Tryptophan-kynurenine pathway attenuates β-catenin-dependent pro-parasitic role of STING-TICAM2-IRF3-IDO1 signalosome in Toxoplasma gondii infection View Full Text


Ontology type: schema:ScholarlyArticle      Open Access: True


Article Info

DATE

2019-03

AUTHORS

Tanmay Majumdar, Shagun Sharma, Manmohan Kumar, Arafat Hussain, Namita Chauhan, Inderjeet Kalia, Amit Kumar Sahu, Vipin Singh Rana, Ruchi Bharti, Arun Kumar Haldar, Agam P. Singh, Shibnath Mazumder

ABSTRACT

Recent studies have documented the diverse role of host immunity in infection by the protozoan parasite, Toxoplasma gondii. However, the contribution of the β-catenin pathway in this process has not been explored. Here, we show that AKT-mediated phosphorylated β-catenin supports T. gondii multiplication which is arrested in the deficiency of its phosphorylation domain at S552 position. The β-catenin-TCF4 protein complex binds to the promoter region of IRF3 gene and initiates its transcription, which was also abrogated in β-catenin knockout cells. TBK-independent phosphorylation of STING(S366) and its adaptor molecule TICAM2 by phospho-AKT(T308S473) augmented downstream IRF3-dependent IDO1 transcription, which was also dependent on β-catenin. But, proteasomal degradation of IDO1 by its tyrosine phosphorylation (at Y115 and Y253) favoured parasite replication. In absence of IDO1, tryptophan was catabolized into melatonin, which supressed cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and boosted parasite growth. Conversely, when tyrosine phosphorylation was abolished by phosphosite mutations, IDO1 escaped its ubiquitin-mediated proteasomal degradation system (UPS) and the stable IDO1 prevented parasite replication by kynurenine synthesis. We propose that T. gondii selectively utilizes tryptophan to produce the antioxidant, melatonin, thus prolonging the survival of infected cells through functional AKT and β-catenin activity for better parasite replication. Stable IDO1 in the presence of IFN-γ catabolized tryptophan into kynurenine, promoting cell death by suppressing phospho-AKT and phospho-β-catenin levels, and circumvented parasite replication. Treatment of infected cells with kynurenine or its analogue, teriflunomide suppressed kinase activity of AKT, and phosphorylation of β-catenin triggering caspase-3 dependent apoptosis of infected cells to inhibit parasite growth. Our results demonstrate that β-catenin regulate phosphorylated STING-TICAM2-IRF3-IDO1 signalosome for a cell-intrinsic pro-parasitic role. We propose that the downstream IRF3-IDO1-reliant tryptophan catabolites and their analogues can act as effective immunotherapeutic molecules to control T. gondii replication by impairing the AKT and β-catenin axis. More... »

PAGES

161

Identifiers

URI

http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1038/s41419-019-1420-9

DOI

http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41419-019-1420-9

DIMENSIONS

https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1112165453

PUBMED

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30770800


Indexing Status Check whether this publication has been indexed by Scopus and Web Of Science using the SN Indexing Status Tool
Incoming Citations Browse incoming citations for this publication using opencitations.net

JSON-LD is the canonical representation for SciGraph data.

TIP: You can open this SciGraph record using an external JSON-LD service: JSON-LD Playground Google SDTT

[
  {
    "@context": "https://springernature.github.io/scigraph/jsonld/sgcontext.json", 
    "about": [
      {
        "id": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/0601", 
        "inDefinedTermSet": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/", 
        "name": "Biochemistry and Cell Biology", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/06", 
        "inDefinedTermSet": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/", 
        "name": "Biological Sciences", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }
    ], 
    "author": [
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "University of Delhi", 
          "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.8195.5", 
          "name": [
            "Immunobiology Laboratory, Department of Zoology, University of Delhi, 110007, Delhi, India"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Majumdar", 
        "givenName": "Tanmay", 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "University of Delhi", 
          "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.8195.5", 
          "name": [
            "Immunobiology Laboratory, Department of Zoology, University of Delhi, 110007, Delhi, India"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Sharma", 
        "givenName": "Shagun", 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "University of Delhi", 
          "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.8195.5", 
          "name": [
            "Immunobiology Laboratory, Department of Zoology, University of Delhi, 110007, Delhi, India"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Kumar", 
        "givenName": "Manmohan", 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "University of Delhi", 
          "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.8195.5", 
          "name": [
            "Immunobiology Laboratory, Department of Zoology, University of Delhi, 110007, Delhi, India"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Hussain", 
        "givenName": "Arafat", 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "University of Delhi", 
          "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.8195.5", 
          "name": [
            "Department of Zoology, University of Delhi, 110007, Delhi, India"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Chauhan", 
        "givenName": "Namita", 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "National Institute of Immunology", 
          "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.19100.39", 
          "name": [
            "Infectious Diseases Laboratory, National Institute of Immunology, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, 110067, Delhi, India"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Kalia", 
        "givenName": "Inderjeet", 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "National Institute of Immunology", 
          "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.19100.39", 
          "name": [
            "Infectious Diseases Laboratory, National Institute of Immunology, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, 110067, Delhi, India"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Sahu", 
        "givenName": "Amit Kumar", 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "University of Delhi", 
          "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.8195.5", 
          "name": [
            "Department of Zoology, University of Delhi, 110007, Delhi, India"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Rana", 
        "givenName": "Vipin Singh", 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "University of Delhi", 
          "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.8195.5", 
          "name": [
            "Immunobiology Laboratory, Department of Zoology, University of Delhi, 110007, Delhi, India"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Bharti", 
        "givenName": "Ruchi", 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "Central Drug Research Institute", 
          "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.418363.b", 
          "name": [
            "Division of Biochemistry, CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Sector-10, Jankipuram Ext., 226031, Lucknow, India"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Haldar", 
        "givenName": "Arun Kumar", 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "National Institute of Immunology", 
          "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.19100.39", 
          "name": [
            "Infectious Diseases Laboratory, National Institute of Immunology, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, 110067, Delhi, India"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Singh", 
        "givenName": "Agam P.", 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "University of Delhi", 
          "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.8195.5", 
          "name": [
            "Immunobiology Laboratory, Department of Zoology, University of Delhi, 110007, Delhi, India"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Mazumder", 
        "givenName": "Shibnath", 
        "type": "Person"
      }
    ], 
    "citation": [
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s1534-5807(03)00266-1", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1000866931"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/icb.1997.80", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1000898190", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1038/icb.1997.80"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1006/abio.1997.2391", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1002637549"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/382638a0", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1002681668", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1038/382638a0"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1128/mcb.00641-15", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1004895157"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/s00726-014-1790-3", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1004954970", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1007/s00726-014-1790-3"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/s00726-014-1790-3", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1004954970", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1007/s00726-014-1790-3"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/ni.1876", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1011483774", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1038/ni.1876"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/ni.1876", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1011483774", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1038/ni.1876"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1097/mog.0b013e32835c9cb3", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1012888053"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1097/mog.0b013e32835c9cb3", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1012888053"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1097/mog.0b013e32835c9cb3", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1012888053"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.91.12.5508", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1013500901"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.83.17.6622", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1014708557"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0406499101", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1015514927"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1128/mbio.00636-12", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1016212379"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1128/iai.68.11.6478-6481.2000", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1016737593"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0003525", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1017755611"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0020-7519(01)00271-5", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1018250508"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aaa2630", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1018371500"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cyto.2012.04.022", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1019060441"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/0167-4889(89)90087-6", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1020578653"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/0167-4889(89)90087-6", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1020578653"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1128/mcb.18.5.2986", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1020701627"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1462-5822.2012.01763.x", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1022416489"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1158/0008-5472.can-07-1872", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1024254266"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1073514", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1026094375"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0810278105", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1027536426"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1186/1749-8104-8-7", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1027883941", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1186/1749-8104-8-7"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1002/dvdy.22019", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1028460929"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1002/dvdy.22019", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1028460929"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2005.09.032", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1028955188"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2005.09.032", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1028955188"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.2337/db06-0617", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1029043800"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chom.2016.08.002", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1029451373"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1471-4159.1992.tb10097.x", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1031929674"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ccr.2008.11.006", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1032610349"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.exppara.2012.04.009", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1033960025"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0092-8674(00)80112-9", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1033973380"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1042/bj2290499", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1034169823"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1042/bj2290499", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1034169823"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.intimp.2011.02.005", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1034592580"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/0306-3623(92)90017-e", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1035370866"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/0306-3623(92)90017-e", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1035370866"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/nrm2654", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1035520407", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1038/nrm2654"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/nrm2654", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1035520407", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1038/nrm2654"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/nmeth.2089", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1035817137", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1038/nmeth.2089"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1074/jbc.m710089200", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1039592488"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1004779", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1040242207"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2958.2007.05714.x", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1040706404"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1111/jpi.12283", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1040821329"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jiq095", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1040949894"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gene.2007.04.010", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1042982224"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1002/eji.201344407", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1046618622"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chom.2016.08.005", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1047727666"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chom.2016.08.005", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1047727666"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1128/iai.01126-12", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1048863967"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1074/jbc.m611871200", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1049152530"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2016.03.076", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1051915461"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.81.3.908", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1053223978"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1055/s-2001-17375", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1057410160"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1089/vim.2005.18.722", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1059326693"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.2307/3284082", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1070256185"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.170.12.5809", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1075298261"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1078421163", 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.4137/ijtr.s2097", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1078475739"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.4137/ijtr.s2097", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1078475739"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1078927495", 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1369/0022155416656349", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1079295317"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1369/0022155416656349", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1079295317"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1082840033", 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/s41598-017-10675-6", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1091608460", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-10675-6"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1186/s13071-017-2529-2", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1092907143", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1186/s13071-017-2529-2"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }
    ], 
    "datePublished": "2019-03", 
    "datePublishedReg": "2019-03-01", 
    "description": "Recent studies have documented the diverse role of host immunity in infection by the protozoan parasite, Toxoplasma gondii. However, the contribution of the \u03b2-catenin pathway in this process has not been explored. Here, we show that AKT-mediated phosphorylated \u03b2-catenin supports T. gondii multiplication which is arrested in the deficiency of its phosphorylation domain at S552 position. The \u03b2-catenin-TCF4 protein complex binds to the promoter region of IRF3 gene and initiates its transcription, which was also abrogated in \u03b2-catenin knockout cells. TBK-independent phosphorylation of STING(S366) and its adaptor molecule TICAM2 by phospho-AKT(T308S473) augmented downstream IRF3-dependent IDO1 transcription, which was also dependent on \u03b2-catenin. But, proteasomal degradation of IDO1 by its tyrosine phosphorylation (at Y115 and Y253) favoured parasite replication. In absence of IDO1, tryptophan was catabolized into melatonin, which supressed cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and boosted parasite growth. Conversely, when tyrosine phosphorylation was abolished by phosphosite mutations, IDO1 escaped its ubiquitin-mediated proteasomal degradation system (UPS) and the stable IDO1 prevented parasite replication by kynurenine synthesis. We propose that T. gondii selectively utilizes tryptophan to produce the antioxidant, melatonin, thus prolonging the survival of infected cells through functional AKT and \u03b2-catenin activity for better parasite replication. Stable IDO1 in the presence of IFN-\u03b3 catabolized tryptophan into kynurenine, promoting cell death by suppressing phospho-AKT and phospho-\u03b2-catenin levels, and circumvented parasite replication. Treatment of infected cells with kynurenine or its analogue, teriflunomide suppressed kinase activity of AKT, and phosphorylation of \u03b2-catenin triggering caspase-3 dependent apoptosis of infected cells to inhibit parasite growth. Our results demonstrate that \u03b2-catenin regulate phosphorylated STING-TICAM2-IRF3-IDO1 signalosome for a cell-intrinsic pro-parasitic role. We propose that the downstream IRF3-IDO1-reliant tryptophan catabolites and their analogues can act as effective immunotherapeutic molecules to control T. gondii replication by impairing the AKT and \u03b2-catenin axis.", 
    "genre": "research_article", 
    "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/s41419-019-1420-9", 
    "inLanguage": [
      "en"
    ], 
    "isAccessibleForFree": true, 
    "isPartOf": [
      {
        "id": "sg:journal.1042939", 
        "issn": [
          "2041-4889"
        ], 
        "name": "Cell Death & Disease", 
        "type": "Periodical"
      }, 
      {
        "issueNumber": "3", 
        "type": "PublicationIssue"
      }, 
      {
        "type": "PublicationVolume", 
        "volumeNumber": "10"
      }
    ], 
    "name": "Tryptophan-kynurenine pathway attenuates \u03b2-catenin-dependent pro-parasitic role of STING-TICAM2-IRF3-IDO1 signalosome in Toxoplasma gondii infection", 
    "pagination": "161", 
    "productId": [
      {
        "name": "readcube_id", 
        "type": "PropertyValue", 
        "value": [
          "5ce357a49ae383891ac7ed985c1ec67186080584cc45dea1639e0a2557e54171"
        ]
      }, 
      {
        "name": "pubmed_id", 
        "type": "PropertyValue", 
        "value": [
          "30770800"
        ]
      }, 
      {
        "name": "nlm_unique_id", 
        "type": "PropertyValue", 
        "value": [
          "101524092"
        ]
      }, 
      {
        "name": "doi", 
        "type": "PropertyValue", 
        "value": [
          "10.1038/s41419-019-1420-9"
        ]
      }, 
      {
        "name": "dimensions_id", 
        "type": "PropertyValue", 
        "value": [
          "pub.1112165453"
        ]
      }
    ], 
    "sameAs": [
      "https://doi.org/10.1038/s41419-019-1420-9", 
      "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1112165453"
    ], 
    "sdDataset": "articles", 
    "sdDatePublished": "2019-04-11T09:14", 
    "sdLicense": "https://scigraph.springernature.com/explorer/license/", 
    "sdPublisher": {
      "name": "Springer Nature - SN SciGraph project", 
      "type": "Organization"
    }, 
    "sdSource": "s3://com-uberresearch-data-dimensions-target-20181106-alternative/cleanup/v134/2549eaecd7973599484d7c17b260dba0a4ecb94b/merge/v9/a6c9fde33151104705d4d7ff012ea9563521a3ce/jats-lookup/v90/0000000338_0000000338/records_47997_00000002.jsonl", 
    "type": "ScholarlyArticle", 
    "url": "https://www.nature.com/articles/s41419-019-1420-9"
  }
]
 

Download the RDF metadata as:  json-ld nt turtle xml License info

HOW TO GET THIS DATA PROGRAMMATICALLY:

JSON-LD is a popular format for linked data which is fully compatible with JSON.

curl -H 'Accept: application/ld+json' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1038/s41419-019-1420-9'

N-Triples is a line-based linked data format ideal for batch operations.

curl -H 'Accept: application/n-triples' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1038/s41419-019-1420-9'

Turtle is a human-readable linked data format.

curl -H 'Accept: text/turtle' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1038/s41419-019-1420-9'

RDF/XML is a standard XML format for linked data.

curl -H 'Accept: application/rdf+xml' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1038/s41419-019-1420-9'


 

This table displays all metadata directly associated to this object as RDF triples.

326 TRIPLES      21 PREDICATES      89 URIs      21 LITERALS      9 BLANK NODES

Subject Predicate Object
1 sg:pub.10.1038/s41419-019-1420-9 schema:about anzsrc-for:06
2 anzsrc-for:0601
3 schema:author N214246a64bcc4cb8b5038212389a85d5
4 schema:citation sg:pub.10.1007/s00726-014-1790-3
5 sg:pub.10.1038/382638a0
6 sg:pub.10.1038/icb.1997.80
7 sg:pub.10.1038/ni.1876
8 sg:pub.10.1038/nmeth.2089
9 sg:pub.10.1038/nrm2654
10 sg:pub.10.1038/s41598-017-10675-6
11 sg:pub.10.1186/1749-8104-8-7
12 sg:pub.10.1186/s13071-017-2529-2
13 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1078421163
14 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1078927495
15 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1082840033
16 https://doi.org/10.1002/dvdy.22019
17 https://doi.org/10.1002/eji.201344407
18 https://doi.org/10.1006/abio.1997.2391
19 https://doi.org/10.1016/0167-4889(89)90087-6
20 https://doi.org/10.1016/0306-3623(92)90017-e
21 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2005.09.032
22 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2016.03.076
23 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ccr.2008.11.006
24 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chom.2016.08.002
25 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chom.2016.08.005
26 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cyto.2012.04.022
27 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.exppara.2012.04.009
28 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gene.2007.04.010
29 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.intimp.2011.02.005
30 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0020-7519(01)00271-5
31 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0092-8674(00)80112-9
32 https://doi.org/10.1016/s1534-5807(03)00266-1
33 https://doi.org/10.1042/bj2290499
34 https://doi.org/10.1055/s-2001-17375
35 https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0406499101
36 https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0810278105
37 https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.81.3.908
38 https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.83.17.6622
39 https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.91.12.5508
40 https://doi.org/10.1074/jbc.m611871200
41 https://doi.org/10.1074/jbc.m710089200
42 https://doi.org/10.1089/vim.2005.18.722
43 https://doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jiq095
44 https://doi.org/10.1097/mog.0b013e32835c9cb3
45 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2958.2007.05714.x
46 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1462-5822.2012.01763.x
47 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1471-4159.1992.tb10097.x
48 https://doi.org/10.1111/jpi.12283
49 https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1073514
50 https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aaa2630
51 https://doi.org/10.1128/iai.01126-12
52 https://doi.org/10.1128/iai.68.11.6478-6481.2000
53 https://doi.org/10.1128/mbio.00636-12
54 https://doi.org/10.1128/mcb.00641-15
55 https://doi.org/10.1128/mcb.18.5.2986
56 https://doi.org/10.1158/0008-5472.can-07-1872
57 https://doi.org/10.1369/0022155416656349
58 https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0003525
59 https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1004779
60 https://doi.org/10.2307/3284082
61 https://doi.org/10.2337/db06-0617
62 https://doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.170.12.5809
63 https://doi.org/10.4137/ijtr.s2097
64 schema:datePublished 2019-03
65 schema:datePublishedReg 2019-03-01
66 schema:description Recent studies have documented the diverse role of host immunity in infection by the protozoan parasite, Toxoplasma gondii. However, the contribution of the β-catenin pathway in this process has not been explored. Here, we show that AKT-mediated phosphorylated β-catenin supports T. gondii multiplication which is arrested in the deficiency of its phosphorylation domain at S552 position. The β-catenin-TCF4 protein complex binds to the promoter region of IRF3 gene and initiates its transcription, which was also abrogated in β-catenin knockout cells. TBK-independent phosphorylation of STING(S366) and its adaptor molecule TICAM2 by phospho-AKT(T308S473) augmented downstream IRF3-dependent IDO1 transcription, which was also dependent on β-catenin. But, proteasomal degradation of IDO1 by its tyrosine phosphorylation (at Y115 and Y253) favoured parasite replication. In absence of IDO1, tryptophan was catabolized into melatonin, which supressed cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and boosted parasite growth. Conversely, when tyrosine phosphorylation was abolished by phosphosite mutations, IDO1 escaped its ubiquitin-mediated proteasomal degradation system (UPS) and the stable IDO1 prevented parasite replication by kynurenine synthesis. We propose that T. gondii selectively utilizes tryptophan to produce the antioxidant, melatonin, thus prolonging the survival of infected cells through functional AKT and β-catenin activity for better parasite replication. Stable IDO1 in the presence of IFN-γ catabolized tryptophan into kynurenine, promoting cell death by suppressing phospho-AKT and phospho-β-catenin levels, and circumvented parasite replication. Treatment of infected cells with kynurenine or its analogue, teriflunomide suppressed kinase activity of AKT, and phosphorylation of β-catenin triggering caspase-3 dependent apoptosis of infected cells to inhibit parasite growth. Our results demonstrate that β-catenin regulate phosphorylated STING-TICAM2-IRF3-IDO1 signalosome for a cell-intrinsic pro-parasitic role. We propose that the downstream IRF3-IDO1-reliant tryptophan catabolites and their analogues can act as effective immunotherapeutic molecules to control T. gondii replication by impairing the AKT and β-catenin axis.
67 schema:genre research_article
68 schema:inLanguage en
69 schema:isAccessibleForFree true
70 schema:isPartOf N23a428201b5c47d893939ae717e5115d
71 N4510e7f95d2a40848f25fb21b857aeec
72 sg:journal.1042939
73 schema:name Tryptophan-kynurenine pathway attenuates β-catenin-dependent pro-parasitic role of STING-TICAM2-IRF3-IDO1 signalosome in Toxoplasma gondii infection
74 schema:pagination 161
75 schema:productId N2fd793cdc2fc411e8f57ab38e4217076
76 N3c41d80a18504c67acd74f5b63a19eb3
77 N5ac29c2a6f154927ae8d16cd851e2528
78 N778cb0f76feb46699bb457100c80a155
79 Ne37f3606b9ac4026b8eb0ab0ab2f7eaa
80 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1112165453
81 https://doi.org/10.1038/s41419-019-1420-9
82 schema:sdDatePublished 2019-04-11T09:14
83 schema:sdLicense https://scigraph.springernature.com/explorer/license/
84 schema:sdPublisher N49e2834466464192b6f47576acbf2576
85 schema:url https://www.nature.com/articles/s41419-019-1420-9
86 sgo:license sg:explorer/license/
87 sgo:sdDataset articles
88 rdf:type schema:ScholarlyArticle
89 N0bfdbbcf4f3c4110b96ef9e3e08f1f38 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.418363.b
90 schema:familyName Haldar
91 schema:givenName Arun Kumar
92 rdf:type schema:Person
93 N1bec65a596ff45e0801c955ca531f8ba rdf:first N0bfdbbcf4f3c4110b96ef9e3e08f1f38
94 rdf:rest N49b1c5b05c1749a58fec5329b0bc3554
95 N214246a64bcc4cb8b5038212389a85d5 rdf:first N98267e19fd734da9adbfa17bc69618d9
96 rdf:rest Nbd7bc0f1f4bc4da1ae896b9f8cffd2f0
97 N23a428201b5c47d893939ae717e5115d schema:volumeNumber 10
98 rdf:type schema:PublicationVolume
99 N24c710abbdb043bd8e5ff1ced4c5e21f schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.8195.5
100 schema:familyName Hussain
101 schema:givenName Arafat
102 rdf:type schema:Person
103 N25ea116f0a914ab995f726f0d41daf72 rdf:first N24c710abbdb043bd8e5ff1ced4c5e21f
104 rdf:rest Nf23e3689d8354cf594322656f432f678
105 N2fd793cdc2fc411e8f57ab38e4217076 schema:name readcube_id
106 schema:value 5ce357a49ae383891ac7ed985c1ec67186080584cc45dea1639e0a2557e54171
107 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
108 N3c41d80a18504c67acd74f5b63a19eb3 schema:name dimensions_id
109 schema:value pub.1112165453
110 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
111 N4510e7f95d2a40848f25fb21b857aeec schema:issueNumber 3
112 rdf:type schema:PublicationIssue
113 N469ee8f05c9e435c92de99f3dac6fc0d schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.8195.5
114 schema:familyName Rana
115 schema:givenName Vipin Singh
116 rdf:type schema:Person
117 N4935b4933f774dcb84c8c88fd0b051b4 rdf:first N469ee8f05c9e435c92de99f3dac6fc0d
118 rdf:rest N8adc68b58c3a4302979ff52dab6990bb
119 N49b1c5b05c1749a58fec5329b0bc3554 rdf:first Nd086cb54395944edbb633da00bdf5c95
120 rdf:rest Nca208e78998d42cb804238ebf16f48ab
121 N49e2834466464192b6f47576acbf2576 schema:name Springer Nature - SN SciGraph project
122 rdf:type schema:Organization
123 N5ac29c2a6f154927ae8d16cd851e2528 schema:name nlm_unique_id
124 schema:value 101524092
125 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
126 N6b6bed00e2184901be06346964363778 rdf:first Ne96295e24c1948fda09ec5a2852be54a
127 rdf:rest N25ea116f0a914ab995f726f0d41daf72
128 N778cb0f76feb46699bb457100c80a155 schema:name pubmed_id
129 schema:value 30770800
130 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
131 N8adc68b58c3a4302979ff52dab6990bb rdf:first Nfdd870bc59ee46d9a3080495cdf4bb6e
132 rdf:rest N1bec65a596ff45e0801c955ca531f8ba
133 N91e4bed408194f8fb621b00f0218d1f0 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.19100.39
134 schema:familyName Kalia
135 schema:givenName Inderjeet
136 rdf:type schema:Person
137 N98267e19fd734da9adbfa17bc69618d9 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.8195.5
138 schema:familyName Majumdar
139 schema:givenName Tanmay
140 rdf:type schema:Person
141 N9a6ac434c2d840889152680a740bca43 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.8195.5
142 schema:familyName Mazumder
143 schema:givenName Shibnath
144 rdf:type schema:Person
145 Nb2491320afdd4e97921c039643bdfa3c schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.8195.5
146 schema:familyName Chauhan
147 schema:givenName Namita
148 rdf:type schema:Person
149 Nbd7bc0f1f4bc4da1ae896b9f8cffd2f0 rdf:first Nd2de931b6e5748c8a680318bbf60bc35
150 rdf:rest N6b6bed00e2184901be06346964363778
151 Nc34548b9f7db42d791f520eaae5f9d55 rdf:first Ne47984d8b62f4c35b3575be2fe1e084d
152 rdf:rest N4935b4933f774dcb84c8c88fd0b051b4
153 Nca208e78998d42cb804238ebf16f48ab rdf:first N9a6ac434c2d840889152680a740bca43
154 rdf:rest rdf:nil
155 Nd086cb54395944edbb633da00bdf5c95 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.19100.39
156 schema:familyName Singh
157 schema:givenName Agam P.
158 rdf:type schema:Person
159 Nd2de931b6e5748c8a680318bbf60bc35 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.8195.5
160 schema:familyName Sharma
161 schema:givenName Shagun
162 rdf:type schema:Person
163 Ne37f3606b9ac4026b8eb0ab0ab2f7eaa schema:name doi
164 schema:value 10.1038/s41419-019-1420-9
165 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
166 Ne47984d8b62f4c35b3575be2fe1e084d schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.19100.39
167 schema:familyName Sahu
168 schema:givenName Amit Kumar
169 rdf:type schema:Person
170 Ne8c5becce0bb4e4b88a94452f3b6add0 rdf:first N91e4bed408194f8fb621b00f0218d1f0
171 rdf:rest Nc34548b9f7db42d791f520eaae5f9d55
172 Ne96295e24c1948fda09ec5a2852be54a schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.8195.5
173 schema:familyName Kumar
174 schema:givenName Manmohan
175 rdf:type schema:Person
176 Nf23e3689d8354cf594322656f432f678 rdf:first Nb2491320afdd4e97921c039643bdfa3c
177 rdf:rest Ne8c5becce0bb4e4b88a94452f3b6add0
178 Nfdd870bc59ee46d9a3080495cdf4bb6e schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.8195.5
179 schema:familyName Bharti
180 schema:givenName Ruchi
181 rdf:type schema:Person
182 anzsrc-for:06 schema:inDefinedTermSet anzsrc-for:
183 schema:name Biological Sciences
184 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
185 anzsrc-for:0601 schema:inDefinedTermSet anzsrc-for:
186 schema:name Biochemistry and Cell Biology
187 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
188 sg:journal.1042939 schema:issn 2041-4889
189 schema:name Cell Death & Disease
190 rdf:type schema:Periodical
191 sg:pub.10.1007/s00726-014-1790-3 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1004954970
192 https://doi.org/10.1007/s00726-014-1790-3
193 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
194 sg:pub.10.1038/382638a0 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1002681668
195 https://doi.org/10.1038/382638a0
196 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
197 sg:pub.10.1038/icb.1997.80 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1000898190
198 https://doi.org/10.1038/icb.1997.80
199 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
200 sg:pub.10.1038/ni.1876 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1011483774
201 https://doi.org/10.1038/ni.1876
202 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
203 sg:pub.10.1038/nmeth.2089 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1035817137
204 https://doi.org/10.1038/nmeth.2089
205 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
206 sg:pub.10.1038/nrm2654 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1035520407
207 https://doi.org/10.1038/nrm2654
208 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
209 sg:pub.10.1038/s41598-017-10675-6 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1091608460
210 https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-10675-6
211 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
212 sg:pub.10.1186/1749-8104-8-7 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1027883941
213 https://doi.org/10.1186/1749-8104-8-7
214 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
215 sg:pub.10.1186/s13071-017-2529-2 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1092907143
216 https://doi.org/10.1186/s13071-017-2529-2
217 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
218 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1078421163 schema:CreativeWork
219 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1078927495 schema:CreativeWork
220 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1082840033 schema:CreativeWork
221 https://doi.org/10.1002/dvdy.22019 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1028460929
222 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
223 https://doi.org/10.1002/eji.201344407 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1046618622
224 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
225 https://doi.org/10.1006/abio.1997.2391 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1002637549
226 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
227 https://doi.org/10.1016/0167-4889(89)90087-6 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1020578653
228 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
229 https://doi.org/10.1016/0306-3623(92)90017-e schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1035370866
230 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
231 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2005.09.032 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1028955188
232 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
233 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2016.03.076 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1051915461
234 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
235 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ccr.2008.11.006 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1032610349
236 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
237 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chom.2016.08.002 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1029451373
238 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
239 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chom.2016.08.005 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1047727666
240 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
241 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cyto.2012.04.022 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1019060441
242 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
243 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.exppara.2012.04.009 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1033960025
244 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
245 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gene.2007.04.010 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1042982224
246 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
247 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.intimp.2011.02.005 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1034592580
248 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
249 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0020-7519(01)00271-5 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1018250508
250 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
251 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0092-8674(00)80112-9 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1033973380
252 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
253 https://doi.org/10.1016/s1534-5807(03)00266-1 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1000866931
254 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
255 https://doi.org/10.1042/bj2290499 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1034169823
256 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
257 https://doi.org/10.1055/s-2001-17375 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1057410160
258 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
259 https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0406499101 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1015514927
260 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
261 https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0810278105 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1027536426
262 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
263 https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.81.3.908 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1053223978
264 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
265 https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.83.17.6622 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1014708557
266 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
267 https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.91.12.5508 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1013500901
268 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
269 https://doi.org/10.1074/jbc.m611871200 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1049152530
270 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
271 https://doi.org/10.1074/jbc.m710089200 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1039592488
272 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
273 https://doi.org/10.1089/vim.2005.18.722 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1059326693
274 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
275 https://doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jiq095 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1040949894
276 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
277 https://doi.org/10.1097/mog.0b013e32835c9cb3 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1012888053
278 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
279 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2958.2007.05714.x schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1040706404
280 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
281 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1462-5822.2012.01763.x schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1022416489
282 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
283 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1471-4159.1992.tb10097.x schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1031929674
284 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
285 https://doi.org/10.1111/jpi.12283 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1040821329
286 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
287 https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1073514 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1026094375
288 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
289 https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aaa2630 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1018371500
290 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
291 https://doi.org/10.1128/iai.01126-12 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1048863967
292 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
293 https://doi.org/10.1128/iai.68.11.6478-6481.2000 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1016737593
294 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
295 https://doi.org/10.1128/mbio.00636-12 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1016212379
296 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
297 https://doi.org/10.1128/mcb.00641-15 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1004895157
298 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
299 https://doi.org/10.1128/mcb.18.5.2986 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1020701627
300 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
301 https://doi.org/10.1158/0008-5472.can-07-1872 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1024254266
302 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
303 https://doi.org/10.1369/0022155416656349 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1079295317
304 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
305 https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0003525 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1017755611
306 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
307 https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1004779 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1040242207
308 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
309 https://doi.org/10.2307/3284082 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1070256185
310 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
311 https://doi.org/10.2337/db06-0617 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1029043800
312 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
313 https://doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.170.12.5809 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1075298261
314 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
315 https://doi.org/10.4137/ijtr.s2097 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1078475739
316 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
317 https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.19100.39 schema:alternateName National Institute of Immunology
318 schema:name Infectious Diseases Laboratory, National Institute of Immunology, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, 110067, Delhi, India
319 rdf:type schema:Organization
320 https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.418363.b schema:alternateName Central Drug Research Institute
321 schema:name Division of Biochemistry, CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Sector-10, Jankipuram Ext., 226031, Lucknow, India
322 rdf:type schema:Organization
323 https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.8195.5 schema:alternateName University of Delhi
324 schema:name Department of Zoology, University of Delhi, 110007, Delhi, India
325 Immunobiology Laboratory, Department of Zoology, University of Delhi, 110007, Delhi, India
326 rdf:type schema:Organization
 




Preview window. Press ESC to close (or click here)


...