Aryl hydrocarbon receptor agonist indigo protects against obesity-related insulin resistance through modulation of intestinal and metabolic tissue immunity View Full Text


Ontology type: schema:ScholarlyArticle     


Article Info

DATE

2019-04-03

AUTHORS

Yi-Hsuan Lin, Helen Luck, Saad Khan, Pierre H. H. Schneeberger, Sue Tsai, Xavier Clemente-Casares, Helena Lei, Yann-Lii Leu, Yi Tao Chan, Hsing-Yu Chen, Sien-Hung Yang, Bryan Coburn, Shawn Winer, Daniel A. Winer

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Low-grade chronic inflammation in visceral adipose tissue and the intestines are important drivers of obesity associated insulin resistance. Bioactive compounds derived from plants are an important source of potential novel therapies for the treatment of chronic diseases. In search for new immune based treatments of obesity associated insulin resistance, we screened for tissue relevant anti-inflammatory properties in 20 plant-based extracts. METHODS: We screened 20 plant-based extracts to assess for preferential production of IL-10 compared to TNFα, specifically targetting metabolic tissues, including the visceral adipose tissue. We assessed the therapeutic potential of the strongest anti-inflammatory compound, indigo, in the C57BL/6J diet-induced obesity mouse model with supplementation for up to 16 weeks by measuring changes in body weight, glucose and insulin tolerance, and gut barrier function. We also utilized flow cytometry, quantitative PCR, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and histology to measure changes to immune cells populations and cytokine profiles in the intestine, visceral adipose tissue (VAT), and liver. 16SrRNA sequencing was performed to examine gut microbial differences induced by indigo supplementation. RESULTS: We identifed indigo, an aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) ligand agonist, as a potent inducer of IL-10 and IL-22, which protects against high-fat diet (HFD)-induced insulin resistance and fatty liver disease in the diet-induced obesity model. Therapeutic actions were mechanistically linked to decreased inflammatory immune cell tone in the intestine, VAT and liver. Specifically, indigo increased Lactobacillus bacteria and elicited IL-22 production in the gut, which improved intestinal barrier permeability and reduced endotoxemia. These changes were associated with increased IL-10 production by immune cells residing in liver and VAT. CONCLUSIONS: Indigo is a naturally occurring AhR ligand with anti-inflammatory properties that effectively protects against HFD-induced glucose dysregulation. Compounds derived from indigo or those with similar properties could represent novel therapies for diseases associated with obesity-related metabolic tissue inflammation. More... »

PAGES

1-15

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  • Identifiers

    URI

    http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1038/s41366-019-0340-1

    DOI

    http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41366-019-0340-1

    DIMENSIONS

    https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1113182225

    PUBMED

    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30944419


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    82 schema:description BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Low-grade chronic inflammation in visceral adipose tissue and the intestines are important drivers of obesity associated insulin resistance. Bioactive compounds derived from plants are an important source of potential novel therapies for the treatment of chronic diseases. In search for new immune based treatments of obesity associated insulin resistance, we screened for tissue relevant anti-inflammatory properties in 20 plant-based extracts. METHODS: We screened 20 plant-based extracts to assess for preferential production of IL-10 compared to TNFα, specifically targetting metabolic tissues, including the visceral adipose tissue. We assessed the therapeutic potential of the strongest anti-inflammatory compound, indigo, in the C57BL/6J diet-induced obesity mouse model with supplementation for up to 16 weeks by measuring changes in body weight, glucose and insulin tolerance, and gut barrier function. We also utilized flow cytometry, quantitative PCR, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and histology to measure changes to immune cells populations and cytokine profiles in the intestine, visceral adipose tissue (VAT), and liver. 16SrRNA sequencing was performed to examine gut microbial differences induced by indigo supplementation. RESULTS: We identifed indigo, an aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) ligand agonist, as a potent inducer of IL-10 and IL-22, which protects against high-fat diet (HFD)-induced insulin resistance and fatty liver disease in the diet-induced obesity model. Therapeutic actions were mechanistically linked to decreased inflammatory immune cell tone in the intestine, VAT and liver. Specifically, indigo increased Lactobacillus bacteria and elicited IL-22 production in the gut, which improved intestinal barrier permeability and reduced endotoxemia. These changes were associated with increased IL-10 production by immune cells residing in liver and VAT. CONCLUSIONS: Indigo is a naturally occurring AhR ligand with anti-inflammatory properties that effectively protects against HFD-induced glucose dysregulation. Compounds derived from indigo or those with similar properties could represent novel therapies for diseases associated with obesity-related metabolic tissue inflammation.
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