sg:person.013206156104.46
    270 rdf:rest Nb47a32c0f4e940818e8d2c7bd9d912df
    271 N8596dcc8afc243418c7ff9cceb3b26fb schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.5335.0
    272 schema:familyName Brevini
    273 schema:givenName Teresa
    274 rdf:type schema:Person
    275 N8cd5f54e5caa4ff1b6c651c513ec1c18 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    276 schema:name Intestines
    277 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    278 N8e8e1c94a21346f890e215cfc144304b rdf:first sg:person.01037524127.04
    279 rdf:rest Ne3379cb47f3b4ebc97c2a93bc7821b3d
    280 N9064501166dc4f58a6337e94fa1653b7 rdf:first Ne8efd4316d2543009106120f3be87ff0
    281 rdf:rest N7797a9bfefc84195be1fa43435aaf4ec
    282 N91af2cc4ddc345448e24c03f197b531a rdf:first sg:person.010374014653.49
    283 rdf:rest Nc75c0a9f03964a72a9ae016831922e63
    284 N928d2381c65d477185a404d3af463e62 rdf:first sg:person.01142773011.58
    285 rdf:rest N50df4a79c1024434978e204cb884aebc
    286 N93a1963cc67846bd851d83d485cebf2c rdf:first sg:person.014355352764.09
    287 rdf:rest Nc39ab04198b34bb891caee698adb45c7
    288 N961938f78bd94e278d36dffe5cd05639 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    289 schema:name Virulence
    290 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    291 N9760d3b984344aac82f42b39fdbabd2d schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    292 schema:name Cell Line
    293 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    294 N997107a8251544bbafcfb3597a68bb7d schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    295 schema:name Humans
    296 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    297 N9bcab72847204ed7ac7aa2dcd3478f12 rdf:first sg:person.0604754166.75
    298 rdf:rest Nfd2fa9ad1d3745e287e56970af795b07
    299 N9c566fde760747fe8c3e79a0de1978fa rdf:first N572baa21c4204f91a578de09f9a7ea22
    300 rdf:rest N60de6dd7f166435a962b1f41249a79ad
    301 N9fa347a3cd454f65b40fd56f72c7c84c rdf:first sg:person.010527002457.96
    302 rdf:rest N6070e09680824987b105e3c2461cf81b
    303 Na1fe8d6bb1fd494282391d8f63fd9861 rdf:first sg:person.01176047565.20
    304 rdf:rest N93a1963cc67846bd851d83d485cebf2c
    305 Na2b831b852d44f94baf80b53ec9005e5 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    306 schema:name Cell Membrane
    307 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    308 Na80c8cc14eab4d9ba7ce065048ec5bb3 rdf:first sg:person.01340264536.63
    309 rdf:rest Nc3f8c5df05854acba15d5b570064210d
    310 Naaf896ec07c14173aea048e389459a6f rdf:first sg:person.07760352111.62
    311 rdf:rest Ne8b618f3cd7f428ab4cec72295756ddb
    312 Nac1592a7d09f4d6abe07f6b794fd5ee6 rdf:first sg:person.0636075303.08
    313 rdf:rest N5c73bd203b704332a4cb99ae39f258b8
    314 Nac5d7697a7a54a4d9f38e0e97a28145c rdf:first sg:person.0743352217.37
    315 rdf:rest Nedeb4daab1734d8e9266bcb97c84a275
    316 Nadcb742a7ac840dc89d1790c538b470d schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    317 schema:name Adult
    318 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    319 Nb1b89fe2bd4749d0bd1e79253614a465 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    320 schema:name Mutation
    321 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    322 Nb47a32c0f4e940818e8d2c7bd9d912df rdf:first sg:person.016400270617.72
    323 rdf:rest N1669ecb02c8a439daa7d406e94ba097b
    324 Nb64e8ea8a5f14a6b87ce06f553c2a66a rdf:first Ne08ec5d055764cd4b3f2b2203a9b2dce
    325 rdf:rest N9064501166dc4f58a6337e94fa1653b7
    326 Nb6580534e210473d8616c877b35a9228 rdf:first Nfb1c242a51f2440f83666ef1f798e402
    327 rdf:rest N6f7f0a1d5c0d423cbc6f1dcfbaa5e399
    328 Nb782ff289e524221a779d9f6fccbd4bb schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.34477.33
    329 schema:familyName Bowen
    330 schema:givenName John E.
    331 rdf:type schema:Person
    332 Nb8fca0a1912a40be8d95debdfb16c93b schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.5335.0
    333 schema:familyName Bradley
    334 schema:givenName John
    335 rdf:type schema:Person
    336 Nbbd8a966eaf043db940aa4bfa7ce1b5b schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    337 schema:name Middle Aged
    338 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    339 Nbc560bc47bc74884a419713a2e57eb3a schema:name Springer Nature - SN SciGraph project
    340 rdf:type schema:Organization
    341 Nbd06aa6bc93b4b7e99ecd525e709e196 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    342 schema:name Lung
    343 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    344 Nbeed5579647d45349a2390f44a9bcad8 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    345 schema:name Female
    346 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    347 Nc058f8d05f8940c08cee3ed2a437aa0c rdf:first Nd2071076d63e48e2873bb07ddbb974c7
    348 rdf:rest N9c566fde760747fe8c3e79a0de1978fa
    349 Nc27850c6e4134b9399a47efc47499f05 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    350 schema:name COVID-19 Vaccines
    351 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    352 Nc2df76cadb0d476395bda435e069b34c rdf:first sg:person.0754526214.03
    353 rdf:rest N450cb71995d244488288ead6b683cfb1
    354 Nc39ab04198b34bb891caee698adb45c7 rdf:first sg:person.0671555150.92
    355 rdf:rest N0c5f6e0bc8524a25bf5ce458f415cdf7
    356 Nc3f8c5df05854acba15d5b570064210d rdf:first sg:person.0641332372.02
    357 rdf:rest Nf8f201d66f614b56bddc1ef81f859e0e
    358 Nc75c0a9f03964a72a9ae016831922e63 rdf:first sg:person.014116501431.07
    359 rdf:rest N9fa347a3cd454f65b40fd56f72c7c84c
    360 Nd2071076d63e48e2873bb07ddbb974c7 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.34477.33
    361 schema:familyName Joshi
    362 schema:givenName Anshu
    363 rdf:type schema:Person
    364 Nd2ca324a49c740ca9868f4d9b3e8f74f schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    365 schema:name Chlorocebus aethiops
    366 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    367 Nd443a645aea8484b9a5f930c39554900 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    368 schema:name Serine Endopeptidases
    369 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    370 Nd6fb0c78e7b841b7b159e1bee563c800 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    371 schema:name Convalescence
    372 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    373 Nd71e4e6cb1654d709803f638ca4b690c rdf:first sg:person.015420553744.98
    374 rdf:rest rdf:nil
    375 Nda7e8d9c57c547d1b4ad91d18b1810c0 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    376 schema:name Tissue Culture Techniques
    377 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    378 Ne08ec5d055764cd4b3f2b2203a9b2dce schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.7836.a
    379 schema:familyName Martin
    380 schema:givenName Darren
    381 rdf:type schema:Person
    382 Ne2800fc04d9b4efd80013d8eff53cc28 rdf:first sg:person.0754127215.55
    383 rdf:rest Nc2df76cadb0d476395bda435e069b34c
    384 Ne3379cb47f3b4ebc97c2a93bc7821b3d rdf:first sg:person.014674001117.01
    385 rdf:rest N012bf27cf1134e6687214537384a430d
    386 Ne8b618f3cd7f428ab4cec72295756ddb rdf:first sg:person.01033775030.15
    387 rdf:rest N3458761d67c447328b92431c093ea151
    388 Ne8d25d37390541e8af75d4698f9f38c7 rdf:first N29fb2d15966943ccb6c5bb4e0f8d7b84
    389 rdf:rest Nac5d7697a7a54a4d9f38e0e97a28145c
    390 Ne8efd4316d2543009106120f3be87ff0 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.5335.0
    391 schema:familyName Smith
    392 schema:givenName Kenneth G. C.
    393 rdf:type schema:Person
    394 Nedeb4daab1734d8e9266bcb97c84a275 rdf:first N8596dcc8afc243418c7ff9cceb3b26fb
    395 rdf:rest N215b9ccf13cd48c4ba891133ea4d6ce2
    396 Nee2db07f4ffc44e5b90f8b2a975a4d09 schema:name doi
    397 schema:value 10.1038/s41586-022-04474-x
    398 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
    399 Nf402f9dde10f48298e6f38347759f9ac schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    400 schema:name Nasal Mucosa
    401 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    402 Nf77183ac73ef48c6b90fe30244b6608e rdf:first sg:person.014601144413.34
    403 rdf:rest N91af2cc4ddc345448e24c03f197b531a
    404 Nf7ac5d5e12404eba8158640dc9afafc3 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    405 schema:name Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
    406 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    407 Nf8f201d66f614b56bddc1ef81f859e0e rdf:first sg:person.01203124066.66
    408 rdf:rest N928d2381c65d477185a404d3af463e62
    409 Nf904f0d6c2154e278b1bcedddc30bbbd rdf:first sg:person.013261660457.37
    410 rdf:rest N340aa747653943c0838a8bee54474094
    411 Nfb1c242a51f2440f83666ef1f798e402 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.1006.7
    412 schema:familyName Fisher
    413 schema:givenName Andrew J.
    414 rdf:type schema:Person
    415 Nfc3177a85290478cb776b2756be6644a schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    416 schema:name Antibodies, Viral
    417 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    418 Nfd2fa9ad1d3745e287e56970af795b07 rdf:first sg:person.01062620045.26
    419 rdf:rest Nac1592a7d09f4d6abe07f6b794fd5ee6
    420 anzsrc-for:06 schema:inDefinedTermSet anzsrc-for:
    421 schema:name Biological Sciences
    422 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    423 anzsrc-for:0601 schema:inDefinedTermSet anzsrc-for:
    424 schema:name Biochemistry and Cell Biology
    425 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    426 sg:grant.2683880 http://pending.schema.org/fundedItem sg:pub.10.1038/s41586-022-04474-x
    427 rdf:type schema:MonetaryGrant
    428 sg:grant.2756682 http://pending.schema.org/fundedItem sg:pub.10.1038/s41586-022-04474-x
    429 rdf:type schema:MonetaryGrant
    430 sg:grant.2770813 http://pending.schema.org/fundedItem sg:pub.10.1038/s41586-022-04474-x
    431 rdf:type schema:MonetaryGrant
    432 sg:grant.4295093 http://pending.schema.org/fundedItem sg:pub.10.1038/s41586-022-04474-x
    433 rdf:type schema:MonetaryGrant
    434 sg:grant.4580228 http://pending.schema.org/fundedItem sg:pub.10.1038/s41586-022-04474-x
    435 rdf:type schema:MonetaryGrant
    436 sg:grant.6665527 http://pending.schema.org/fundedItem sg:pub.10.1038/s41586-022-04474-x
    437 rdf:type schema:MonetaryGrant
    438 sg:grant.6944636 http://pending.schema.org/fundedItem sg:pub.10.1038/s41586-022-04474-x
    439 rdf:type schema:MonetaryGrant
    440 sg:grant.6945258 http://pending.schema.org/fundedItem sg:pub.10.1038/s41586-022-04474-x
    441 rdf:type schema:MonetaryGrant
    442 sg:grant.7159982 http://pending.schema.org/fundedItem sg:pub.10.1038/s41586-022-04474-x
    443 rdf:type schema:MonetaryGrant
    444 sg:grant.7169995 http://pending.schema.org/fundedItem sg:pub.10.1038/s41586-022-04474-x
    445 rdf:type schema:MonetaryGrant
    446 sg:grant.7439430 http://pending.schema.org/fundedItem sg:pub.10.1038/s41586-022-04474-x
    447 rdf:type schema:MonetaryGrant
    448 sg:grant.9329969 http://pending.schema.org/fundedItem sg:pub.10.1038/s41586-022-04474-x
    449 rdf:type schema:MonetaryGrant
    450 sg:grant.9414658 http://pending.schema.org/fundedItem sg:pub.10.1038/s41586-022-04474-x
    451 rdf:type schema:MonetaryGrant
    452 sg:grant.9534495 http://pending.schema.org/fundedItem sg:pub.10.1038/s41586-022-04474-x
    453 rdf:type schema:MonetaryGrant
    454 sg:grant.9618938 http://pending.schema.org/fundedItem sg:pub.10.1038/s41586-022-04474-x
    455 rdf:type schema:MonetaryGrant
    456 sg:grant.9642296 http://pending.schema.org/fundedItem sg:pub.10.1038/s41586-022-04474-x
    457 rdf:type schema:MonetaryGrant
    458 sg:grant.9642300 http://pending.schema.org/fundedItem sg:pub.10.1038/s41586-022-04474-x
    459 rdf:type schema:MonetaryGrant
    460 sg:grant.9728075 http://pending.schema.org/fundedItem sg:pub.10.1038/s41586-022-04474-x
    461 rdf:type schema:MonetaryGrant
    462 sg:grant.9728686 http://pending.schema.org/fundedItem sg:pub.10.1038/s41586-022-04474-x
    463 rdf:type schema:MonetaryGrant
    464 sg:grant.9945864 http://pending.schema.org/fundedItem sg:pub.10.1038/s41586-022-04474-x
    465 rdf:type schema:MonetaryGrant
    466 sg:journal.1018957 schema:issn 0028-0836
    467 1476-4687
    468 schema:name Nature
    469 schema:publisher Springer Nature
    470 rdf:type schema:Periodical
    471 sg:person.01002414777.95 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.413575.1
    472 schema:familyName Veesler
    473 schema:givenName David
    474 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01002414777.95
    475 rdf:type schema:Person
    476 sg:person.01024516236.10 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.5335.0
    477 schema:familyName Gerber
    478 schema:givenName Pehuén Pereyra
    479 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01024516236.10
    480 rdf:type schema:Person
    481 sg:person.01033775030.15 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.225360.0
    482 schema:familyName Madissoon
    483 schema:givenName Elo
    484 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01033775030.15
    485 rdf:type schema:Person
    486 sg:person.010374014653.49 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.34477.33
    487 schema:familyName Zepeda
    488 schema:givenName Samantha K.
    489 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.010374014653.49
    490 rdf:type schema:Person
    491 sg:person.01037524127.04 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.274841.c
    492 schema:familyName Toyoda
    493 schema:givenName Mako
    494 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01037524127.04
    495 rdf:type schema:Person
    496 sg:person.010527002457.96 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.5335.0
    497 schema:familyName Kemp
    498 schema:givenName Steven A.
    499 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.010527002457.96
    500 rdf:type schema:Person
    501 sg:person.01062620045.26 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.120073.7
    502 schema:familyName Ceron-Gutierrez
    503 schema:givenName Lourdes
    504 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01062620045.26
    505 rdf:type schema:Person
    506 sg:person.011140425455.72 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.488675.0
    507 schema:familyName Jackson
    508 schema:givenName Laurelle
    509 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.011140425455.72
    510 rdf:type schema:Person
    511 sg:person.01122476621.52 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.5335.0
    512 schema:familyName Teichmann
    513 schema:givenName Sarah A.
    514 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01122476621.52
    515 rdf:type schema:Person
    516 sg:person.011327121142.30 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.418615.f
    517 schema:familyName Briggs
    518 schema:givenName John A. G.
    519 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.011327121142.30
    520 rdf:type schema:Person
    521 sg:person.01142773011.58 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.42475.30
    522 schema:familyName James
    523 schema:givenName Leo C.
    524 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01142773011.58
    525 rdf:type schema:Person
    526 sg:person.01172550034.74 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.5335.0
    527 schema:familyName Meng
    528 schema:givenName Bo
    529 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01172550034.74
    530 rdf:type schema:Person
    531 sg:person.01173767522.63 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.16463.36
    532 schema:familyName Sigal
    533 schema:givenName Alex
    534 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01173767522.63
    535 rdf:type schema:Person
    536 sg:person.01176047565.20 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.410849.0
    537 schema:familyName Saito
    538 schema:givenName Akatsuki
    539 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01176047565.20
    540 rdf:type schema:Person
    541 sg:person.01203124066.66 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.5335.0
    542 schema:familyName Lee
    543 schema:givenName Joo Hyeon
    544 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01203124066.66
    545 rdf:type schema:Person
    546 sg:person.012635140262.79 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.274841.c
    547 schema:familyName Ueno
    548 schema:givenName Takamasa
    549 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.012635140262.79
    550 rdf:type schema:Person
    551 sg:person.013206156104.46 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.5335.0
    552 schema:familyName Abdullahi
    553 schema:givenName Adam
    554 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.013206156104.46
    555 rdf:type schema:Person
    556 sg:person.013261660457.37 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.83440.3b
    557 schema:familyName Charles
    558 schema:givenName Oscar J.
    559 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.013261660457.37
    560 rdf:type schema:Person
    561 sg:person.01340264536.63 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.498378.9
    562 schema:familyName Corti
    563 schema:givenName Davide
    564 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01340264536.63
    565 rdf:type schema:Person
    566 sg:person.01367765152.30 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.42475.30
    567 schema:familyName Mallery
    568 schema:givenName Donna L.
    569 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01367765152.30
    570 rdf:type schema:Person
    571 sg:person.01371154041.06 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:None
    572 schema:familyName Kuramochi
    573 schema:givenName Jin
    574 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01371154041.06
    575 rdf:type schema:Person
    576 sg:person.01371210161.89 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.436365.1
    577 schema:familyName Matheson
    578 schema:givenName Nicholas J.
    579 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01371210161.89
    580 rdf:type schema:Person
    581 sg:person.014116501431.07 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.42475.30
    582 schema:familyName Papa
    583 schema:givenName Guido
    584 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.014116501431.07
    585 rdf:type schema:Person
    586 sg:person.014140460447.60 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.417639.e
    587 schema:familyName Fatihi
    588 schema:givenName Saman
    589 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.014140460447.60
    590 rdf:type schema:Person
    591 sg:person.014355352764.09 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.26999.3d
    592 schema:familyName Kimura
    593 schema:givenName Izumi
    594 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.014355352764.09
    595 rdf:type schema:Person
    596 sg:person.014507234055.41 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.498378.9
    597 schema:familyName de Marco
    598 schema:givenName Anna
    599 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.014507234055.41
    600 rdf:type schema:Person
    601 sg:person.014601144413.34 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.417639.e
    602 schema:familyName Rathore
    603 schema:givenName Surabhi
    604 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.014601144413.34
    605 rdf:type schema:Person
    606 sg:person.014674001117.01 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.274841.c
    607 schema:familyName Tan
    608 schema:givenName Toong Seng
    609 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.014674001117.01
    610 rdf:type schema:Person
    611 sg:person.015420553744.98 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.488675.0
    612 schema:familyName Gupta
    613 schema:givenName Ravindra K.
    614 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.015420553744.98
    615 rdf:type schema:Person
    616 sg:person.016400270617.72 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.5335.0
    617 schema:familyName Ferreira
    618 schema:givenName Isabella A. T. M.
    619 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.016400270617.72
    620 rdf:type schema:Person
    621 sg:person.016500502257.30 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.5335.0
    622 schema:familyName Goonawardane
    623 schema:givenName Niluka
    624 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.016500502257.30
    625 rdf:type schema:Person
    626 sg:person.0604754166.75 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.5335.0
    627 schema:familyName Mlcochova
    628 schema:givenName Petra
    629 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0604754166.75
    630 rdf:type schema:Person
    631 sg:person.0624116122.90 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.417639.e
    632 schema:familyName Thukral
    633 schema:givenName Lipi
    634 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0624116122.90
    635 rdf:type schema:Person
    636 sg:person.0636075303.08 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.120073.7
    637 schema:familyName Doffinger
    638 schema:givenName Rainer
    639 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0636075303.08
    640 rdf:type schema:Person
    641 sg:person.0641332372.02 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.5335.0
    642 schema:familyName Hosmillo
    643 schema:givenName Myra
    644 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0641332372.02
    645 rdf:type schema:Person
    646 sg:person.0671555150.92 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.26999.3d
    647 schema:familyName Yamasoba
    648 schema:givenName Daichi
    649 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0671555150.92
    650 rdf:type schema:Person
    651 sg:person.0710074174.33 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.419082.6
    652 schema:familyName Sato
    653 schema:givenName Kei
    654 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0710074174.33
    655 rdf:type schema:Person
    656 sg:person.0741654565.08 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.274841.c
    657 schema:familyName Ikeda
    658 schema:givenName Terumasa
    659 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0741654565.08
    660 rdf:type schema:Person
    661 sg:person.0743352217.37 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.258799.8
    662 schema:familyName Takaori-Kondo
    663 schema:givenName Akifumi
    664 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0743352217.37
    665 rdf:type schema:Person
    666 sg:person.0754127215.55 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.120073.7
    667 schema:familyName Sampaziotis
    668 schema:givenName Fotios
    669 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0754127215.55
    670 rdf:type schema:Person
    671 sg:person.0754526214.03 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.5335.0
    672 schema:familyName Goodfellow
    673 schema:givenName Ian G.
    674 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0754526214.03
    675 rdf:type schema:Person
    676 sg:person.0761277112.16 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.498378.9
    677 schema:familyName Pizzuto
    678 schema:givenName Matteo S.
    679 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0761277112.16
    680 rdf:type schema:Person
    681 sg:person.07760352111.62 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.449973.4
    682 schema:familyName Choi
    683 schema:givenName Jinwook
    684 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.07760352111.62
    685 rdf:type schema:Person
    686 sg:pub.10.1038/nature02145 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1040468747
    687 https://doi.org/10.1038/nature02145
    688 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    689 sg:pub.10.1038/nbt1044 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1009347902
    690 https://doi.org/10.1038/nbt1044
    691 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    692 sg:pub.10.1038/nmeth.1923 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1006541515
    693 https://doi.org/10.1038/nmeth.1923
    694 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    695 sg:pub.10.1038/nprot.2008.31 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1052864466
    696 https://doi.org/10.1038/nprot.2008.31
    697 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    698 sg:pub.10.1038/s41467-021-25589-1 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1140998333
    699 https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-25589-1
    700 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    701 sg:pub.10.1038/s41564-021-00908-w schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1137490978
    702 https://doi.org/10.1038/s41564-021-00908-w
    703 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    704 sg:pub.10.1038/s41579-020-00468-6 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1132055968
    705 https://doi.org/10.1038/s41579-020-00468-6
    706 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    707 sg:pub.10.1038/s41586-020-2852-1 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1131609746
    708 https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-2852-1
    709 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    710 sg:pub.10.1038/s41586-020-3014-1 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1132921383
    711 https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-3014-1
    712 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    713 sg:pub.10.1038/s41586-021-03412-7 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1136301049
    714 https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-021-03412-7
    715 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    716 sg:pub.10.1038/s41586-021-03491-6 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1136981887
    717 https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-021-03491-6
    718 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    719 sg:pub.10.1038/s41586-021-03819-2 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1139691916
    720 https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-021-03819-2
    721 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    722 sg:pub.10.1038/s41586-021-03944-y schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1140902921
    723 https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-021-03944-y
    724 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    725 sg:pub.10.1038/s41586-021-04266-9 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1143040377
    726 https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-021-04266-9
    727 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    728 sg:pub.10.1038/s41586-021-04386-2 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1144583143
    729 https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-021-04386-2
    730 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    731 sg:pub.10.1038/s41586-021-04387-1 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1144583296
    732 https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-021-04387-1
    733 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    734 sg:pub.10.1038/s41586-022-04411-y schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1144751745
    735 https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-022-04411-y
    736 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    737 sg:pub.10.1038/s41586-022-04442-5 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1144855444
    738 https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-022-04442-5
    739 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    740 sg:pub.10.1186/s12859-019-3280-9 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1123694433
    741 https://doi.org/10.1186/s12859-019-3280-9
    742 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    743 grid-institutes:None schema:alternateName Kuramochi Clinic Interpark, Utsunomiya, Japan
    744 schema:name Kuramochi Clinic Interpark, Utsunomiya, Japan
    745 rdf:type schema:Organization
    746 grid-institutes:grid.1006.7 schema:alternateName Transplant and Regenerative Medicine Laboratory, Translational and Clinical Research Institute, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Newcastle University, Newcastle Upon Tyne, UK
    747 schema:name Transplant and Regenerative Medicine Laboratory, Translational and Clinical Research Institute, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Newcastle University, Newcastle Upon Tyne, UK
    748 rdf:type schema:Organization
    749 grid-institutes:grid.120073.7 schema:alternateName Addenbrooke’s Hospital, Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Cambridge Biomedical Campus, Cambridge, UK
    750 schema:name Addenbrooke’s Hospital, Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Cambridge Biomedical Campus, Cambridge, UK
    751 Cambridge Institute of Therapeutic Immunology & Infectious Disease (CITIID), Cambridge, UK
    752 Department of Medicine, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK
    753 Wellcome-MRC Cambridge Stem Cell Institute, Cambridge, UK
    754 rdf:type schema:Organization
    755 grid-institutes:grid.16463.36 schema:alternateName School of Laboratory Medicine and Medical Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa
    756 schema:name Africa Health Research Institute, Durban, South Africa
    757 Max Planck Institute for Infection Biology, Berlin, Germany
    758 School of Laboratory Medicine and Medical Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa
    759 rdf:type schema:Organization
    760 grid-institutes:grid.225360.0 schema:alternateName European Molecular Biology Laboratory, European Bioinformatics Institute, EMBL-EBI, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, UK
    761 schema:name European Molecular Biology Laboratory, European Bioinformatics Institute, EMBL-EBI, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, UK
    762 Welcome Sanger Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, UK
    763 rdf:type schema:Organization
    764 grid-institutes:grid.258799.8 schema:alternateName Department of Hematology and Oncology, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan
    765 schema:name Department of Hematology and Oncology, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan
    766 rdf:type schema:Organization
    767 grid-institutes:grid.26999.3d schema:alternateName Division of Systems Virology, Department of Infectious Disease Control, International Research Center for Infectious Diseases, The Institute of Medical Science, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan
    768 schema:name Division of Systems Virology, Department of Infectious Disease Control, International Research Center for Infectious Diseases, The Institute of Medical Science, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan
    769 rdf:type schema:Organization
    770 grid-institutes:grid.274841.c schema:alternateName Division of Infection and Immunity, Joint Research Center for Human Retrovirus Infection, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto, Japan
    771 Division of Molecular Virology and Genetics, Joint Research Center for Human Retrovirus Infection, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto, Japan
    772 schema:name Division of Infection and Immunity, Joint Research Center for Human Retrovirus Infection, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto, Japan
    773 Division of Molecular Virology and Genetics, Joint Research Center for Human Retrovirus Infection, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto, Japan
    774 rdf:type schema:Organization
    775 grid-institutes:grid.288127.6 schema:alternateName Human Genetics Laboratory, National Institute of Genetics, Mishima, Japan
    776 schema:name Human Genetics Laboratory, National Institute of Genetics, Mishima, Japan
    777 rdf:type schema:Organization
    778 grid-institutes:grid.34477.33 schema:alternateName Department of Biochemistry, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA
    779 schema:name Department of Biochemistry, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA
    780 rdf:type schema:Organization
    781 grid-institutes:grid.410849.0 schema:alternateName Department of Veterinary Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Miyazaki, Miyazaki, Japan
    782 schema:name Department of Veterinary Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Miyazaki, Miyazaki, Japan
    783 rdf:type schema:Organization
    784 grid-institutes:grid.413575.1 schema:alternateName Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Seattle, WA, USA
    785 schema:name Department of Biochemistry, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA
    786 Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Seattle, WA, USA
    787 rdf:type schema:Organization
    788 grid-institutes:grid.417639.e schema:alternateName CSIR Institute of Genomics and Integrative Biology, Delhi, India
    789 schema:name CSIR Institute of Genomics and Integrative Biology, Delhi, India
    790 rdf:type schema:Organization
    791 grid-institutes:grid.418615.f schema:alternateName Max Planck Institute of Biochemistry, Martinsried, Germany
    792 schema:name Max Planck Institute of Biochemistry, Martinsried, Germany
    793 rdf:type schema:Organization
    794 grid-institutes:grid.419082.6 schema:alternateName CREST, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Saitama, Japan
    795 schema:name CREST, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Saitama, Japan
    796 Division of Systems Virology, Department of Infectious Disease Control, International Research Center for Infectious Diseases, The Institute of Medical Science, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan
    797 rdf:type schema:Organization
    798 grid-institutes:grid.42475.30 schema:alternateName MRC—Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Cambridge, UK
    799 schema:name MRC—Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Cambridge, UK
    800 rdf:type schema:Organization
    801 grid-institutes:grid.436365.1 schema:alternateName NHS Blood and Transplant, Cambridge, UK
    802 schema:name Addenbrooke’s Hospital, Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Cambridge Biomedical Campus, Cambridge, UK
    803 Cambridge Institute of Therapeutic Immunology & Infectious Disease (CITIID), Cambridge, UK
    804 Department of Medicine, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK
    805 NHS Blood and Transplant, Cambridge, UK
    806 rdf:type schema:Organization
    807 grid-institutes:grid.449973.4 schema:alternateName Wellcome-MRC Cambridge Stem Cell Institute, Cambridge, UK
    808 schema:name Wellcome-MRC Cambridge Stem Cell Institute, Cambridge, UK
    809 rdf:type schema:Organization
    810 grid-institutes:grid.488675.0 schema:alternateName Africa Health Research Institute, Durban, South Africa
    811 schema:name Africa Health Research Institute, Durban, South Africa
    812 Cambridge Institute of Therapeutic Immunology & Infectious Disease (CITIID), Cambridge, UK
    813 Department of Medicine, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK
    814 rdf:type schema:Organization
    815 grid-institutes:grid.498378.9 schema:alternateName Humabs Biomed SA, a subsidiary of Vir Biotechnology, Bellinzona, Switzerland
    816 schema:name Humabs Biomed SA, a subsidiary of Vir Biotechnology, Bellinzona, Switzerland
    817 rdf:type schema:Organization
    818 grid-institutes:grid.52788.30 schema:alternateName Welcome Sanger Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, UK
    819 schema:name Welcome Sanger Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, UK
    820 rdf:type schema:Organization
    821 grid-institutes:grid.5335.0 schema:alternateName Cavendish Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK
    822 Department of Medicine, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK
    823 Department of Physiology, Development and Neuroscience, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK
    824 Department of Virology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK
    825 schema:name Cambridge Institute of Therapeutic Immunology & Infectious Disease (CITIID), Cambridge, UK
    826 Cavendish Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK
    827 Department of Biochemistry, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA
    828 Department of Medicine, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK
    829 Department of Physiology, Development and Neuroscience, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK
    830 Department of Virology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK
    831 Welcome Sanger Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, UK
    832 Wellcome-MRC Cambridge Stem Cell Institute, Cambridge, UK
    833 rdf:type schema:Organization
    834 grid-institutes:grid.7836.a schema:alternateName University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    835 schema:name University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    836 rdf:type schema:Organization
    837 grid-institutes:grid.83440.3b schema:alternateName Division of Infection and Immunity, UCL, London, UK
    838 schema:name Division of Infection and Immunity, UCL, London, UK
    839 rdf:type schema:Organization
     




    Preview window. Press ESC to close (or click here)


    ...