Interplay of cardiovascular mediators, oxidative stress and inflammation in liver disease and its complications View Full Text


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Article Info

DATE

2020-09-30

AUTHORS

Csaba Matyas, György Haskó, Lucas Liaudet, Eszter Trojnar, Pal Pacher

ABSTRACT

The liver is a crucial metabolic organ that has a key role in maintaining immune and endocrine homeostasis. Accumulating evidence suggests that chronic liver disease might promote the development of various cardiac disorders (such as arrhythmias and cardiomyopathy) and circulatory complications (including systemic, splanchnic and pulmonary complications), which can eventually culminate in clinical conditions ranging from portal and pulmonary hypertension to pulmonary, cardiac and renal failure, ascites and encephalopathy. Liver diseases can affect cardiovascular function during the early stages of disease progression. The development of cardiovascular diseases in patients with chronic liver failure is associated with increased morbidity and mortality, and cardiovascular complications can in turn affect liver function and liver disease progression. Furthermore, numerous infectious, inflammatory, metabolic and genetic diseases, as well as alcohol abuse can also influence both hepatic and cardiovascular outcomes. In this Review, we highlight how chronic liver diseases and associated cardiovascular effects can influence different organ pathologies. Furthermore, we explore the potential roles of inflammation, oxidative stress, vasoactive mediator imbalance, dysregulated endocannabinoid and autonomic nervous systems and endothelial dysfunction in mediating the complex interplay between the liver and the systemic vasculature that results in the development of the extrahepatic complications of chronic liver disease. The roles of ageing, sex, the gut microbiome and organ transplantation in this complex interplay are also discussed. More... »

PAGES

117-135

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    37 schema:description The liver is a crucial metabolic organ that has a key role in maintaining immune and endocrine homeostasis. Accumulating evidence suggests that chronic liver disease might promote the development of various cardiac disorders (such as arrhythmias and cardiomyopathy) and circulatory complications (including systemic, splanchnic and pulmonary complications), which can eventually culminate in clinical conditions ranging from portal and pulmonary hypertension to pulmonary, cardiac and renal failure, ascites and encephalopathy. Liver diseases can affect cardiovascular function during the early stages of disease progression. The development of cardiovascular diseases in patients with chronic liver failure is associated with increased morbidity and mortality, and cardiovascular complications can in turn affect liver function and liver disease progression. Furthermore, numerous infectious, inflammatory, metabolic and genetic diseases, as well as alcohol abuse can also influence both hepatic and cardiovascular outcomes. In this Review, we highlight how chronic liver diseases and associated cardiovascular effects can influence different organ pathologies. Furthermore, we explore the potential roles of inflammation, oxidative stress, vasoactive mediator imbalance, dysregulated endocannabinoid and autonomic nervous systems and endothelial dysfunction in mediating the complex interplay between the liver and the systemic vasculature that results in the development of the extrahepatic complications of chronic liver disease. The roles of ageing, sex, the gut microbiome and organ transplantation in this complex interplay are also discussed.
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