Phototoxic damage to cone photoreceptors can be independent of the visual pigment: the porphyrin hypothesis View Full Text


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Article Info

DATE

2020-08-29

AUTHORS

Mélanie Marie, Valérie Forster, Stéphane Fouquet, Pascal Berto, Coralie Barrau, Camille Ehrismann, José-Alain Sahel, Gilles Tessier, Serge Picaud

ABSTRACT

Lighting is rapidly changing with the introduction of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) in our homes, workplaces, and cities. This evolution of our optical landscape raises major concerns regarding phototoxicity to the retina since light exposure is an identified risk factor for the development of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). In this disease, cone photoreceptors degenerate while the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is accumulating lipofuscin containing phototoxic compounds such as A2E. Therefore, it remains unclear if the light-elicited degenerative process is initiated in cones or in the RPE. Using purified cone photoreceptors from pig retina, we here investigated the effect of light on cone survival from 390 to 510 nm in 10 nm steps, plus the 630 nm band. If at a given intensity (0.2 mW/cm²), the most toxic wavelengths are comprised in the visible-to-near-UV range, they shift to blue-violet light (425–445 nm) when exposing cells to a solar source filtered by the eye optics. In contrast to previous rodent studies, this cone photoreceptor phototoxicity is not related to light absorption by the visual pigment. Despite bright flavin autofluorescence of cone inner segment, excitation–emission matrix of this inner segment suggested that cone phototoxicity was instead caused by porphyrin. Toxic light intensities were lower than those previously defined for A2E-loaded RPE cells indicating cones are the first cells at risk for a direct light insult. These results are essential to normative regulations of new lighting but also for the prevention of human retinal pathologies since toxic solar light intensities are encountered even at high latitudes. More... »

PAGES

711

Identifiers

URI

http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1038/s41419-020-02918-8

DOI

http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41419-020-02918-8

DIMENSIONS

https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1130431750

PUBMED

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32862199


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