Age estimates for hominin fossils and the onset of the Upper Palaeolithic at Denisova Cave View Full Text


Ontology type: schema:ScholarlyArticle     


Article Info

DATE

2019-01

AUTHORS

Katerina Douka, Viviane Slon, Zenobia Jacobs, Christopher Bronk Ramsey, Michael V. Shunkov, Anatoly P. Derevianko, Fabrizio Mafessoni, Maxim B. Kozlikin, Bo Li, Rainer Grün, Daniel Comeskey, Thibaut Devièse, Samantha Brown, Bence Viola, Leslie Kinsley, Michael Buckley, Matthias Meyer, Richard G. Roberts, Svante Pääbo, Janet Kelso, Tom Higham

ABSTRACT

Denisova Cave in the Siberian Altai (Russia) is a key site for understanding the complex relationships between hominin groups that inhabited Eurasia in the Middle and Late Pleistocene epoch. DNA sequenced from human remains found at this site has revealed the presence of a hitherto unknown hominin group, the Denisovans1,2, and high-coverage genomes from both Neanderthal and Denisovan fossils provide evidence for admixture between these two populations3. Determining the age of these fossils is important if we are to understand the nature of hominin interaction, and aspects of their cultural and subsistence adaptations. Here we present 50 radiocarbon determinations from the late Middle and Upper Palaeolithic layers of the site. We also report three direct dates for hominin fragments and obtain a mitochondrial DNA sequence for one of them. We apply a Bayesian age modelling approach that combines chronometric (radiocarbon, uranium series and optical ages), stratigraphic and genetic data to calculate probabilistically the age of the human fossils at the site. Our modelled estimate for the age of the oldest Denisovan fossil suggests that this group was present at the site as early as 195,000 years ago (at 95.4% probability). All Neanderthal fossils-as well as Denisova 11, the daughter of a Neanderthal and a Denisovan4-date to between 80,000 and 140,000 years ago. The youngest Denisovan dates to 52,000-76,000 years ago. Direct radiocarbon dating of Upper Palaeolithic tooth pendants and bone points yielded the earliest evidence for the production of these artefacts in northern Eurasia, between 43,000 and 49,000 calibrated years before present (taken as AD 1950). On the basis of current archaeological evidence, it may be assumed that these artefacts are associated with the Denisovan population. It is not currently possible to determine whether anatomically modern humans were involved in their production, as modern-human fossil and genetic evidence of such antiquity has not yet been identified in the Altai region. More... »

PAGES

640-644

Identifiers

URI

http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1038/s41586-018-0870-z

DOI

http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41586-018-0870-z

DIMENSIONS

https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1111775424

PUBMED

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30700871


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    "description": "Denisova Cave in the Siberian Altai (Russia) is a key site for understanding the complex relationships between hominin groups that inhabited Eurasia in the Middle and Late Pleistocene epoch. DNA sequenced from human remains found at this site has revealed the presence of a hitherto unknown hominin group, the Denisovans1,2, and high-coverage genomes from both Neanderthal and Denisovan fossils provide evidence for admixture between these two populations3. Determining the age of these fossils is important if we are to understand the nature of hominin interaction, and aspects of their cultural and subsistence adaptations. Here we present 50 radiocarbon determinations from the late Middle and Upper Palaeolithic layers of the site. We also report three direct dates for hominin fragments and obtain a mitochondrial DNA sequence for one of them. We apply a Bayesian age modelling approach that combines chronometric (radiocarbon, uranium series and optical ages), stratigraphic and genetic data to calculate probabilistically the age of the human fossils at the site. Our modelled estimate for the age of the\u00a0oldest Denisovan fossil suggests that this group was present at the site as early as 195,000\u00a0years ago (at 95.4% probability). All Neanderthal fossils-as well as Denisova\u00a011, the daughter of a Neanderthal and a Denisovan4-date to between 80,000 and 140,000\u00a0years ago. The youngest Denisovan dates to 52,000-76,000\u00a0years ago. Direct radiocarbon dating of Upper Palaeolithic tooth pendants and bone points yielded the earliest evidence for the production of these artefacts in northern Eurasia, between\u00a043,000\u00a0and\u00a049,000\u00a0calibrated years before present (taken as AD\u00a01950). On the basis of current archaeological evidence, it may be assumed that these artefacts are associated with the Denisovan population. It is not currently possible to determine whether anatomically modern humans were involved in their production, as modern-human fossil and genetic evidence of such antiquity has not yet been identified in the Altai region.", 
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303 https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.4991.5 schema:alternateName University of Oxford
304 schema:name Department of Archaeology, Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History, Jena, Germany
305 Oxford Radiocarbon Accelerator Unit, Research Laboratory for Archaeology and the History of Art, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK
306 rdf:type schema:Organization
307 https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.5379.8 schema:alternateName University of Manchester
308 schema:name Manchester Institute of Biotechnology, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK
309 rdf:type schema:Organization
310 https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.77225.35 schema:alternateName Altai State University
311 schema:name Altai State University, Barnaul, Russia
312 Institute of Archaeology and Ethnography, Russian Academy of Sciences Siberian Branch, Novosibirsk, Russia
313 rdf:type schema:Organization
 




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