Tree rings reveal globally coherent signature of cosmogenic radiocarbon events in 774 and 993 CE View Full Text


Ontology type: schema:ScholarlyArticle      Open Access: True


Article Info

DATE

2018-09-06

AUTHORS

Ulf Büntgen, Lukas Wacker, J. Diego Galván, Stephanie Arnold, Dominique Arseneault, Michael Baillie, Jürg Beer, Mauro Bernabei, Niels Bleicher, Gretel Boswijk, Achim Bräuning, Marco Carrer, Fredrik Charpentier Ljungqvist, Paolo Cherubini, Marcus Christl, Duncan A. Christie, Peter W. Clark, Edward R. Cook, Rosanne D’Arrigo, Nicole Davi, Ólafur Eggertsson, Jan Esper, Anthony M. Fowler, Ze’ev Gedalof, Fabio Gennaretti, Jussi Grießinger, Henri Grissino-Mayer, Håkan Grudd, Björn E. Gunnarson, Rashit Hantemirov, Franz Herzig, Amy Hessl, Karl-Uwe Heussner, A. J. Timothy Jull, Vladimir Kukarskih, Alexander Kirdyanov, Tomáš Kolář, Paul J. Krusic, Tomáš Kyncl, Antonio Lara, Carlos LeQuesne, Hans W. Linderholm, Neil J. Loader, Brian Luckman, Fusa Miyake, Vladimir S. Myglan, Kurt Nicolussi, Clive Oppenheimer, Jonathan Palmer, Irina Panyushkina, Neil Pederson, Michal Rybníček, Fritz H. Schweingruber, Andrea Seim, Michael Sigl, Olga Churakova (Sidorova), James H. Speer, Hans-Arno Synal, Willy Tegel, Kerstin Treydte, Ricardo Villalba, Greg Wiles, Rob Wilson, Lawrence J. Winship, Jan Wunder, Bao Yang, Giles H. F. Young

ABSTRACT

Though tree-ring chronologies are annually resolved, their dating has never been independently validated at the global scale. Moreover, it is unknown if atmospheric radiocarbon enrichment events of cosmogenic origin leave spatiotemporally consistent fingerprints. Here we measure the 14C content in 484 individual tree rings formed in the periods 770–780 and 990–1000 CE. Distinct 14C excursions starting in the boreal summer of 774 and the boreal spring of 993 ensure the precise dating of 44 tree-ring records from five continents. We also identify a meridional decline of 11-year mean atmospheric radiocarbon concentrations across both hemispheres. Corroborated by historical eye-witness accounts of red auroras, our results suggest a global exposure to strong solar proton radiation. To improve understanding of the return frequency and intensity of past cosmic events, which is particularly important for assessing the potential threat of space weather on our society, further annually resolved 14C measurements are needed. More... »

PAGES

3605

Journal

TITLE

Nature Communications

ISSUE

1

VOLUME

9

Author Affiliations

  • Department of Geography, Masaryk University, 611 37, Brno, Czech Republic
  • Laboratory for Ion Beam Physics, ETH Zürich, CH-8093, Zurich, Switzerland
  • Swiss Federal Research Institute WSL, CH-8903, Birmensdorf, Switzerland
  • Département de biologie, chimie et géographie, G5L 3A1, University of Québec in Rimouski, QC, Canada
  • School of Natural and Built Environment, Queen’s University, BT7 1NN, Belfast, Northern Ireland, UK
  • Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology Eawag, CH-8600, Dübendorf, Switzerland
  • CNR-IVALSA, Trees and Timber Institute, 38010, San Michele all′Adige, TN, Italy
  • Competence Center for Underwater Archaeology and Dendrochronology, Office for Urbanism, City of Zurich, 8008, Zürich, Switzerland
  • School of Environment, University of Auckland, 1010, Auckland, New Zealand
  • Institute of Geography, Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU), 91058, Erlangen, Germany
  • Department Territorio e Sistemi Agro-Forestali, University of Padova, 35020, Legnaro (PD), Italy
  • Bolin Centre for Climate Research, Stockholm University, SE-10691, Stockholm, Sweden
  • Center for Climate and Resilience Research, Blanco Encalada 2002, 8370449, Santiago, Chile
  • Rubenstein School of Environment and Natural Resources, University of Vermont, Burlington, 05405, Vermont, USA
  • Tree-Ring Laboratory, Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University, 10964-8000, Palisades, NY, USA
  • Department of Environmental Science, William Paterson University, 07470, Wayne, NJ, USA
  • Icelandic Forest Research Mógilsá, 116, Reykjavik, Iceland
  • Department of Geography, Johannes Gutenberg University, 55099, Mainz, Germany
  • Department of Geography, N1G 2W1, University of Guelph, ON, Canada
  • AgroParisTech, INRA, Université de Lorraine, 54000, Nancy, France
  • Department of Geography, University of Tennessee, 37996-0925, Knoxville, TN, USA
  • Swedish Polar Research Secretariat, SE-104 05, Stockholm, Sweden
  • Department of Physical Geography, Stockholm University, SE-106 91, Stockholm, Sweden
  • Institute of Plant and Animal Ecology, Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 620144, Ekaterinburg, Russia
  • Bavarian State Office for Monument Protection, 80539, München, Germany
  • Department of Geology and Geography, 26505-6300, West Virginia University, WV, USA
  • German Archaeological Institute, 14195, Berlin, Germany
  • Isotope Climatology and Environmental Research Centre, Institute of Nuclear Research, H-4001, Debrecen, Hungary
  • Department of Humanities, Siberian Federal University, 660041, Krasnoyarsk, Russia
  • Department of Wood Science, Mendel University in Brno, 61300, Brno, Czech Republic
  • Navarino Environmental Observatory, GR-24001, Messinia, Greece
  • Global Change Research Institute CAS, 603 00, Brno, Czech Republic
  • Laboratorio de Dendrocronología y Cambio Global, Universidad Austral de Chile, Casilla 567, Valdivia, Chile
  • Department of Earth Sciences, University of Gothenburg, 405 30, Gothenburg, Sweden
  • Department of Geography, Swansea University, SA2 8PP, Swansea, Wales, UK
  • Department of Geography, University of Western Ontario, N6A 3K7, London, ON, Canada
  • Institute for Space-Earth Environmental Research, Nagoya University, 464-8601, Nagoya, Japan
  • Institute of Geography, University of Innsbruck, 6020, Innsbruck, Austria
  • Department of Geography, University of Cambridge, CB2 3EN, Cambridge, UK
  • Palaeontology, Geobiology and Earth Archives Research Centre, and ARC Centre of Excellence for Australian Biodiversity and Heritage, School of Biological, Earth and Environmental Sciences, The University of New South Wales, 2052, Sydney, NSW, Australia
  • Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research, University of Arizona, 85721, Tucson, AZ, USA
  • Harvard Forest, Harvard University, 01366, Petersham, MA, USA
  • Chair of Forest Growth and Dendroecology, Institute of Forest Sciences, University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany
  • Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry, Paul Scherrer Institute, 5232, Villigen, Switzerland
  • Institute for Environmental Sciences, University of Geneva, 1205, Geneva, Switzerland
  • Department of Earth and Environmental Systems, Indiana State University, 47809, Terre Haute, IN, USA
  • Archaeological Service Kanton Thurgau (AATG), 8510, Frauenfeld, Switzerland
  • Instituto Argentino de Nivología, Glaciología y Ciencias Ambientales, IANIGLA - CONICET, 5500, Mendoza, CP 330, Argentina
  • Department of of Earth Sciences, 44691, The College of Wooster, OH, USA
  • School of Geography and Geosciences, University of St Andrews, KY16 9AJ, St Andrews, Scotland, UK
  • School of Natural Science, Hampshire College, 01002, Amherst, MA, USA
  • Key Laboratory of Desert and Desertification, Northwest Institute of Eco-Environment and Resources, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 730000, Lanzhou, China
  • Identifiers

    URI

    http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1038/s41467-018-06036-0

    DOI

    http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-018-06036-0

    DIMENSIONS

    https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1106476042

    PUBMED

    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30190505


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