Diversity and redundancy of the ripening regulatory networks revealed by the fruitENCODE and the new CRISPR/Cas9 CNR and NOR mutants View Full Text


Ontology type: schema:ScholarlyArticle     


Article Info

DATE

2019-12

AUTHORS

Ying Gao, Ning Zhu, Xiaofang Zhu, Meng Wu, Cai-Zhong Jiang, Donald Grierson, Yunbo Luo, Wei Shen, Silin Zhong, Da-Qi Fu, Guiqin Qu

ABSTRACT

Tomato is considered as the genetic model for climacteric fruits, in which three major players control the fruit ripening process: ethylene, ripening transcription factors, and DNA methylation. The fruitENCODE project has now shown that there are multiple transcriptional circuits regulating fruit ripening in different species, and H3K27me3, instead of DNA methylation, plays a conserved role in restricting these ripening pathways. In addition, the function of the core tomato ripening transcription factors is now being questioned. We have employed CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing to mutate the SBP-CNR and NAC-NOR transcription factors, both of which are considered as master regulators in the current tomato ripening model. These plants only displayed delayed or partial non-ripening phenotypes, distinct from the original mutant plants, which categorically failed to ripen, suggesting that they might be gain-of-function mutants. Besides increased DNA methylation genome-wide, the original mutants also have hyper-H3K27me3 in ripening gene loci such as ACS2, RIN, and TDR4. It is most likely that multiple genetic and epigenetic factors have contributed to their strong non-ripening phenotypes. Hence, we propose that the field should move beyond these linear and two-dimensional models and embrace the fact that important biological processes such as ripening are often regulated by highly redundant network with inputs from multiple levels. More... »

PAGES

39

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URI

http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1038/s41438-019-0122-x

DOI

http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41438-019-0122-x

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https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1112056289

PUBMED

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30774962


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37 schema:description Tomato is considered as the genetic model for climacteric fruits, in which three major players control the fruit ripening process: ethylene, ripening transcription factors, and DNA methylation. The fruitENCODE project has now shown that there are multiple transcriptional circuits regulating fruit ripening in different species, and H3K27me3, instead of DNA methylation, plays a conserved role in restricting these ripening pathways. In addition, the function of the core tomato ripening transcription factors is now being questioned. We have employed CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing to mutate the <i>SBP</i>-<i>CNR</i> and <i>NAC</i>-<i>NOR</i> transcription factors, both of which are considered as master regulators in the current tomato ripening model. These plants only displayed delayed or partial non-ripening phenotypes, distinct from the original mutant plants, which categorically failed to ripen, suggesting that they might be gain-of-function mutants. Besides increased DNA methylation genome-wide, the original mutants also have hyper-H3K27me3 in ripening gene loci such as <i>ACS2</i>, <i>RIN</i>, and <i>TDR4</i>. It is most likely that multiple genetic and epigenetic factors have contributed to their strong non-ripening phenotypes. Hence, we propose that the field should move beyond these linear and two-dimensional models and embrace the fact that important biological processes such as ripening are often regulated by highly redundant network with inputs from multiple levels.
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