Gut biogeography of the bacterial microbiota View Full Text


Ontology type: schema:ScholarlyArticle      Open Access: True


Article Info

DATE

2015-10-26

AUTHORS

Gregory P. Donaldson, S. Melanie Lee, Sarkis K. Mazmanian

ABSTRACT

Key PointsThe gut microbiota is spatially stratified along the longitudinal and cross-sectional axes of the gut. Chemical and nutrient gradients, antimicrobial peptides and physical features of the gut contribute to differences in microbial community composition in different locations.The mucosal and lumenal microbiota of the gut represent distinct microbial communities. On a smaller scale, patchiness within these communities suggests that they are highly spatially organized.Diet imparts a large effect on microbial colonization and relative abundance, but some bacteria can thrive independently of dietary changes by living on host-derived nutrients such as mucin glycans. Therefore, the mucus layer can harbour a reservoir of bacteria that is maintained regardless of food intake. The appendix and colonic crypts may also be examples of such microbial reservoirs.Only a subset of gut symbionts are able to access the epithelial surface. Mucus, antimicrobial peptides and adaptive immune activity limit tissue accessibility. Direct interfacing between the host and microbial symbionts may be important for the maintenance of homeostasis.Immunomodulation by certain symbionts allows the host to tolerate intimate relationships with potentially beneficial microorganisms. This may be a way in which commensals distinguish themselves from pathogens and prevent their elimination by the immune system.Although many diseases have been associated with dysbiosis, an understanding of the function of the microbiota in health and disease requires the biogeography of the community to be considered. Recent studies in humans have found differences specific to the mucosal community in cases of inflammatory bowel disease and hepatic encephalopathy. More... »

PAGES

20-32

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    DOI

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