A candidate super-Earth planet orbiting near the snow line of Barnard’s star View Full Text


Ontology type: schema:ScholarlyArticle      Open Access: True


Article Info

DATE

2018-11-14

AUTHORS

I. Ribas, M. Tuomi, A. Reiners, R. P. Butler, J. C. Morales, M. Perger, S. Dreizler, C. Rodríguez-López, J. I. González Hernández, A. Rosich, F. Feng, T. Trifonov, S. S. Vogt, J. A. Caballero, A. Hatzes, E. Herrero, S. V. Jeffers, M. Lafarga, F. Murgas, R. P. Nelson, E. Rodríguez, J. B. P. Strachan, L. Tal-Or, J. Teske, B. Toledo-Padrón, M. Zechmeister, A. Quirrenbach, P. J. Amado, M. Azzaro, V. J. S. Béjar, J. R. Barnes, Z. M. Berdiñas, J. Burt, G. Coleman, M. Cortés-Contreras, J. Crane, S. G. Engle, E. F. Guinan, C. A. Haswell, Th. Henning, B. Holden, J. Jenkins, H. R. A. Jones, A. Kaminski, M. Kiraga, M. Kürster, M. H. Lee, M. J. López-González, D. Montes, J. Morin, A. Ofir, E. Pallé, R. Rebolo, S. Reffert, A. Schweitzer, W. Seifert, S. A. Shectman, D. Staab, R. A. Street, A. Suárez Mascareño, Y. Tsapras, S. X. Wang, G. Anglada-Escudé

ABSTRACT

Barnard’s star is a red dwarf, and has the largest proper motion (apparent motion across the sky) of all known stars. At a distance of 1.8 parsecs1, it is the closest single star to the Sun; only the three stars in the α Centauri system are closer. Barnard’s star is also among the least magnetically active red dwarfs known2,3 and has an estimated age older than the Solar System. Its properties make it a prime target for planetary searches; various techniques with different sensitivity limits have been used previously, including radial-velocity imaging4–6, astrometry7,8 and direct imaging9, but all ultimately led to negative or null results. Here we combine numerous measurements from high-precision radial-velocity instruments, revealing the presence of a low-amplitude periodic signal with a period of 233 days. Independent photometric and spectroscopic monitoring, as well as an analysis of instrumental systematic effects, suggest that this signal is best explained as arising from a planetary companion. The candidate planet around Barnard’s star is a cold super-Earth, with a minimum mass of 3.2 times that of Earth, orbiting near its snow line (the minimum distance from the star at which volatile compounds could condense). The combination of all radial-velocity datasets spanning 20 years of measurements additionally reveals a long-term modulation that could arise from a stellar magnetic-activity cycle or from a more distant planetary object. Because of its proximity to the Sun, the candidate planet has a maximum angular separation of 220 milliarcseconds from Barnard’s star, making it an excellent target for direct imaging and astrometric observations in the future. More... »

PAGES

365-368

References to SciGraph publications

Journal

TITLE

Nature

ISSUE

7731

VOLUME

563

Author Affiliations

  • Institut d’Estudis Espacials de Catalunya (IEEC), Barcelona, Spain
  • Centre for Astrophysics Research, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield, UK
  • Institut für Astrophysik Göttingen, Georg-August-Universität Göttingen, Göttingen, Germany
  • Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, Carnegie Institution for Science, Washington, DC, USA
  • Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (IAA, CSIC), Granada, Spain
  • Universidad de La Laguna (ULL), Departamento de Astrofísica, La Laguna, Spain
  • Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Heidelberg, Germany
  • UCO/Lick Observatory, University of California at Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA, USA
  • Centro de Astrobiología, CSIC-INTA, ESAC, Villanueva de la Cañada, Spain
  • Thüringer Landessternwarte, Tautenburg, Germany
  • School of Physics and Astronomy, Queen Mary University of London, London, UK
  • School of Geosciences, Raymond and Beverly Sackler Faculty of Exact Sciences, Tel-Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel
  • Landessternwarte, Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany
  • Centro Astronómico Hispano-Alemán (CSIC-MPG), Observatorio Astronómico de Calar Alto, Gérgal, Spain
  • School of Physical Sciences, The Open University, Milton Keynes, UK
  • Departamento de Astronomía, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile
  • Kavli Institute, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, USA
  • Physikalisches Institut, Universität Bern, Bern, Switzerland
  • The Observatories, Carnegie Institution for Science, Pasadena, CA, USA
  • Department of Astrophysics and Planetary Science, Villanova University, Villanova, PA, USA
  • Warsaw University Observatory, Warsaw, Poland
  • Department of Earth Sciences and Department of Physics, The University of Hong Kong, Pok Fu Lam, Hong Kong
  • Departamento de Física de la Tierra Astronomía y Astrofísica and UPARCOS-UCM (Unidad de Física de Partículas y del Cosmos de la UCM), Facultad de Ciencias Físicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid, Spain
  • Laboratoire Univers et Particules de Montpellier, Université de Montpellier, CNRS, Montpellier, France
  • Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, Israel
  • Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC), Madrid, Spain
  • Hamburger Sternwarte, Universität Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany
  • Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network, Goleta, CA, USA
  • Observatoire Astronomique de l’Université de Genève, Versoix, Switzerland
  • Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg, Astronomisches Rechen-Institut, Heidelberg, Germany
  • Identifiers

    URI

    http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1038/s41586-018-0677-y

    DOI

    http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41586-018-0677-y

    DIMENSIONS

    https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1109832850

    PUBMED

    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30429552


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