Molecular aspects of bacterial pH sensing and homeostasis View Full Text


Ontology type: schema:ScholarlyArticle      Open Access: True


Article Info

DATE

2011-04-05

AUTHORS

Terry A. Krulwich, George Sachs, Etana Padan

ABSTRACT

Key PointsBacteria that grow optimally in a pH range of near neutral (neutralophiles) require robust mechanisms for cytoplasmic pH homeostasis in order to survive, and in some cases grow, during exposure to acidic or alkaline conditions that are well outside the pH range tolerated for cytoplasmic pH. Extremely acidophilic bacteria maintain a cytoplasmic pH of ∼6.0 while growing at pH 1.0–3.0 in settings such as mining and geothermal areas or acidic soils, and extremely alkaliphilic bacteria maintain a cytoplasmic pH that is as much as 2.3 units below an external pH range of 9.5–11.0 in settings such as alkaline soda lakes, indigo dye plants and sewage plants.Active mechanisms of pH homeostasis under acid challenge conditions include increased expression and activity of proteins or pathways that result in outward proton pumping or the consumption of cytoplasmic protons. Under alkali challenge conditions, mechanisms of pH homeostasis include active proton accumulation or generation in the cytoplasm. Deployment of these strategies and passive adjuncts to the active strategies, such as alterations in membrane permeability to protons, require major transcriptome changes that are mediated by an intricate network of pH-sensing and signalling capabilities.The Na+/H+ antiporter of Escherichia coli, NhaA, is required for alkaline pH homeostasis in the presence of Na+; in addition to its catalytic capacity to support cytoplasmic proton accumulation at high pH, the antiporter protein possesses a pH sensor domain that results in an increase in antiport by three orders of magnitude as the pH is raised from 6.5 to 8.5. Structural studies of three-dimensional crystals of purified NhaA, combined with computational and experimental analyses, have revealed structural and mechanistic features that account for its physiological efficacy.Periplasmic pH homeostasis is a unique strategy among neutralophiles. It enables Helicobacter pylori to colonize the highly acidic surface of the stomach using urease, an acid-gated urea channel (UreI) and cytoplasmic and periplasmic carbonic anhydrases to maintain a periplasmic pH of ∼6.1. The pH gating of UreI involves hydrogen bonding of periplasmic histidines with periplasmic carboxylates. A pair of two-component pH-signalling systems play critical parts in urease trafficking to the inner membrane, where, together with UreI, the enzyme facilitates urea hydrolysis and direct export of the products (CO2, NH3 and NH4+) to the periplasm.Acidophiles and alkaliphiles that grow optimally at extreme pH values typically have adaptations to key proton-translocating complexes (for example, respiratory and ATP synthase complexes) and to their cell surface layers, as reflected by the high and low average isoelectric points, respectively, of their surface-exposed proteins relative to those of the surface-exposed proteins of neutralophiles. These constitutive adaptations promote optimal function at extreme pH, but reduce the growth capacity at near-neutral pH, as shown for the adaptations of the proton-translocating ATP synthase and highly expressed S-layer protein of alkaliphilic Bacillus pseudofirmus OF4.Much has been learned about individual strategies for bacterial pH homeostasis and the molecules involved, but bacterial pH homeostasis is a cell-wide physiological process that deploys and integrates these strategies differently depending on other environmental factors, such as oxygen availability and salinity. The development of systems-level models will depend on further efforts to gather broad-based quantitative 'omics' information as a function of pH under different conditions, and also on more detailed molecular information about the stoichiometric, kinetic and mechanistic properties of key transporters and enzymes. More... »

PAGES

330-343

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URI

http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1038/nrmicro2549

DOI

http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nrmicro2549

DIMENSIONS

https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1043961678

PUBMED

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21464825


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54 alkaliphilic bacteria
55 alterations
56 analysis
57 antiport
58 antiporter
59 antiporter protein
60 area
61 aspects
62 availability
63 average isoelectric point
64 bacteria
65 bonding
66 capability
67 capacity
68 carbonic
69 carboxylate
70 cases
71 catalytic capacity
72 cell surface layers
73 challenge conditions
74 changes
75 channels
76 coli
77 complexes
78 conditions
79 constitutive adaptation
80 consumption
81 critical part
82 crystals
83 cytoplasm
84 cytoplasmic
85 cytoplasmic pH
86 cytoplasmic protons
87 deployment
88 detailed molecular information
89 development
90 different conditions
91 direct export
92 domain
93 dye plants
94 efficacy
95 efforts
96 environmental factors
97 enzyme
98 experimental analysis
99 export
100 exposure
101 expression
102 external pH range
103 extreme pH
104 factors
105 features
106 function
107 further efforts
108 gating
109 generation
110 geothermal area
111 growth capacity
112 high pH
113 histidine
114 homeostasis
115 hydrogen bonding
116 hydrolysis
117 increase
118 individual strategies
119 information
120 inner membrane
121 intricate network
122 isoelectric point
123 key transporters
124 lakes
125 layer
126 magnitude
127 major transcriptome changes
128 mechanism
129 mechanistic features
130 mechanistic properties
131 membrane
132 membrane permeability
133 mining
134 model
135 molecular aspects
136 molecular information
137 molecules
138 network
139 neutral pH
140 neutralophile
141 omics information
142 optimal function
143 order
144 orders of magnitude
145 oxygen availability
146 pH
147 pH gating
148 pH homeostasis
149 pH range
150 pH sensing
151 pairs
152 part
153 pathway
154 periplasm
155 periplasmic
156 periplasmic pH
157 permeability
158 physiological efficacy
159 physiological processes
160 plants
161 point
162 presence
163 process
164 products
165 properties
166 protein
167 proton accumulation
168 proton pumping
169 proton-translocating ATP synthase
170 proton-translocating complex
171 protons
172 pumping
173 pylori
174 quantitative
175 range
176 robust mechanism
177 salinity
178 sensing
179 sensor domain
180 setting
181 sewage plant
182 soda lakes
183 soil
184 stomach
185 strategies
186 structural studies
187 study
188 surface
189 surface layer
190 surface-exposed proteins
191 synthase
192 system
193 system-level model
194 three-dimensional crystals
195 transcriptome changes
196 transporters
197 unique strategy
198 units
199 urea channel
200 urea hydrolysis
201 urease
202 values
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